A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada


A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

Infobox ReligiousBio
background = #FFA07A
name = A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
sanskrit = _sa. अभयचरणारविन्द भक्तिवेदान्त स्वामीप्रभुपाद


A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
religion = Gaudiya Vaishnavism
alias = Abhay Charanaravinda, Abhay Charan De
location = Vrindavan, India
Title = Founder acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness
Period = 1966 - 1977
Predecessor = Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura
Successor = The Governing Body Commission
initiation = Diksa–1932, Sannyasa–1959
post = Guru,Sannyasi, Acharya
date of birth = September 1 1896
place of birth = - Calcutta, Bengal, British India
date of death = death date and age|1977|11|14|1896|09|01
place of death = Vrindavan, India
website = [http://www.iskcon.com ISKCON Worldwide]

Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Sanskrit: script|inc-Deva|अभयचरणारविन्द भक्तिवेदान्त स्वामीप्रभुपाद, "IAST|abhaya-caraṇāravinda bhakti-vedānta svāmī prabhupāda", Bangla: অভয়চরনাবিন্দ ভক্তিবেদান্ত স্বামীপ্রভুপাদ) (September 1 1896November 14 1977) was the founder-acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement" [cite web
url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9039249/Hare-Krishna#218723.hook
title=Hare Krishna - Encyclopedia Britannica
publisher=www.britannica.com
accessdate=2008-06-01
first = John Gordon
second = Melton
] . His mission is to propagate the Gaudiya Vaishnavism of his Guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakura, throughout the world.Harvnb|Klostermaier|2007|p=217] Born Abhay Charan De in Calcutta,Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter 1] he was educated at the prestigious local Scottish Churches College. Before adopting the life of a pious renunciant (vanaprastha) in 1950,Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter 6] he was married with children and owned a small pharmaceutical business. In 1959 he took a vow of renunciation (sannyasa) and started writing commentaries on Vaishnava scriptures.

In his later years, as a traveling Vaishnava monk, he became an influential communicator of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology to India and specifically to the West through his leadership of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), founded in 1966.Harvnb|Ekstrand|Bryant|2004|p=23] As the founder of ISKCON, he "emerged as a major figure of the Western counterculture, initiating thousands of young Americans." [Harvnb|Klostermaier|2007|p=309] Despite attacks from the anticult groups, he received a favorable welcome from many religious scholars, such as J. Stillson Judah, Harvey Cox, Larry Shinn and Thomas Hopkins, who praised Prabhupada's translations and defended the group against distorted media images and misinterpretations.Harvnb|Vasan|Lewis |2005|p=129] In respect to his achievements, religious leaders from other Gaudiya Vaishnava movements have also given him the credit. [cite web
url=http://www.vrindavan.org/English/Books/GM/GMII.html#BranchesGM
title=Branches of the Gaudiya Math
publisher=www.vrindavan.org
accessdate=2008-05-30
last=Paramadvaiti
first=Swami B. A.
Bhaktivedanta Swami Maharaja surprised the entire world as well as his godbrothers with his outstanding achievements. He single handedly fulfilled the prediction of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu: "The Holy Names of Krishna will be sung in every town and village in the world."
]

He has been described as a charismatic leader, in the sense used by the sociologist Max Weber, as he was successful in acquiring followers in the United States, Europe, India and elsewhere. ["Unrecognized charisma? A study and comparison of four charismatic leaders: Charles Taze Russell, Joseph Smith, L Ron Hubbard, Swami Prabhupada" by George D. Chryssides. Paper presented at the 2001 International Conference "The Spiritual Supermarket: Religious Pluralism in the 21st Century", organised by INFORM and CESNUR (London, April 2001)] ["in an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue of leadership in ISKCON..."status as charismatic leader" Harvnb|Knot|1997|loc=Chapter: Prabhupada and role of guru] Harvnb|Shinn|1987|p=49] After his death in 1977 his ISKCON, an authentic form of Hindu Krishnaism based on the Bhagavata Purana, continues to grow and is respected in India, though there have been many squabbles about leadership among his followers.cite book
author=Smith, David Nichol
title=Hinduism and modernity
publisher=Blackwell Pub
location=Cambridge, MA
year=2003
pages=p.178
isbn=0-631-20862-3
] [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=64] Prabhupada is sometimes criticized by Neo-Vedantic relativistic philosophers, mainly due to uncompromising and 'unkind remarks' against non-Vaishnava systems, particularly 'the "mayavadis"'. This may be taken in the perspective of general underlying hostility of Neo-Vedantists towards fundamental truth of bhakti, devotion, and orthodox Vedanta system presented by Prabhupada being in conflict with heterodox views of mayavadis. As such his Hare Krishna movement is accepted by the academics as "the most genuinely Hindu of all the many Indian movements in the West".Harvnb|Klostermaier|2000|loc=Intro] cite web
url=http://www.iskcon.com/icj/7_2/72surya.html
title= Book Review A Critique of A. C. Bhaktivedanta
publisher=ICJ, Vol 7, No 2 December 1999
accessdate=2008-05-31
last=Surya
first=Gerald
]

