National Union of Greece


National Union of Greece

The National Union of Greece (Greek: Εθνική Ένωσις Ελλάδος, Ethniki Enosis Ellados or EEE) was an anti-Semitic nationalist party established in Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1927.

Registered as a mutual aid society, the EEE was founded by Asia Minor refugee merchants. According to the organisation's constitution, only Christians could join. Its members were opposed to Thessaloniki's substantial Jewish population.

It was led by Georgios Kosmidis (Γιώργος Κοσμίδης), an illiterate Turkish-speaking trader[1] and D. Charitopoulos (Δ. Χαριτόπουλος), a banking clerk.

The party's leaders were the main defendants in the trial held after the Campbell Riot of 29 June 1931, in which Greek nationalist mobs attacked the Jewish "Campbell" settlement in the city. (A co-defendant was Nikoloas Nikos Fardis (Νίκος Φαρδής), editor-in-chief of the Makedonia newspaper.)

Estimates put the party's strength at 7,000 members in 1932, and in 1933, it had 3,000 members march to Athens, in apparent imitation of Benito Mussolini's 1922 March on Rome.[2] However, it polled miserably in the 1934 city elections in Thessaloniki, and in 1935, the party imploded as a result of in-fighting. It was revived by the German occupation authorities in 1942, during the Axis Occupation of Greece; many members of EEE became prominent collaborators of the Nazis and many more joined the Security Battalions and helped in the identification of Greek Jews.

Owing to its paramilitary uniforms and organisation, the party was commonly referred to as "The Three Epsilons" (τα Τρία Εψιλον) or "The Steelhelmets" (οι Χαλυβδόκρανοι), in allusion to the German paramilitary Stahlhelm.

References

  1. ^ Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430-1950, London: HarperCollins, 2004, p. 413. ISBN 0-00-712023-0
  2. ^ Victor Roudometof (2002). Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict. Praeger/Greenwood. p. 115. ISBN 0275976483. 

External links

Further reading


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • National Liberation Front (Greece) — EAM ELAS EPON memorial statue in Ano Liosia The National Liberation Front (Greek: Εθνικό Απελευθερωτικό Μέτωπο, Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo, EAM) was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece during World… …   Wikipedia

  • National Union — may refer to one of many political parties: Liberia National Union National Union (Chad) National Union (Chile) National Union Party (Costa Rica) National Union (UAR), Nasser s party in the United Arab Republic, 1957 1962 National Union (Greece)… …   Wikipedia

  • National Bank of Greece Cultural Foundation — Logo of the National Bank of Greece The National Bank of Greece Cultural Foundation (Greek: Μορφωτικό Ίδρυμα Εθνικής Τραπέζης, Morfotiko Idryma Ethnikis Trapezis, MIET) is a cultural foundation based in Athens founded in 1966. The Foundation was… …   Wikipedia

  • National Union of Greek Australian Students — infobox generic name = National Union of Greek Australian Students sub0 = Ένωση Ελληνο Αυστραλών Φοιτητών img1 = nugaslogo.jpg width1 = 100px cap1 = National Union of Greek Australian Students (NUGAS) lbl1 = Headquarters: row1 = Melbourne,… …   Wikipedia

  • Greece national rugby union team — Greece Union Hellenic Rugby Federation Coach(es) Mike Bishop …   Wikipedia

  • National Bank of Poland — Narodowy Bank Polski (Polish) …   Wikipedia

  • National Bank of Austria — National Bank of Austria …   Wikipedia

  • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens — Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών Established May 3, 1837 …   Wikipedia

  • National Westminster Bank — Plc Type Public Limited Company Industry Financial Services Founded 1968 …   Wikipedia

  • National Assembly of Bulgaria — Народно събрание Type Type …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.