Treeshrew


Treeshrew

Taxobox
name = TreeshrewsMSW3 Helgen|pages=104-109]


image_caption = Madras Treeshrew ("Anathana ellioti")
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
infraclassis = Eutheria
superordo = Euarchontoglires
ordo = Scandentia
ordo_authority = Wagner, 1855
subdivision_ranks = Families
subdivision =
*Tupaiidae
*Ptilocercidae

The treeshrews (or tree shrews) are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. They make up the families Tupaiidae and Ptilocercidae and the entire order Scandentia. There are 20 species in 5 genera. Treeshrews have a higher brain to body mass ratio than humans, though this is not uncommon for animals weighing less than a kilogram.fact|date=December 2007

Although called "treeshrews", they are not true shrews (although they were previously classified in the Insectivora), and not all species are necessarily arboreal. Among other things, they eat "Rafflesia" fruit. They have no clear fossil record.

Characteristics

Treeshrews are slender animals with long tails and soft, greyish to reddish-brown fur. The terrestrial species tend to be larger than the arboreal forms, and to have larger claws, which they use for digging up insect prey. They are omnivorous, feeding on insects, small vertebrates, fruit, and seeds. They have poorly developed canine teeth and unspecialised molars, with an overall dental formula of:cite book |editor=Macdonald, D.|author= Martin, Robert D.|year=1984 |title= The Encyclopedia of Mammals|publisher= Facts on File|location=New York|pages= 440-445|isbn= 0-87196-871-1] dentition2|2.1.3.3|3.1.3.3

Treeshrews have good vision, which is binocular in the case of the more arboreal species. Most are diurnal, although the Pen-tailed Treeshrew is nocturnal.

Female treeshrews give birth to up to three young after a gestation period of 45-50 days, in nests lined with dry leaves inside tree hollows. The young are born blind and hairless, but are able to leave the nest after about a month. During this period, the mother provides relatively little maternal care, visiting her young only for a few minutes every other day to suckle them. Treeshrews reach sexual maturity after around four months, and breed for much of the year, with no clear breeding season in most species.

These animals live in small family groups, which defend their territory from intruders. They mark their territories using various scent glands, or urine, depending on the particular species.

The name "Tupaia" is derived from "tupai" the Malay word for squirrel [cite book | author = Nowak, R. M. | year = 1999 | title = Walker's Mammals of the World | publisher = Johns Hopkins University | id = ISBN 0801857899 | pages = p. 245] and was provided by Sir Stamford Raffles. [cite book | author = Craig, John | year = 1849 | title = A new universal etymological technological, and pronouncing dictionary of the English Language]

Classification

Treeshrews were moved from Insectivora to the Primates order, because of certain internal similarities to the latter (for example, similarities in the brain anatomy, highlighted by Sir Wilfred Le Gros Clark), and classified as a primitive prosimian. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies have strongly suggested that treeshrews should be given the same rank (order) as the primates and, with the primates and the flying lemurs, belong to the clade Euarchonta. According to this classification, the Euarchonta are sister to the Glires (lagomorphs and rodents), and the two groups are combined into the clade Euarchontoglires. [Citation | last1 = Janecka | first1 = Jan E. | last2 = Miller | first2 = Webb | last3 = Pringle | first3 = Thomas H. | last4 = Wiens | first4 = Frank | last5 = Zitzmann | first5 = Annette | last6 = Helgen | first6 = Kristofer M. | last7 = Springer | first7 = Mark S. | last8 = Murphy | first8 = William J. | title = Molecular and Genomic Data Identify The Closest Living Relatives of Primates | journal = Science | volume = 318 | pages = 792-4 | date = 2007-11-02 | year = 2007 | url = http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/318/5851/792.pdf] Other arrangements of these orders have been proposed. [Pettigrew JD, Jamieson BG, Robson SK, Hall LS, McAnally KI, Cooper HM, 1989, Phylogenetic relations between microbats, megabats and primates (Mammalia: Chiroptera and Primates). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 325(1229):489-559]

Clade | style=font-size:75%;line-height:75%
label1=Euarchontoglires
1=Clade
label1=Glires
1=Clade
1=Rodentia (rodents)
2=Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas)

label2=Euarchonta
2=Clade
1=Scandentia (treeshrews)
2=Clade
1=Dermoptera (Colugos)
2=Clade
1=†Plesiadapiformes
2=Primates

* ORDER SCANDENTIA
** Family Tupaiidae
*** Genus "Anathana"
**** Madras Treeshrew, "Anathana ellioti"
*** Genus "Dendrogale"
**** Bornean Smooth-tailed Treeshrew, "Dendrogale melanura"
**** Northern Smooth-tailed Treeshrew, "Dendrogale murina"
*** Genus "Tupaia"
**** Northern Treeshrew, "Tupaia belangeri"
**** Golden-bellied Treeshrew, "Tupaia chrysogaster"
**** Striped Treeshrew, "Tupaia dorsalis"
**** Common Treeshrew, "Tupaia glis"
**** Slender Treeshrew, "Tupaia gracilis"
**** Horsfield's Treeshrew, "Tupaia javanica"
**** Long-footed Treeshrew, "Tupaia longipes"
**** Pygmy Treeshrew, "Tupaia minor"
**** Calamian Treeshrew, "Tupaia moellendorffi"
**** Mountain Treeshrew, "Tupaia montana"
**** Nicobar Treeshrew, "Tupaia nicobarica"
**** Palawan Treeshrew, "Tupaia palawanensis"
**** Painted Treeshrew, "Tupaia picta"
**** Ruddy Treeshrew, "Tupaia splendidula"
**** Large Treeshrew, "Tupaia tana"
*** Genus "Urogale"
**** Mindanao Treeshrew, "Urogale evereti"
** Family Ptilocercidae
*** Genus "Ptilocercus"
**** Pen-tailed Treeshrew, "Ptilocercus lowii"

References

External links

*http://www.mbgnet.net/sets/rforest/animals/shrew.htm
*http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/SmallMammals/fact-lessertreeshrew.cfm
*http://www.hoglezoo.org/animals/view.php?id=183


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