name = Arecaceae
image_caption = Coconut Palm "Cocos nucifera"
fossil_range = fossil range|80
Late Cretaceous- Recent
familia = Arecaceae
familia_authority = Schultz-Schultzenstein
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = Many; see
list of Arecaceae genera
Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid ["Palmaceae" is not accepted because the name Arecaceae (and its acceptable alternative Palmae, [http://www.bgbm.org/IAPT/Nomenclature/Code/SaintLouis/0022Ch3Sec2a018.htm ICBN Art. 18.5] ) are conserved over other names for the palm family.] or commonly palm tree), the palm family, is a family of
flowering plants belonging to the monocot order, Arecales. There are roughly 202 currently known genera with around 2600 species, most of which are restricted to tropical, subtropical, and possibly warm temperateclimates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreenleaves arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, many palms are exceptions to this statement, and palms in fact exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics. As well as being morphologically diverse, palms also inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts.
Palms are one of the most well-known and extensively cultivated plant families. They have had an important role to humans throughout much of history. Many common products and foods are derived from palms, and palms are also widely used in landscaping for their exotic appearance, making them one of the most economically important plants. In many historical cultures, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory, peace, and fertility. Today, palms remain a popular symbol for the tropics and
vacations. [ [http://www.palms.org/palmsjournal/2001/landscaping.htm Landscaping with Palms in the Mediterranean] ]
Whether shrubs, trees or vines palms are limited to two methods of growth. The common representation is that of a solitary shoot ending in a crown of leaves. This
monopodialbehavior may be exhibited in prostrate, trunkless and trunk forming members. Some of the common palm trees restricted to solitary growth include " Washingtonia" and " Roystonea". Palms may instead grow in sparse to dense clusters. The trunk will develop an axillary bud at a leaf node, usually near the base, from which a new shoot emerges. The new shoot, in turn, produces an axillary bud and a clustering habit results. Exclusively sympodialgenera include many of the rattans, " Guihaia", and " Rhapis". Several palm genera have both solitary and clustering members. Occasionally, a plant is very often clustering with the occasional solitary member or the converse. These aberrations suggest the habit operates on a single gene.Uhl, Natalie W. and Dransfield, John (1987) "Genera Palmarum - A classification of palms based on the work of Harold E. Moore". Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press. ISBN-10: ISBN-10: 0935868305 / ISBN-13: 978-0935868302]
They have large evergreen leaves that are either palmately ('fan-leaved') or pinnately ('feather-leaved') compound and spirally arranged at the top of the stem. The leaves have a tubular sheath at the base that usually splits open on one side at maturity [ [http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/arec.htm Arecaceae - University of Hawaii Botany] ] . The
inflorescenceis a panicleor spike surrounded by one or more bracts or spathes that become woody at maturity. The flowers are generally small and white, radially symmetric, and can be either uni- or bisexual. The sepals and petals usually number three each and may be distinct or joined at the base. The stamens generally number six, with filaments that may be separate, attached to each other, or attached to the pistil at the base. The fruitis usually a single- seeded drupe[ [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=10061 Arecaceae in Flora of North America] ] , but some genera (e.g. " Salacca") may contain two or more seeds in each fruit.
Arecaceae is notable for having the individual trees with the largest seed, largest leaf, largest inflorescence, as well as the tallest individual monocot. The
coco de mer("Lodoicea maldivica") has the largest seeds of any plant, 40-50 centimeters in diameter and weighing 15-30 kilograms each. Raffia palms ("Raphia" spp.), with leaves up to 25 meters long and 3 meters wide, have the largest leaves of any plant. The " Corypha" species have the largest inflorescence of any plant, up to 7.5 meters tall and containing millions of small flowers. " Ceroxylon quindiuense", Colombia's national tree, is the tallest monocot in the world, reaching heights of 60 meters [ [http://www.presidencia.gov.co/prensa_new/historia/patrios.htm :: Presidencia de la República de Colombia :: ] ] .