Biography

Early life

Born on September 1, 1896, the day after Janmastami, one of the most important Hindu holidays, in a humble house in the Tollygunge suburb of Calcutta, he was named Abhay Charan, "one who is fearless", "having taken shelter at Lord Krishna's lotus feet"." Since he was born on the day of Nandotsava ("the celebration of Nanda," Krishna's father, a traditional festival in honor of Krishna's birth) he was also called Nandulal. His parents, Sriman Gour Mohan De and Srimati Rajani De, were devout Vaishnavas (devotees of Krishna). In accordance with Bengali tradition, his mother had gone to the home of her parents for the delivery, and only a few days later Abhay returned with parents to his home at 151 Harrison Road in Calcutta, where he was brought up and educated.

He received a European led education in the Scottish Churches College, Calcutta. This school was well reputed among Bengalis; many Vaishnava families sent their sons there. The professors, most of whom were Europeans, were known as sober, moral men, and it is believed that the students received a good education. The college was located in north Calcutta, not far from Harrison Road where Abhay's family lived. During his years in the college, Prabhupada was a member of the English Society as well as that of the Sanskrit Society, and it has been suggested that his education provided him a foundation for his future leadership.Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter 2] He graduated in 1920 with majors in English, philosophy and economics.Harvnb|Vasan|Lewis |2005|p=128]

Religious career

In 1922, when Prabhupada first met his spiritual master, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, he was requested to spread the message of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the English language.Harvnb|Goswami|1984|loc=page xv] Later in 1932 Prabhupada became a formally initiated disciple of Bhaktisiddhanta. In 1944, (from his front room at Sita Kanta Banerjee, Calcutta), Prabhupada started the publication called "Back to Godhead",Harvnb|Goswami|1984|loc=page xviii] , for which he acted as designer, publisher, editor, copy editor and distributor. He personally designed the logo, an effulgent figure of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the upper left corner, with the motto: "Godhead is Light, Nescience is darkness" greeting the readers.Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter 5] In his first magazine he wrote:

In 1947, the Gaudiya Vaishnava Society recognised Prabhupada's scholarship with the title "Bhaktivedanta," ("IAST|bhakti-vedānta") meaning "one who has realised that devotional service to the Supreme Lord is the end of all knowledge"Harvnb|Bhaktivedanta|2003|loc=Ending Glossary] (with the words Bhakti, indicating devotion and Vedanta indicating conclusive knowledge). [A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami (1998) " [http://www.krishnamedia.org/e-books/Narada_Bhakti_Sutra.pdf Narada-Bhakti-Sutra] : The Secrets of Transcendental Love", ISBN 0-89213-273-6, [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0892132736/ref=sib_books_pg?ie=UTF8&keywords=Bhaktivedanta%20knowledge%20devotion&p=S02D&checkSum=zBFPDsCTE1fbOP0%252FbzFofE8v6Cj5EvNbj8r0OWu%252Bnm4%253D page 73: The spiritual harmony of knowledge and devotion is well expressed in the phrase "bhakti-vedanta"] ] His later well known name, "IAST|Prabhupāda", is a Sanskrit title, literally meaning "he who has taken the position of the Lord" where" IAST|prabhu" denotes "Lord", and "IAST|pāda" means "position." [cite book |author=Dr Aparma |title=Pearls of Spiritual Wisdom |publisher=Pustak Mahal,India |location= |year=2004 |pages=p.37 |isbn=81-223-0858-9 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=] Also, "at whose feet masters sit".{Harvnb|Rhodes|2001|p=178] This name was used as a respectful form of address by his disciples from late 1967 early 1968 onwards. Previous to this, as with his early disciples, followers used to call him "Swamiji".Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter "Planting the Seed"]

