ImageFile = P-phenylenediamine.png
IUPACName = 1,4-diaminobenzene
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 106-50-3
SMILES = Nc1ccc(N)cc1
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = C6H8N2
MolarMass = 108.1
Appearance = Tan solid
MeltingPt = 143-145 °C
BoilingPt = 267 °C
Section3 = Chembox Hazards
RPhrases = R23 R24 R25 R36 R37 R38 R40 R42 R43
SPhrases = S26 S36 S37 S39 lowercase|p-Phenylenediamine
"p"-Phenylenediamine (PPD), also called paraphenylenediamine, 1,4-diaminobenzene or 1,4-
phenylenediamineis an aromatic amineused as a component of engineering polymers and composites, aramid fibers, hair dyes, rubberchemicals, textile dyes, and pigments. PPD is selected because of its high temperaturestability, high strength, and chemical and electrical resistance. However, it is a strong potential carcinogen, which makes it a controversial chemical to be included in hair dyes.
This product is added to real
hennato create so called "Black Henna," which, in many cases, causes allergic reaction, and can cause scarring in some people. PPD should never be applied directly to the skin in its pure form or mixed with anything else. [http://www.hennapage.com/henna/ppd/smallbroch1.pdf]
This compound is used in almost every hair
dyeon the market, regardless of brand. The darker the colour, usually, the higher the concentrations. Even the so-called "natural" and "herbal" hair colours, while ammonia-free, contain PPD. Some products sold as hennahave PPD added, particularly "black henna." Using body art-quality (BAQ) pure henna, or indigo, is the only way to avoid PPD in hair dye.
However, when tested (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/phenylen.html) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the EPA reports that in rats and mice chronically exposed to p-phenylenediamine in their diet, it simply depressed body weights, but there were no other clinical signs of toxicity, as were observed in several studies. No information is available on the reproductive, developmental, or carcinogenic effects of p-phenylenediamine in humans. In fact, the EPA has not classified p-phenylenediamine with respect to carcinogenicity. Therefore, it has not been deemed an actual carcinogen.
"p"-Phenylenediamine is used in the manufacture of
aramidplastics and fibers such as Kevlaras well as substituted "p"-phenylenediamines that are used as antiozonants in rubber.
The CDC lists "p"-phenylenediamine as being a contact
allergen. The NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazardslists exposure routes as being through inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, and skin and/or eye contact; symptoms of exposure include throat irritation ( pharynxand larynx), bronchial asthma, and sensitization dermatitis. Sensitization is a lifelong issue, which may lead to active sensitization to products including, but not limited to:
* Black clothing
* Printer ink
* Facsimile ink
* Hair dye
* Fur dye
* Leather dye
* Photographic products.
One maker of this product states explicitly that p-phenylenediamine should not be used directly on the skin,Fact|date=February 2007 however, they admit that other manufacturers of PPD may or may not warn the same.
Some misinformation twists have led to PPDs being described as a black mineral from the banks of the
River NileFact|date=September 2008. This gives PPD an undeserved distinction as being both natural and exotic, which it is not.
* [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0805.html NIOSH International Chemical Safety Card for p-Phenylenediamine (PPD)]
* [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/rtecs/ss7ad550.html NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) entry for p-Phenylenediamine (PPD)]
* [http://www.dupont.com/specintermediates/ppd.html Du Pont technical data sheet and sales policy for p-Phenylenediamine (PPD)]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Phenylenediamine — may refer to:* o phenylenediamine or OPD, a chemical compound C6H4(NH2)2 * m phenylenediamine or MPD, a chemical compound C6H4(NH2)2 * p phenylenediamine or PPD, a chemical compound C6H8N2 … Wikipedia
phénylènediamine — ● phénylènediamine nom féminin Diamine C6H4(NH2)2 dérivée du benzène. (Les phénylènediamines sont employées dans la fabrication des colorants, des résines et dans l industrie du caoutchouc.) … Encyclopédie Universelle
phenylenediamine — fenilendiaminas statusas T sritis chemija formulė C₆H₄(NH₂)₂ atitikmenys: angl. phenylenediamine rus. фенилендиамин … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
phenylenediamine — noun any of the three isomeric di amino benzenes, used as intermediates in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, plastics etc … Wiktionary
phenylenediamine — phe·nyl·ene·di·amine fen əl .ēn dī ə .mēn, fēn n any of three toxic isomeric crystalline compounds C6H8N2 that are derivatives of benzene containing two amino groups attached to carbon atoms in the ortho, meta, or para positions see QUINOXALINE … Medical dictionary
phenylenediamine — phenyl·ene·diamine … English syllables
phenylenediamine — | ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ˌ ̷ ̷+ noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary phenylene + diamine : any of three toxic isomeric crystalline compounds C6H4(NH2)2 that are ortho, meta, and para diamino derivatives of benzene of which the ortho and para… … Useful english dictionary
o-Phenylenediamine — o Phenylenediamine IUPAC name … Wikipedia
O-Phenylenediamine — chembox new ImageFile = o phenylenediamine.png ImageSize = 120px IUPACName = Benzene 1,2 diamine OtherNames = o Phenylenediamine 1,2 Diaminobenzene Reference = [http://www.dupont.com/specintermediates/opd.html DuPont Specialty Intermediates: o… … Wikipedia
p-Phenylenediamine — IUPAC name 1,4 diaminobenzene … Wikipedia