Range and habitat
The vast majority of palms exist in the
tropics. Palms are abundant throughout the tropical regions around the world, and are present in almost every type of habitat in the tropics. Diversity is highest in wet, lowland tropical forests, especially in ecological "hotspots" such as Madagascar, which has more endemic palms than the entire continental Africa. Colombiamay have the highest number of palm species in one country. [http://www.conservatoryofflowers.org/education/palms.htm Conservatory of Flowers] ]
It is estimated that only 130 palm species grow naturally beyond the tropics, most of which grow in the
subtropics. The northernmost native palm is "Chamaerops humilis", which reaches 44°N latitude in southern France, where the local Mediterranean climateis milder than other places as far north. The southernmost palm is the "Rhopalostylis sapida", which reaches 44°S on the Chatham Islandswhere an oceanic climatehas a similar warming effect . Palms have been known to grow as far north as Ireland.
Palms inhabit a variety of habitats. Over two-thirds of palms live in tropical forests, where some species grow tall enough to form part of the
canopyand other shorter palms adapted to shade form part of the understory. Some species form pure stands in areas with poor drainage or regular flooding, including " Raphia hookeri" which is common in coastal freshwater swamps in West Africa. Other palms live in tropical mountain habitats above 1000 meters, such as those in the genus " Ceroxylon" native to the Andes. Palms may also live in grasslands and scrublands, usually associated with a water source, and in desertoases such as the Date Palm. A few palms are adapted to extremely basic lime soils, while others are similarly adapted to very acidic serpentinesoils [http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/X0451E/X0451e03.htm Tropical Palms by Food and Agriculture Organization] ] .
Palms are a monophyletic group of plants, meaning that the group consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants . Extensive taxonomic research on palms began with botanist H.E. Moore, who organized palms into fifteen major groups based mostly on general morphological characteristics. The following classification, proposed by N.W. Uhl and J. Dransfield in 1987, is a revision of Moore's classification that organizes palms into six subfamilies [N. W. Uhl, J. Dransfield (1987). "Genera palmarum: a classification of palms based on the work of Harold E. Moore, Jr." (Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas).] . A few general traits of each subfamily are listed.
Coryphoideae is the most diverse subfamily and is a paraphyletic group, meaning that all members of the group share a common ancestor but the group does not include all the ancestor's descendants. Most palms in this subfamily have palmately lobed leaves and solitary flowers with three, sometimes four
carpels. The fruit normally develops from only one carpel. Subfamily Calamoideae includes the climbing palms such as rattans. The leaves are usually pinnate; derived characters (synapomorphies) include spines on various organs, organs specialized for climbing, an extension of the main stem of the leaf bearing reflexed spines, and overlapping scales covering the fruit and ovary. Subfamily Nypoideae contains only one genus and one species, "Nypa fruticans", which has large pinnate leaves. The fruit is unusual in that it floats, and the stem is dichotomously branched, also unusual in palms. Subfamily Ceroxyloideae has small to medium-sized flowers that spirally arranged, with a gynoeciumof three joined carpels. Arecoideae is the largest subfamily with six diverse tribes containing over 100 genera. All tribes have pinnate or bipinnate leaves and flowers arranged in groups of three, with a central pistillate and two staminate flowers. Phytelephantoideae is a monoecioussubfamily. Members of this group have distinct monopodialflower clusters. Other distinct features include a gynoecium with five to ten joined carpels, and flowers with more than three parts per whorl. Fruits are multiseeded and have multiple parts .
Currently, few extensive phylogenetic studies of Arecaceae exist. In 1997, Baker et al. explored subfamily and tribe relationships using chloroplast
DNAfrom 60 genera from all subfamilies and tribes. The results strongly showed that Calamoideae is monophyletic, and that Ceroxyloideae and Coryphoideae are paraphyletic. The relationships of Arecoideae are uncertain but it is possibly related to Ceroxyloideae and Phytelephantoideae. However, hybridization has been observed among "Orbignya" and "Phoenix" species, and using chloroplast DNA in cladistic studies may produce inaccurate results due to maternal inheritance of the chloroplast DNA. Chemical and molecular data from non-organelle DNA, for example, could be more effective for studying palm phylogeny [http://arboretum.arizona.edu/palms.htm Palms on the University of Arizona Campus] ] .