From 1950 onwards, Prabhupada lived at the medieval Radha-Damodar mandir in the holy town of Vrindavan, where he began his commentary and translation work of the Sanskrit work Bhagavata Purana. [cite book |author= Charles S. J. White |title=A Catalogue of Vaishnava Literature on Microfilms in the Adyar Library|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |location=Delhi |year=2004 |pages= |isbn=81-208-2067-3 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=2008-05-29] Of all notable Vrindavana's temples, the Radha-Damodara mandir had at the time the largest collection of various copies of the original writings of the Six Gosvamis and their followers - more than two thousand separate manuscripts, many of them three hundred, some even four hundred years old.cite journal
author = Mukherjee, T.
coauthors = Wright, J.C.
year = 1979
title = An Early Testamentary Document in Sanskrit
journal = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
volume = 42
issue = 2
pages = 297–320
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X(1979)42%3A2%3C297%3AAETDIS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5
accessdate = 2008-05-29
] Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter "This Momentous Hour of Need"] His guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, had always encouraged Prabhupada that "If you ever get money, print books",Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter 4 "IAST|Āmār icchā chila kichu bai karānā: "Standing by IAST|Rādhā-kuṇḍa and beholding his spiritual master, Abhay felt the words deeply enter his own life - "If you ever get money, print books."] referring to the need of literary presentation of the Vaishnava culture.Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter 4]

Renunciation

Keshavaji Gaudiya Matha was the place where Prabhupada used to live, he had written and studied in the library of this building, here he edited the "IAST|Gauḍīya Patrikā" magazine and this is the place where he donated the murti of Lord Chaitanya who stands on the altar beside the Deities of Radha Krishna (named "Śrī Śrī Rādhā Vinodavihārījī"). During his visit in September 1959 he entered the doors of this "matha" dressed in white, as Abhay Babu, but would be leaving dressed in saffron, a swami.Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol.1 Chapter 9] In this "matha", in Mathura Vrindavana, Prabhupada took Vaishnava renunciate vows,"sannyasa", from his friend and godbrother Bhakti Prajnana Keshava Maharaja , and following this he singlehandedly published the first three volumes covering seventeen chapters of the first book of Bhagavata Purana, filling three volumes of four hundred pages each with a detailed commentary. Introduction to the first volume was a biographical sketch of Chaitanya Mahāprabhu. He then left India, obtaining free passage on a freight ship called the "Jaladuta", with the aim and a hope of fulfilling his spiritual master's instruction to spread the message of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu around the world. In his possession were a suitcase, an umbrella, a supply of dry cereal, about eight dollars worth of Indian currency, and several boxes of books. [Harvnb|Knot|1997|loc="Bhaktivedanta Swami, by journeying to America, was attempting to fulfill the wish of his guru, possible only by the grace of his dear Lord Krishna."]

Mission to the West

Prabhupada sailed to USA in 1965. His trip to the United States was not sponsored by any religious organisation, nor was he met upon arrival by a group of loyal followers. As he neared his destination on the ship, the Indian freighter "Jaladuta", the enormity of his intended task weighed on him. On September 13 he wrote in his diary, "Today I have disclosed my mind to my companion, Lord Sri Krishna."Harvnb|Goswami|2002|loc=Vol 1. Ch 1] On this occasion and on the number of other, Prabhupada, called on Krishna for help in his native Bengali. Examining these compositions, academics regard them as "intimate records of his prayerful preparation for what lay ahead" and a view on "how Bhaktivedanta Swami understood his own identity and mission."Harvnb|Knot|1997|loc=Introduction] By journeying to America, he was attempting to fulfill the wish of his guru, possible only by the grace of "his dear Lord Krishna". It is in July 1966 "global missionary Vaishnavism" was brought to the West by Prabhupada, "the soul agent", founding the International Society for Krishna Consciousness in New York City. Prabhupada spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution of ISKCON. Since he was the Society's leader, his personality and management were responsible for much of ISKCON's growth and the reach of his mission.

