Emperor Go-Horikawa


Emperor Go-Horikawa

(March 22, 1212 – August 31, 1234) was the 86th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years from 1221 through 1232. [Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). "Annales des empereurs du Japon," pp. 238-241; Brown, Delmer "et al." (1979). "Gukanshō," pp. 344-345; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). "Jinnō Shōtōki." pp. 226-227.]

This 13th century sovereign was named after the 10th century Emperor Horikawa and "go-" (後), translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the "Later Emperor Horikawa". The Japanese word "go" has also been translated to mean the "second one;" and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Horikawa, the second," or as "Horikawa II."

Genealogy

Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his "iminia") [Brown, pp. 264. [Up until the time of Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors (their "iminia") were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.] ] was nihongo| Yutahito"-shinnō" |茂仁親王, [Brown, p. 344; Varley, p. 226.] also known as Motsihito"-shinnō".Titsingh, p. 238.]

*The third son of Imperial Prince Morisada (守貞親王) (Go-Takakura-in, 後高倉院), the second son of Emperor Takakura
*Empress ("Jingū"): Sanjō (Fujiwara) ?? (三条(藤原)有子)
*Empress ("Chūgū"): Konoe (Fujiwara) Nagako (近衛(藤原)長子)
*Empress ("Chūgū"): Kujō (Fujiwara) ?? (九条(藤原)竴子)
**First son: Imperial Prince Mitsuhito (秀仁親王) (Emperor Shijō)
**Fourth daughter: Imperial Princess ?? (日韋子内親王)
*Lady-in-waiting: Daughter of Jimyōin (Fujiwara) Ieyuki (持明院(藤原)家行)
**First daughter: Imperial Princess ?? (暉子内親王)
**Second daughter: Imperial Princess ?? (体子内親王)
*Lady-in-waiting: Daughter of Fujiwara Kaneyoshi (藤原兼良)
**Third daughter: Imperial Princess ?? (昱子内親王)

Events of Go-Horikawa's life

In 1221, because of the Jōkyū Incident, an unsuccessful attempt by Emperor Go-Toba to seize real power, the Kamakura shogunate completely excluded those of the imperial family descended from Emperor Go-Toba from the Chrysanthemum throne, thus forcing Emperor Chūkyō to abdicate. After the Genpei War, he, the grandson of the late Emperor Takakura, who was also a nephew of the then exiled Retired Emperor Go-Toba, and Chūkyō's first cousin, was enthroned as Go-Horikawa. He ruled from July 29, 1221 to October 26 (?), 1232.

* "Jōkyū 3", on the 9th day of the 7th month (1221): In the 1st year of what is now considered to have been Chūkyō"-tennō"'s reign (仲恭天皇1年), he abruptly abdicated without designating an heir; and contemporary scholars then construed that the succession (‘‘senso’’) [Varley, p. 44. [A distinct act of "senso" is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have "senso" and "sokui" in the same year until the reign of Go-Murakami.] ] was received by a grandson of former Emperor Go-Toba. [Brown, p. 344; Titsingh, p. 238.]
* "Jōkyū 3", on the 1st day of the 12th month (1221): Emperor Go-Horikawa acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’). [Titsingh, p. 95; Brown, p. 344; Varley, p. 44.]

As Go-Horikawa was only ten-years-old at this time, his father Imperial Prince Morisada acted as cloistered emperor under the name Go-Takakura-in. [Titsingh, p. 238; Brown, pp. 344-345; Varley, p. 226.]

In 1232, he began his own cloistered rule, abdicating to his 1-year-old son, Emperor Shijō. However, being of a weak constitution, his cloistered rule lasted just under 2 years before he died. Go-Horikawa's Imperial Tomb ("misasagi") is at Sennyu-ji temple in Higashiyama, Kyoto in the "Nochi no Tsukinowa no Higashiyama no misasagi" 後月輪東山陵. [http://www.taleofgenji.org/sennyuji.html ..Link to images of temple and front of mausoleum enclosure]

"Kugyō"

"Kugyō" (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Horikawa's reign, this apex of the "Daijō-kan" included:
* "Sesshō", Konoe Iezane, d. 1242.Brown, p. 345.]
* "Sadaijin", Konoe Iemichi, 1204-1224.
* "Udaijin", Fujiwara Kintsugu, 1117-1227.
* "Nadaijin", Saionji Kintsune, 1171-1224. [see above] ]
* "Dianagon"

Eras of Go-Horikawa's reign

The years of Go-Horikawa's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or "nengō". [see above] ]
* Jōkyū (1219-1222)
* Jōō (1222-1224)
* Gennin (1224-1225)
* Karoku (1225-1227)
* Antei (1227-1229)
* Kangi (1229-1232)

References

* Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). [ Jien, 1221] , "Gukanshō (The Future and the Past, a translation and study of the Gukanshō, an interpretative history of Japan written in 1219)." Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0
* Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652] , "Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Klaproth." Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. [http://books.google.com/books?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ&dq=nipon+o+dai+itsi+ran --"Two copies of this rare book have now been made available online: (1) from the library of the University of Michigan, digitized January 30, 2007; and (2) from the library of Stanford University, digitized June 23, 2006." Click here to read the original text in French.]
* Varley, H. Paul , ed. (1980). [ Kitabatake Chikafusa, 1359] , "Jinnō Shōtōki ("A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa" translated by H. Paul Varley)." New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4


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