Areca" – Betel palm
Bactris" – Pupunha
Bismarckia" - Bismark palm
Borassus" – Palmyra palm, Sugar palm, Toddy palm
*"Calamus" – Rattan palm
*"Cocos" – Coconut
Copernicia" – Carnauba waxpalm
Corypha" - Gebang palm, Buri palm or Talipot palm
*"Elaeis" – Oil palm
*"Euterpe" – Cabbage Heart palm, Açaí palm
Hyphaene" (including the doum palm)
Jubaea" – Chilean Wine palm, Coquito palm
Latania" – Latan palm
Mauritia" - Moriche palm
Metroxylon" – Sago palm
*"Raphia" – Raffia palm
Roystonea" – Royal palm
Sabal" – Palmettos
Salacca" – Salak
Syagrus" - Queen palm
Trachycarpus" – Windmill palm, Kumaon palm
Washingtonia" - Fan palm
Arecaceae is the first modern family of monocots that is clearly represented in the fossil record. Palms first appear in the fossil record around 80 million years ago, during the late
CretaceousPeriod. The first modern species, such as " Nypa fruticans" and "Acrocomia aculeata", appeared 69-70 million years ago, confirmed by fossil "Nypa" pollen dated to 70 million years ago. Palms appear to have undergone an early period of adaptive radiation. By 60 million years ago, many of the modern, specialized genera of palms appeared and became widespread and common, much more widespread than their range today. Because palms separated from the monocots earlier than other families, they developed more intrafamilial specialization and diversity. By tracing back these diverse characteristics of palms to the basic structures of monocots, palms may be valuable in studying monocot evolution. [ [http://www.plantapalm.com/vpe/evolution/vpe_evolution.htm Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - Evolution and the fossil record] ]
Like many other plants, palms have been threatened by human intervention and exploitation. The greatest risk to palms is destruction of habitat, especially in the tropical forests, due to
urbanization, wood-chipping, mining, and conversion to farmland. Palms rarely reproduce after such great changes in the habitat, and palms with a small habitat range are most vulnerable to them. The harvesting of heart of palm, a delicacy in salads, also poses a threat because it is derived from the inner core of the plant and thus harvesting kills the plant. The use of rattan palms in furniture has caused a major population decrease in these species that has negatively affected local and international markets as well as biodiversity in the area. [ [http://www.iucn.org/themes/SSC/publications/palms.htm Palms: Their Conservation and Sustained Utilization] ] The sale of seeds to nurseries and collectors is another threat, as the seeds of popular palms are sometimes harvested directly from the wild. At least 100 palm species are currently endangered, and nine species have reportedly recently become extinct.
However, several factors make palm conservation more difficult. Palms live in almost every type of habitat and have tremendous morphological diversity. Most palm seeds lose viability quickly, and they cannot be preserved in low temperatures because the cold kills the embryo. Using botanical gardens for conservation also presents problems, since they can only house a few plants of any species or truly imitate the natural setting. There is also the risk of cross-pollination, which leads to hybrid species.
The Palm Specialist Group of the
World Conservation Union(IUCN) began in 1984 and has performed a series of three studies in order to find basic information on the status of palms in the wild, utilization of wild palms, and palms under cultivation. Two projects on palm conservation and utilization supported by the World Wildlife Fund took place from 1985-1990 and 1986-1991, in the American tropics and southeast Asia respectively. Both studies produced a large amount of new data and publications on palms. Preparation of a global action plan for palm conservation began in 1991, supported by the IUCN, and was published in 1996 [http://www.plantapalm.com/Vpe/conservation/vpe_conservation2.htm Palm Conservation: Its Atecedents, Status, and Needs] ] .
The rarest palm known is the
Hyophorbe amaricaulis. The only living individual that remains is at the Botanic Gardens of Curepipe in Mauritius.