When it was suggested to Bhaktivedanta Swami at the time of founding the International Society for Krishna Consciousness in 1966 that a broader term "God Consciousness" would be preferable to "Krishna Consciousness" in the title, he rejected this recommendation, suggesting that name "Krishna" includes all other forms and concepts of God.Harvnb|Ekstrand|Bryant|2004|pp=120-122]

After a group of devotees and a temple had been established in New York another center was started in San Francisco in 1967. [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=22] From here Prabhupada traveled throughout America with his disciples, popularising the movement through street chanting ("sankirtana"), book distribution and public speeches.

Once ISKCON was more established in America a small number of devotees from the San Francisco temple were sent to London, England. After a short time of being in London they came into contact with The Beatles, of whom George Harrison took the greatest interest, spending a significant time speaking with Prabhupada and producing a record with members of the later London Radha Krsna Temple. [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=23] Over the following years Prabhupada's continuing leadership role took him around the world some several times setting up temples and communities in all of the major continents. By the time of his death in Vrindavan eleven years later in 1977, ISKCON became a widely known expression of Vaishnavism on an international basis.

In the twelve years from his arrival in New York until his final days he:
* circled the globe fourteen times on lecture tours that took him to six continents
* introduced Vedic "gurukul" education to a Western audience [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=221]
* directed the founding of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=25] which claims to be the world's largest publisher of ancient and classical Vaishnava religious texts [cite web
url=http://www.krishna.com/node/71
title=About Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
publisher=www.krishna.com
accessdate=2008-05-30
]

* founded the religious colony New Vrindavan in West Virginia,Harvnb|Shinn|Bromley|1987|p=124 now a tourist attraction. "New Vrindavan in West Virginia, on the other hand, is a close-knit community, has a strong sense of common purpose."]
* authored more then eighty books (with many available online [cite web
url=http://vedabase.net/
title=Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network - Last updated: 8 September 2007
publisher=vedabase.net
accessdate=2008-05-31
last=Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
] ) on Vedantic philosophy, religion, literature and culture (including four published originally in Bengali)

* introduced international celebrations in the capitals of the world like that of Jagannatha processions
* watched ISKCON grow to a confederation of more than 108 temples, various institutes and farm communities [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=25]

Through his mission, Prabhupada followed and communicated the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and introduced bhakti yoga to an international audience. Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism this was viewed as the fulfillment of a long time mission to introduce Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's teachings to the world. [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=5] [cite web
url=http://www.vrindavan.org/English/Books/GM/GMII.html#BranchesGM
title=Branches of the Gaudiya Math
publisher=www.vrindavan.org
accessdate=2008-05-30
last=Maharaja
first=Sridhar

"What was announced by Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, conceived of by Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur, started by Srila Prabhupad Bhakti Siddhanta Sarasvati Goswami was fulfilled by Swami Maharaja (Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami)."]

In his discussion with a historian Arnold J. Toynbee in London, Prabhupada is quoted as saying: "I have started this Krishna Conscious Movement among the Indians and Americans and for the next ten thousand years it will increase."cite book
author = Goswami, S.D.
year = 1983
title = Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta: Let There Be a Temple 1971-5
publisher = Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
isbn = 0892131195
Ch. 6, p. 161 ]

Books and Publishing

It is believed that Prabhupada's most significant contribution, are his books. [Harvnb|Sharma|1981|p=971] ["I think the best feature of the Hare Krishna movement is that it is providing scholars with excellent translations of the rarest books on Krishna-bhakti [love of Krishna] ." - Dr.Larry Shinn, President of Berea College, Kentucky.] [cite web
url=http://www.acbspn.com/reviews.htm
title=Scholars reviews of Srila Prabhupada's books
publisher=www.acbspn.com
accessdate=2008-05-31
last=
first=
] Within the final twenty years of his life Prabhupada translated over sixty volumes of classic Vedic scriptures (such as the "Bhagavad Gita" and the "Srimad Bhagavatam") into the English language. [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=25] For their authority, depth, and clarity, his books have won praise from professors at colleges and universities like Harvard, Oxford, Cornell, Columbia, Syracuse, Oberlin, and Edinburgh,cite web
url=http://www.krishna.com/node/275
title=Summary, Academic reviews of Srimad-Bhagavatam
publisher=www.krishna.com
accessdate=2008-05-31
] and his "Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is" was published by Macmillan Publishers, in 1968 and unabridged edition in 1972, [Maheswar Neog [http://books.google.ie/books?ei=Ks9DSJ3YH6a4iQHiq8yIBQ&client=firefox-a&id=LhB4AAAAIAAJ&dq=Macmillan+Bhagavad+Gita&q=Macmillan&pgis=1#search Professor Maheswar Neog Felicitation Volume] (1990)] [Bhaktivedanta Swami, A. C. (1968). "The Bhagavad-gita As It Is", first edition. New York: Macmillan.] [cite web
url=http://www.krishna.com/en/node/1523
title=The Macmillan Miracle
publisher=www.krishna.com
accessdate=2008-06-02
last=Rosen
first=S
authorlink=Satyaraja Dasa
] and is now available in over sixty languages around the world and some other books by Prabhupada are available in over eighty different languages.Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=34] cite web
url=http://www.bbt.info/files/languages/Books_in_Print_JUN06.pdf
title=The matrix of principal published translated works. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust offers a 2006 summary PDF file showing which books translated in which languages
publisher=www.krishna.com
accessdate=2008-05-30
]

