Recrystallization

Recrystallization

Recrystallization (see also crystallization) is a physical process that has meanings in chemistry, metallurgy and geology.

Chemistry

In chemistry, recrystallization is a procedure for purifying compounds. The most typical situation is that a desired "compound A" is contaminated by a small amount of "impurity B". There are various methods of purification that may be attempted (see Separation process), which includes recrystallization. There are also different recrystallization techniques that can be used such as:

Single-solvent recrystallization

Typically the mixture of "compound A" and "impurity B" are dissolved in the minimum amount of solvent to fully dissolve the mixture i.e. a saturated solution. The solution is then allowed to cool. As the solution cools the solubility of compounds in solution drops. This results in the desired compound dropping (recrystallizing) from solution. The slower the rate of cooling, the bigger the crystals formed.



frame|right| → Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange)→ Solvent heated to give saturated compound solution (orange) → Saturated compound solution (orange) allowed to cool over time to give crystals (orange) and a non-saturated solution (pale-orange).

The crystallization process requires an initiation step. Once a small crystal has formed, more crystals can grow from that crystal. Since "Compound A" is in excess this will usually result in these crystals forming first and thus leaves a greater ratio of impurity in solution. Thus the resulting solid is more pure than the original mixture.

The level of purity can then be checked by taking a melting point range of the solid and comparing it to an accepted melting point range if one exists. Compounds that are more pure have higher accuracy in melting points and melt over a narrower temperature range. Obviously other analytical techniques can be used to assess compound purity such as NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

This purification technique results in the inevitable loss of the part of "compound A" that remains in solution. A yield of 80% would be considered quite good. However the impure solution can be concentrated and the procedure repeated to gather a "second crop" of crystals.

Successful recrystallization depends on finding the right solvent. This is usually a combination of prediction/experience and trial/error. The mixture must be soluble at higher temperatures, and must be insoluble (or have low solubility) at lower temperatures.

Multi-solvent recrystallization

This method is the same as the above but where two (or more) solvents are used. This relies on both "compound A" and "impurity B" being soluble in a first solvent. A second solvent is slowly added. Either "compound A" or "impurity B" will be insoluble in this solvent and precipitate, whilst the other of "compound A"/"impurity B" will remain in solution. Thus the proportion of first and second solvents is critical. Typically the second solvent is added slowly until one of the compounds begins to crystallize from solution and then the solution is cooled. Heating is not required for this technique but can be used.



frame|center| → Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange)→ Solvent heated to give saturated compound solution (orange) → Second solvent (blue) added to compound solution (orange) to give mixed solvent system (green)→ Mixed solvent system (green) allowed to cool over time to give crystals (orange) and a non-saturated mixed solvent system (green-blue).

The reverse of this method can be used where a mixture of solvent dissolves both A and B. One of the solvents is then removed by distillation or by an applied vacuum. This results in the a change in the proportions of solvent causing either "compound A" or "impurity B" to precipitate.



frame|center| → First solvent added (clear) to compound (orange)→ Solvent heated to give saturated compound solution (orange) → Second solvent (blue) added to compound solution (orange) to give first mixed solvent system (green)→ Volatile first solvent (clear) is removed (e.g. evaporation) from first mixed solvent system (green) to give a second mixed solvent system (dark-green)→ Second mixed solvent system (dark-green) allowed to cool over time to give crystals (orange) and a non-saturated second mixed solvent system (green-blue)

Hot filtration-recrystallization

Hot filtration can be used to separate "compound A" from both "impurity B" and some "insoluble matter C". This technique normally uses a single solvent system as described above. When both "compound A" and "impurity B" are dissolved in the minimum amount of hot solvent, the solution is filtered to remove "insoluble matter C". This matter may be anything from a third impurity compound, to fragments of broken glass. For a successful procedure one needs to ensure that the filtration apparatus is hot to stop the dissolved compounds crystalizing from solution. Often it is simpler to do the filtration and recrystallization as two independent and separate steps. That is dissolve "compound A" and "impurity B" in a suitable solvent at room temperature, filter (to remove insoluble compound/glass), remove the solvent and then recrystallize using any of the methods listed above.



frame|center| → Solvent added (clear) to a mixture of compound (orange) + insoluble substance (purple)→ Solvent heated to give saturated compound solution (orange) + insoluble substance (purple)→ Saturated compound solution (orange) filtered to remove insoluble substance (purple)→ Saturated compound solution (orange) allowed to cool over time to give crystals (orange) and a non-saturated solution (pale-orange).

Seeding

Crystallization requires an initiation step. This can be spontaneous or can be done by adding a small amount of the pure compound (a seed crystal) to the saturated solution, or can be done by simply scratching the glass surface to create a seeding surface for crystal growth. It is thought that even dust particles can act as simple seeds.

Single perfect crystals (for X-ray analysis)

Growing crystals for X-ray crystallography can be quite difficult. For X-ray analysis, single perfect crystals are required. Typically a small amount (5-100 mg) of pure compound is used, and crystals are allowed to grow very slowly. Several techniques can be used to grow these perfect crystals:
* Slow evaporation of a single solvent - typically the compound is dissolved in a suitable solvent and the solvent is allowed to slowly evaporate. Once the solution is saturated crystals can form.


frame|center| → Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) to give compound solution (orange)→ Vessel sealed but a small hole allows solvent vapour (clear) to slowly evaporate from compound solution (orange) over time to give crystals (orange) and a non-saturated solution (pale-orange).