Uses and cultivation
Human use of palms is as old or older than human civilization itself, starting with the cultivation of the
Date Palmby Mesopotamians and other Middle Eastern peoples 5000 years or more ago.cite web|url=http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0681E/t0681e02.htm |title=Date Palm Products - Introduction |publisher= Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations| accessdate=2007-06-12 |author = W.H. Barreveld] Date wood, pits for storing dates, and other remains of the Date Palm have been found in Mesopotamian sites. [http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/NearEast/datesex.shtml Date Sex @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology] ] The Date Palm had a tremendous effect on the history of the Middle East. W.H. Barreveld wrote:
:"One could go as far as to say that, had the date palm not existed, the expansion of the human race into the hot and barren parts of the "old" world would have been much more restricted. The date palm not only provided a concentrated energy food, which could be easily stored and carried along on long journeys across the deserts, it also created a more amenable habitat for the people to live in by providing shade and protection from the desert winds (Fig. 1). In addition, the date palm also yielded a variety of products for use in agricultural production and for domestic utensils, and practically all parts of the palm had a useful purpose."
An indication of the importance of Palms is that they are mentioned more than 30 times in the
Bible[ [http://www.biblegateway.com/keyword/?search=palm+-hand&searchtype=all&version1=31&spanbegin=1&spanend=73 Bible search for "palm"] ] , and at least 22 times in the Quran. [ [http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/k/koran/koran-idx?type=simple&q1=palm&size=First+100 Koran search for "palm"] ]
Arecaceae has great economic importance including coconut products, oils, dates, ivory nuts, carnauba wax, rattan cane, and raffia.
The type member of Arecaceae is the
Arecapalm, the fruit of which, the betel nut, is chewed with the betelleaf for intoxicating effects. Also belonging to the family of the Arecaceae are the Date Palm, harvested for its edible fruit; Rattans, whose stems are used extensively in furnitureand baskets; and the Coconut. Palm oilis an edible vegetable oil produced by the oil palms in the genus " Elaeis". Several species are harvested for heart of palm, a vegetable eaten in salads. Palm sap is sometimes fermented to produce palm wineor toddy, an alcoholic beveragecommon in parts of Africa, India, and the Philippines[http://www.articledashboard.com/article.php?id=10763 Palm Trees – Uses And Locations] ] . The Palm Sunday festivaluses palm leaves, usually from the Date Palm, hence the name. Dragon's blood, a red resin used traditionally in medicine, varnish, and dyes, may be obtained from the fruit of " Daemonorops" species. Coiris a coarse water-resistant fiber extracted from the outer shell of coconuts, used in doormats, brushes, mattresses, and ropes. Some indigenous groups living in palm-rich areas use palms to make many of their necessary items and food. Sago, for example, a starch made from the pith of the trunk of the Sago Palm " Metroxylon sagu", is a major staple foodfor lowland peoples of New Guineaand the Moluccas. Palm leaves are also valuable to some peoples as a material for thatching or clothing. Mediterranean coast in Europe. Farther north, palms are a common feature in botanical gardensor as indoor plants. Few palms tolerate severe cold, however, and the majority of the species are tropical or subtropical. The three most cold-tolerant species are " Trachycarpus fortunei", native to eastern Asia, and " Rhapidophyllum hystrix" and " Sabal minor", both native to the southeastern United States[ [http://members.cox.net/lholmes/ Growing Hardy Palms] ] . For more details, see hardy palms.
The southeastern state of
South Carolinais nicknamed the Palmetto State after the Cabbage Palmetto, logs from which were used to build the fort at Fort Moultrie. During the American Revolutionary Warthey were invaluable to those defending the fort, because their spongy wood absorbed or deflected the British cannonballs. [ [http://www.nps.gov/fomo/2_History/FOMO%20RevWar%20Exhibit%20Text.pdf Revolutionary War Exhibit Text - November 2002] ] Some palms can be grown as far north as Maryland, Arkansas, southern Ohioand even up along the Pacific coast to Oregon, Washingtonand British Columbia, where ocean winds have a warming effect. There have even been known species of transplanted palms that have survived as far north as southern New Jersey[ [http://www.bg-map.com/palms/woodbury.html Windmill Palms in Southern New Jersey] ] . The Chinese " Trachycarpus fortunei" is being grown experimentally on the Faroe Islandsat 62°N, with young plants doing well so far. [Højgaard, A., Jóhansen, J., & Ødum, S. (1989). A century of tree planting on the Faroe Islands. "Ann. Soc. Sci. Faeroensis" Supplementum 14.]
The palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory in pre-Christian times. The Romans rewarded champions of the games and celebrated military successes with palm branches. Early
Christians used the palm branch to symbolize the victory of the faithful over enemies of the soul, as in the Palm Sundayfestival celebrating the triumphal entry of Jesusinto Jerusalem. In Judaism, the palm represents peace and plenty, and is one of the Four Species of Sukkot; the palm may also symbolize the Tree of lifein Kabbalah. Today, the palm, especially the Coconut, remains a symbol of the stereotypical tropical island paradise[http://www.plantapalm.com/vpe/introduction/vpe_introduction.htm Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - Introduction] ] . Palms appear on the flags and seals of several places where they are native, including those of Haiti, Guam, Florida and South Carolina.
Travellers palm– a palm-like tree belonging to order Zingiberales
* Sago palm – a palm-like
Toddy tapping- palm wine making process
Postelsia- called the "sea palm" (a brown algae)
Hardy palms- palms able to withstand colder temperatures
*C. H. Schultz-Schultzenstein (1832). "Natürliches System des Pflanzenreichs...", 317. Berlin, Germany.
*Dransfield J., Uhl N.W., Asmussen C.B., Baker W.J., Harley M.M., Lewis C.E. (2005). "A new phylogenetic classification of the palm family, Arecaceae". "Kew Bulletin" 60: 559–569. [latest Arecaceae or Palmae classification]
* [http://palm-trees.org Palm Trees, Small Palms, Cycads, Bromeliads & Tropical Plants] Site with 1000's of large, high quality photos of palms and associated flora. Includes information on habitat and cultivation.
* [http://www.palmpedia.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page Palmpedia] A wiki based site dedicated to high quality images and information on palm trees.
* [http://www.fairchildgarden.org/palmguide Guide to Palms] A collection of palm images, scientific data, and horticultural information hosted by Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami.
* [http://www.kew.org/cgi-bin/web.dbs/genlist.pl?PALMAE Kew Botanic Garden's Palm Genera list] A list of the currently acknowledged genera by Kew Royal Botanic Gardens in London, England.
* [http://www.pacsoa.org.au/palms/ PACSOA] Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia palm species listing with images.
* [http://www.plantapalm.com Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, Inc. (PACSOF)] , which includes pages on [http://www.plantapalm.com/vpe/taxonomy/vpe_taxonomy3.htm Arecaceae taxonomy] and a [http://www.plantapalm.com/vpe/photos/vpe_photos.htm photo index] .
* [http://www.hardytropicals.co.uk/Palms/ Guide to Palms grown in the UK]
* [http://www.scanpalm.no/english.html Scanpalm - Everything about palms in Scandinavia]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Arecaceae — Arécacées … Wikipédia en Français
Arecaceae — Arecaceae, die Palmen … Universal-Lexikon
Arecaceae — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Palmier (homonymie). Arécacées … Wikipédia en Français
Arecaceae — «Palmera» redirige aquí. Para otras acepciones, véase Palmera (desambiguación). Arecáceas … Wikipedia Español
Arecaceae — Palmengewächse Kanarische Dattelpalme (Phoenix canariensis) Systematik Überabteilung: Samenpflanzen (Spermat … Deutsch Wikipedia
Arecaceae — Las Arecaceae antiguamente llamadas Palmae o Palmaceae pertenecen al orden monocotiledóneo de las arecales, son plantas leñosas, generalmente no ramificadas. Hojas pinnatisectas o palmatisectas, grandes, perennes, con vaina, típicamente agrupadas … Enciclopedia Universal
Arecaceae — noun chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines usually having a tall columnar trunk bearing a crown of very large leaves; coextensive with the order Palmales • Syn: ↑Palmae, ↑family Palmae, ↑Palmaceae, ↑family Palmaceae, ↑family Arecaceae,… … Useful english dictionary
Arecaceae — … Википедия
arecaceae — ar·e·ca·ce·ae … English syllables
Семейство арековые или пальмы (Arecaceae) — Пальмы одно из крупнейших семейств цветковых растений насчитывает около 210 родов и 2780 видов (Г. Мур, 1973), а по некоторым данным до 240 родов и около 3400 видов. Пальмы широко распространены главным образом в тропических и… … Биологическая энциклопедия