The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust was established in 1972 to publish his works, it has also published massively researched multivolume biography, "Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta", that in opinion of Larry Shinn will "certainly be one of the most complete records of the life and work of any modern religious figure".Harvnb|Shinn|Bromley|1989|p=53] Harvnb|Srivatsa_Goswami|1983|p=986] Prabhupada reminded his devotees before his death, he would live forever in his books. He would remain present for them as spiritual master, guru by these means.Harvnb|Knot|1997|loc=Prabhupada, Books and Publishing] Prabhupada had instilled in his followers an understanding of the importance of writing and publishing not only with regard to his works, but also their own initiatives. His early disciples felt Prabhupada had given them "Back To Godhead" for their own writings from the very start.

A prominent Gaudiya Vaishnava figure, Shrivatsa Goswami, who as a young man had met Prabhupada in 1972, affirmed the significance of book publishing and distribution in spreading the message of Chaitanya in an interview with Steven Gelberg:

Views on other religious traditions

Prabhupada considered Moses, Jesus, and Mohamed to be empowered representatives of God, describing them within his writings as pioneers of the same essential message of dedication to God with love and devotion.cite book
author = Schmidt, P
year = 2002
title = Krishna meets Jesus – A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Srila Prabhupada's Interpretations and Conclusions about Christianity.
publisher = BoD
isbn = 3831135703
p.146 ]

Other typical expression presents a different perspective, where Prabhupada would point out that "today I may be a Hindu, but tomorrow I may become a Christian or Muslim. In this way faiths can be changed, but dharma" is a natural sequence, a natural occupation or a connection and it can not be changed, because it is permanent, according to him. [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=25] While ISKCON theology of personal god is close to Christian theology, both personal and monotheistic, being a preacher of bhakti and a missionary he sometimes would add, that "already many Christians have tasted the nectar of divine love of the holy name and are dancing with "karatalas" (hand-cymbals) and "mridangas" (drums)." [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=6] Prabhupada's approach to modern knowledge is also seen in sectarian Orthodox Judaism, where the skills and technical knowledge of modernity are encouraged, but the values rejected. For example, while higher education in engineering or accounting is permitted, the liberal and fine arts are dismissed as "useless" and "immoral".cite web
url=http://www.iskcon.com/icj/4_2/4_2charisma.html
title=Charisma and Religious Innovation: Prabhupada and the Founding of ISKCON
publisher=ISKCON Communications Journal - ICJ
accessdate=2008-05-31
last= [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/contributors.html#Selengut Selengut]
first= C
] Some of his representations are believed to affect women adversely and are male-centred, others are tender and celebratory. Prabhupada himself taught a dualism of body and soul and that of the genders. Similar to many traditional religions he considered sexuality and spirituality as conflicting opposites. [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=224] However among some liberal male followers there is a positive recognition of Prabhupada's own example in applying the spirit of the law according to time, place, person and circumstance, rather than literal tracing of the tradition. [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=223]