* Slow evaporation of a multi-solvent system - the same as above, however as the solvent composition changes due to evaporation of the more volatile solvent. The compound is more soluble in the volatile solvent, and so the compound becomes increasingly insoluble in solution and crystallizes.


frame|center| → Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) to give compound solution (orange)→ Second solvent added (blue) to compound solution (orange) to give mixed solvent system (green)→ Vessel sealed but a small hole allows solvent vapour (clear) to slowly evaporate over time to give crystals (orange) and a non-saturated mixed solvent solution (blue-green).

* Slow diffusion - similar to the above. However, a second solvent is allowed to evaporate from one container into a container holding the compound solution (gas-diffusion). As the solvent composition changes due to an increase in solvent that is has gas-diffused into solution, the compound become increasingly insoluble in solution and crystallizes.


frame|center| → Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) in first vessel to give compound solution (orange)→ First vessel is placed in a second vessel contain second solvent (blue). The second vessel is sealed, the first vessel is also sealed, although a small hole in the first vessel is present. This hole allows volatile solvent vapour (blue) to slowly evaporate from second vessel and condensate (that is infuse) into the first vessel, to give a mixed solvent system (green) → Over time this gives crystals (orange) and a non-saturated mixed solvent system (green-blue).

* Interface/slow mixing (often performed in an NMR tube). Similar to the above, but instead of one solvent gas-diffusing into another, the two solvents mix (diffuse) by liquid-liquid diffusion. Typically a second solvent is "layered" carefully on top of the solution containing the compound. Over time the two solution mix. As the solvent composition changes due to diffusion, the compound becomes increasingly insoluble in solution and crystallizes, usually at the interface.


frame|center| → Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) to give compound solution (orange) → Second solvent added (blue) carefully so that the two solvents do not mix.→ The two solvents mix (diffuse) slowly over time to give crystals (orange) at solvent interface (green)

* Specialized equipment can be used in the shape of a "H" to perform the above, where one of the vertical line of the "H" is a tube containing a solution of the compound, and the other vertical line of the "H" is a tube containing a solvent which the compound is not soluble in, and the horizontal line of the "H" is a tube which joins the two vertical tubes, which also has a fine glass sinter that restricts the mixing of the two solvents.


frame|center| → Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) to give a compound solution (orange) → Second solvent added (blue) to the second tube chamber → The two solvents mix slowly over time, the mixing is slowed by a fine sinter separating the two solvent chambers, to give crystals (orange) at solvent interface (green) over time

* Once single perfect crystals have been obtained, it is recommended that the crystals are kept in a sealed vessel with some of the liquid of crystallisation to prevent the crystal from 'drying out'. Single perfect crystals may contain solvent of crystallisation in the crystal lattice. Loss of this internal solvent from the crystals can result in the crystal lattice breaking down, and the crystals turning to powder.

Geology

In geology, solid-state recrystallization is a metamorphic process that occurs under situations of intense temperature and pressure where grains, atoms or molecules of a rock or mineral are packed closer together, creating a new crystal structure. The basic composition remains the same. This process can be illustrated by observing how snow recrystallizes to ice without melting.

As opposed to metasomatism, which is a chemical change caused by metamorphism, recrystallization is a physical process. However, recrystallization can occur when a local migration of chemicals results in the chemical change of the rock or mineral with no external addition of materials.

Limestone is a sedimentary rock that undergoes metamorphic recrystallization to form marble, and clays can recrystallize to muscovite mica.

Metallurgy

In metallurgy, recrystallization is the nucleation and growth of new undeformed grains in a deformed metal.

Ice

For ice, recrystallization refers to the growth of larger crystals at the expense of smaller ones. Some biological antifreeze proteins have been shown to inhibit this process, and the effect may be relevant in freezing-tolerant organisms.

ee also

* Crystal
* Crystal structure
* Crystallite
* Crystallization and engineering aspects
* Fractional crystallization (chemistry)
* Seed crystal
* Single crystal

Gallery


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Recrystallization — Re*crys tal*li*za tion (r[=e]*kr[i^]s tal*l[i^]*z[=a] sh[u^]n), n. (Chem. & Min.) The process or recrystallizing. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • recrystallization — 1793, from RE (Cf. re ) + CRYSTALLIZATION (Cf. crystallization) …   Etymology dictionary

  • recrystallization — perkristalinimas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Kristalų ištirpinimas ir pakartotinis iškristalinimas. atitikmenys: angl. recrystallization rus. перекристаллизация …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • recrystallization — rekristalizacija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Vienų kristalizacijos centrų augimas iš kitų. atitikmenys: angl. recrystallization rus. рекристаллизация …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • recrystallization — perkristalizavimas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. recrystallization vok. Rekristallisation, f; Umkristallisierung, f rus. перекристаллизация, f; рекристаллизация, f pranc. recristallisation, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • recrystallization — (|)rē+ noun Etymology: recrystallize + ation : the act or process of recrystallizing: as a. : replacement of the distorted grain structure of a cold worked metal by a new strain free grain structure during annealing b. : the regeneration of rock… …   Useful english dictionary

  • recrystallization — noun see recrystallize …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • recrystallization — noun a) a technique for the purification of chemical compounds in which the compound is dissolved in a solvent and slowly cooled to form crystals b) a process in the formation of metamorphic rocks …   Wiktionary

  • recrystallization —    A new formation of crystals from solid rock material [16] …   Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology

  • recrystallization — Смотри Рекристаллизация …   Энциклопедический словарь по металлургии


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