Hapa


Hapa

"Hapa" is a Hawaiian term used to describe a person of mixed Asian or Pacific Islander racial/ethnic heritage. [ [http://www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/hapa/] ] [ [http://www.studentgroups.ucla.edu/hapa/hapa.html] ] [ [http://www.imdiversity.com/villages/asian/reference/whats_a_hapa_happa.asp] ]

Etymology

In the Hawaiian language, "hapa" is defined as: portion, fragment, part, fraction, installment; to be partial, less. It is a loan from the English word "half". However, in Hawaiian Pidgin (the creole spoken by many Hawai'i residents), "hapa" has an extended meaning of "half-caste" or "of mixed descent". Mary Pukui & Samuel Ebert's Hawaiian Dictionary define "hapa" as: "of mixed blood, person of mixed blood as in hapa hawai'i, part Hawaiian." [See: Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H. Ebert, "Hawaiian Dictionary, Revised and enlarged edition", University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu HI, 1986] The word "hapa" has moved into Hawaiian and mainland English via reborrowing.

Used without qualification, "hapa" is often taken to mean "part white", and is short hand for "hapa haole". The term can be used in conjunction with other Hawaiian racial and ethnic descriptors to specify a particular racial or ethnic mixture. Examples of this include:

*"hapa haole" (part Caucasian/white)
*"hapa kanaka" (part Hawaiian)
*"hapa popolo" (part African/black)
*"hapa kepani" (part Japanese); the term "hapanese" is also encountered
*"hapa pilipino" (part Filipino)
*"hapa pake" (part Chinese)
*"hapa kolea" (part Korean)
*"hapa kamoa" (part Samoan)
*"hapa sepania" (part Spanish)
*"hapa pukiki" (part Portuguese)

While the terms "haole" and "popolo" are no more inherently derogatory than "white" or "black", they are sometimes used as racial or ethnic slurs. One should be careful using these terms since many Caucasians consider the modern use of the word "haole" to have racist connotations when used to describe members of that group. Some island residents used the word "olopop" when referring to African-Americans after African-Americans became aware of the meaning of "popolo" in modern local slang. The original meaning of "popolo" refers to the small black berries of a Hawaiian plant. Mary Kawena Pukui wrote that "Because of its color, "popolo" has long been an uncomplimentary term."

Pukui also states that the original meaning of the word "haole" is "foreigner." Therefore, all non-Hawaiians are technically "haole". In practical terms, however, the term is used as described here, with the specific exclusion of Portuguese. Portuguese are traditionally considered to be a separate "race" in Hawaii. [See: Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H. Ebert, "Hawaiian Dictionary, Revised and enlarged edition" University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu HI, 1986]

"Hapa-haole" also is the name of a type of Hawaiian music in which the tune and styling are typically Hawaiian, but the lyrics are in English or mostly in English. [See: Kanahele, George S., ed., "Hawaiian Music and Musicians", University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu HI, 1979] .

ee also

*Amerasian
*Multiracial
*List of Eurasians
*Afro-Asians

External links

* [http://www.hapalife.com HapaLife Magazine: Where race and culture collide.]
* [http://www.asian-nation.org/multiracial.shtml Asian-Nation: Multiracial Asian Americans]
* [http://www.rso.cornell.edu/hapa/ Cornell Hapa Student Association]
* [http://www.eurasians.org Eurasian Association of Singapore]
* [http://www.asianweek.com/052099/news_hapa.html AsianWeek Article Regarding HIF conference]
* [http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-20051221-000001.htm Psychology Today: Mixed Race, Pretty Face? by William Lee Adams]
* [http://www.ocregister.com/ocregister/life/homepage/article_1158297.php Orange County Register: Hapa Nation by Valerie Takahama]
* [http://www.discovernikkei.org/nikkeialbum/en/node/86 The Hapa Collection at Discover Nikkei]
* [http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2003130151_hapaculture16.html Los Angeles Times: "Hapas" find a voice in emerging culture by Teresa Watanabe]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hV_m6dLlEMs MTV News: "Hapas Define Themselves"]
* [http://www.asianweek.com/060498/news1.html AsianWeek: "Hapa Issues move Into the Spotlight" by Stacy Lavilla]
* [http://youtube.com/watch?v=V_LI1GutNvE CNN: "Growing Up Hapa"]
* [http://www.wearehapa.com WeAreHapa.com: "The Social Network for Multi-Cultural Individuals"]
* [http://online.sfsu.edu/~dariotis Wei Ming Dariotis webpage]
* [http://www.mixedheritagecenter.org//index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1259&Itemid=34 Hapa: The Word of Power]
* [http://asiansofmixedrace.com/mar06.htm The Evolution Of Language, The Evolution Of Hapa]


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