In line with traditional Vaishnava theology, Prabhupada was critical of the monist philosophies of Hinduism representing the Gaudiya Vaishnava devotional point of view and often calling the Neo Vendanta adherents of monism with 'unkind words'. In the view of some, the Gaudiya-Vaishnava philosophy he followed is neither fully dualistic nor monist (this is known as Achintya Bheda Abheda). As a devotional path, Gaudiya Vaishnavism has much more in common with the Dvaita, as opposed to the Advaita schools. It can be specifically noted that Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, mentions in "Indian Philosophy" that "Nyayakosa" includes Samkhya and Advaita Vedanta under "naistika", i.e. unortodox systems, or in other words that mayavadi is an atheist.Harvnb|Klostermaier|2007|p=561 He specifically quotes the sentence: mayavadivedanti api naistika eva parvasana sampadyate ("In the end also the Vedantin holding the opinion of illusionism, mayavada, turn out to be nastika, i.e., non-believer in the Veda") This sentence was not found in the fourth edition, revised by V.S. Abhyankar.]

Within India

Initially, Srila Prabhupada began his public preaching mission in India. He founded the League of Devotees in Jhansi in 1953. [ [http://www.prabhupadaconnect.com/League_of_Devotees.html prabhupadaconnect.com - League of Devotees article] ]

Following the establishment of temples and centres in the United States and Europe, Prabhupada returned to India in 1971, holding many public programs which were well attended. From 1971 onwards, the movement became increasingly popular and spread throughout the country, Prabhupada was particularly eager to see the progress at "the impressive temple project in" Mumbai which he and his disciples had fought very hard to establish, [Harvnb|Cole|Dwayer|2007|p=27] with large temples in Mayapur and Vrindavan to follow in mid 1970s.

In 1996, the Government of India recognized Prabhupada's accomplishments by issuing a commemorative stamp in his honor as a part of Prabhupada Centennial celebrations. [ [http://www.krishna.com/node/141 krishna.com] see "Commemorative Stamp" section, including image] [cite web
url=http://www.afn.org/~centennl/centeve3.htm#International%20Events%20in%20India
title=Centennial 1996 Events
publisher=www.afn.org
accessdate=2008-05-31
last=
first=
]

Speaking at the inauguration of ISKCON's cultural center in New Delhi in 1998, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then India's prime minister, said:

Cquote2|If the Bhagavad Gita, the holy text of the Hindu traditions, is printed in millions of copies and scores of languages and distributed in all nooks and corners of the world, the credit for this great sacred service goes chiefly to ISKCON. For this accomplishment alone, Indians should be eternally grateful to the devoted spiritual army of Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the Hare Krishna movement, and to his followers. . .

The arrival of Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada in the United States in 1965 and the particular popularity his movement gained in a very short span of twelve years must be regarded as one of the greatest spiritual events of the century.|Atal Bihari Vajpayee - April 1998 [cite web
url=http://www.vnn.org/world/9804/07-1732/index.html
title=Speech by Atal Behari Vajpayee, April 18, 1998.
publisher=www.vnn.org/ also Salt Lake Tribune - Apr 11, 1998
accessdate=2008-05-31
last=
first=
the website, however, gives the speech a wrong date -1988 instead of 1998.)
] [ [http://news.google.ie/archivesearch/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=9-0&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.newspaperarchive.com%2Fnewspapers1%2Fna0037%2F6770660%2F31147478.html&ei=ixpBSLuSCoTG6gGb0e0h&usg=AFQjCNFZXnIXLm4zpskLWGNFCdSg4xEHnw&sig2=DCBcVy-L2wq_notwJPlH_Q Intelligencer (Newspaper) - April 5, 1998, Doylestown, Pennsylvania] "Today, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee will open the newest Hare Krishna complex, which includes a temple and a cultural center."] [ [http://www.newspaperarchive.com/newspapers1/na0038/6774894/32014377.html Daily Herald (Newspaper) - April 6, 1998, Chicago, Illinois] , Hare Krishna center makes debut in India, NEW DELHI, India's prime minister inauguration. Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee said the message of Bhagavad Gita...]

Monuments

A number of memorial samadhis or shrines to Prabhupada were constructed by the members of ISKCON in his remembrance. The largest of which are in Mayapur, Vrindavan and at the larger sized temples in America. Prabhupada's Palace of Gold was designed and constructed by devotees of the New Vrindavan community and dedicated on September 2, 1979. Back in 1972 it was intended to be simply a residence for Prabhupada, but over time the plans evolved into an ornate marble and gold palace which is now visited by thousands of Hindu pilgrims each year, visiting this centerpiece of the community strongly relying upon tourist trade. [cite web
url=http://www.palaceofgold.com/
title=Prabhupada's Palace of Gold
publisher=www.palaceofgold.com
accessdate=2008-05-31
last=
first=
]

Selected Bibliography

Translations with Commentary

*"Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is" (1968)
*"Śrī Īśopanishad" (1969)
*"Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam" (1972-77) (Vols.)
*"Caitanya-caritāmrta" (1974) (Vols.)
*"The Nectar of Instruction" (1975)

Summary Studies

*"Teachings of Lord Caitanya" (1969)
*"Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead" (1970)
*"The Nectar of Devotion" (1970)

Other Works Published within Prabhupada's Lifetime

*"Beyond Illusion and Doubt (1967)"
*"Search for Liberation (1969)"
*"Easy Journey to Other Planets (1970)"
*"Krishņa Consciousness: The Topmost Yoga System (1970)"
*"Beyond Birth and Death (1972)"
*"The Perfection of Yoga (1972)"
*"On The Way to Krishnņa (1973)"
*"Rāja-vidyā: The King of Knowledge (1973)"
*"Elevation to Krishnņa Consciousness (1973)"
*"Krishņa Consciousness: The Matchless Gift (1974)"
*"Perfect Questions, Perfect Answers (1977)"
*"Teachings of Lord Kapila, the Son of Devahūtī (1977)"
*"The Science of Self-Realization (1977)"
*"Back to Godhead" magazine (founder)

Bengali Writings

*Geetār-gan
*Vairāgya-vidyā
*Buddhi-yoga
*Bhakti-ratna-boli

Published Posthumously

*"Light of the Bhāgavata" (1978)"
*"Teachings of Queen Kuntī" (1978)
*"Life Comes From Life (1978)"
*"Krishņa, The Reservoir of Pleasure" (1972)"
*"Chant and Be Happy" (1982)
*"Coming Back" (1983?)
*"Path of Perfection" (1989)
*"Nārada bhakti sūtra" (1991)
*"Mukunda-mālā-stotra" (1989)
*"A Second Chance" (1991)"
*"Journey of Self Discovery" (1991)"
*"Laws of Nature: An Infallible Justice" (1991)
*"Renunciation Through Wisdom" (1992)"
*"Quest for Enlightenment" (1993)"
*"The Path of Yoga" (1995)"
*"Message of Godhead" (1996?)"
*"Civilization and Transcendence" (1998)
*"Dharma: The Way of Transcendence" (1998)"
*"Introduction to Bhagavad-gītā" (2005)"

see also|Bhaktivedanta Book Trust

Footnotes

References

* Harvard reference
last =Goswami
first = Satsvarupa dasa
year = 2002
authorlink = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
title =Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 1-2
publisher=Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
location=Los Angeles
edition=2 nd
place =
pages = vol.1 1133 pages vol.2 1191 pages
isbn = 0892133570

* Harvard reference
last1 = Ekstrand
first1 = Maria
last2 = Bryant
first2 = Edwin H.
year = 2004
title = The Hare Krishna movement: the postcharismatic fate of a religious transplant
publisher=Columbia University Press
location=New York
isbn=0-231-12256-X

* Harvard reference
last = Rhodes
first = Linda
year = 2001
title=Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, The
publisher=Zondervan
location=Grand Rapids, Mich
isbn=0-310-23217-1

* Citation
last1 = Vasan
first1 = Mildred
last2 = Lewis
first2 = James P.
year = 2005
title=Cults (Contemporary World Issues)
publisher=ABC-CLIO
location=Santa Barbara, Calif
isbn=1-85109-618-3

* Harvard reference
last1=Cole
first1=Richard
last2= Dwayer
first2= Graham
year=2007
title=The Hare Krishna Movement: Forty Years of Chant and Change
publisher=I. B. Tauris
location=London
isbn=1-84511-407-8

* Harvard reference
last =Goswami
first =Satsvarupa dasa
year=1984
edition=abr
authorlink = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
title=Prabhupada: he built a house in which the whole world can live
publisher=Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
place =
location=Los Angeles
isbn=0-89213-133-0

* Harvard reference
last =Gelberg
first = (ed) Steven J
year = 1983
title = Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna: Five Distinguished Scholars on the Krishna Movement in the West.(Contributions by Harvey Cox, Larry D. Shinn, Thomas J. Hopkins, A.L. Basham, Shrivatsa Goswami)
location = New York
publisher = Grove Press

* Harvard reference
last = Klostermaier
first = Klaus K.
authorlink = Klaus Klostermaier
year = 2000
author-link = Klaus Klostermaier
title = Hinduism: A Short History
location = Oxford
publisher = Oneworld Publications
isbn = 1-85168-213-9

* Harvard reference
last =Klostermaier
first = Klaus K
authorlink = Klaus Klostermaier
year = 2007
edition=3 rd
title = A Survey of Hinduism
location = New York
ISBN = 0791470814
publisher = State University of New York Press

* Harvard reference
last =Bhaktivedanta
first = A. C.
year=2003
title=The Science of Self-realization
publisher=Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
location=Los Angeles
isbn=91-7149-447-2

* Harvard reference
last1 = Shinn
first1 = Larry D
authorlink1 = Larry Shinn
last2 = Bromley
first2 = (ed) David G
authorlink2 =David G. Bromley
year = 1987
title = The Future of an Old Man's Vision. ISKCON in the Twenty-First Century
journal = The Future of New Religious Movements
pages = 123-140
url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=NHNeOx8UZJYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA123&dq=New+Vrindavan%5D%5D+in+West+Virginia&ots=Go2JwPineV&sig=FSJwMaaGMo-I3D6V3H6NrU-EpKk

* Harvard reference
last =Knot
first = Kim
year = 1997
title = Insider and outsider perceptions of Prabhupada
journal = ISKCON Communications Journal
pages = 5: 1,
url =http://www.iskcon.com/icj/5_1/5_1knott.html

* Harvard reference
author = [http://www.leeds.ac.uk/trs/staff/kim_knott.htm Knott, Kim]
year = 2005
title = Insider/outsider perspectives
journal = The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion
url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=XmRGuH6eopMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA243&ots=uzHWfbrOUp&sig=d_gdKKMhzYmfgwq96zhf8Bv1wW0


* Harvard reference
last = Shinn
first = Larry D.
authorlink = Larry Shinn
year = 1987
title = The dark lord: cult images and the Hare Krishnas in America
publisher = Philadelphia: Westminster Press
isbn = 0664241700

* Harvard reference
last = Srivatsa_Goswami
first =
year = 1983
title = Review: Srila Prabhupada-Lilamrta
journal = Journal of Asian Studies
volume = 42
issue = 4
pages = 986-988
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-9118(198308)42%3A4%3C986%3ASP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F
accessdate = 2008-05-30

* Harvard reference
last = Sharma
first = Jagdish Saran
year = 1981
title = Encyclopaedia Indica
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=PQkMAAAAIAAJ

* Harvard reference
last1 = Shinn
first1 = Larry D
authorlink1 = Larry Shinn
last2 = Bromley
first2 = David G
authorlink2 =David G. Bromley
title=Krishna consciousness in the West
publisher=Bucknell University Press
location=Lewisburg [Pa.]
year=1989
pages=
isbn=0-8387-5144-X

See also

*Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is

*Bhakti Yoga

*Gaudiya Vaishnavism

*Hare Krishna
*International Society for Krishna Consciousness

*Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead

*Krishnaism

*Krishnology
*List of ISKCON members and patrons

*Svayam bhagavan

External links

* [http://vedabase.net/en/ Srila Prabhupada's books online (HTML)]
* [http://www.bbt.info BBTI Company Site]
* [http://www.harekrishna.com/col/books/YM/cbh/ch2.html Extract: Conversation between Srila Prabhupada, George Harrision, John Lennon and Yoko Ono]
* [http://www.iskcon.com/about/parampara/srila_prabupada.html ISKCON.COM - About Srila Prabhupada]
* [http://www.krishna.com/ The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust]
* [http://www.krishna.com/en/taxonomy/term/58 Krishna.com - Online Book Library (PDF and HTML)]
* [http://www.prabhupada.blogspot.com Letters by Srila Prabhupada]
* [http://www.prabhupada.com Bhaktivedanta Archives]
* [http://www.prabhupada.krishna.com Photos of Srila Prabhupada]
* [http://www.prabhupadavani.org Lectures by Srila Prabhupada]


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