official_name = City of Pula
native_name = Grad Pula
other_name = Città di Pola
image_caption = Aerial view
image_shield = Grbpula.jpg
flag_size = 80px
map_caption = Location of Pula in Croatia
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = County
area_total_km2 = 51.65
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 62080
population_density_km2 = 1093.27
population_metro = 90000
latd = 44
latm = 52
latNS = N
longd = 13
longm = 51
longEW = E
elevation_m = 30
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Boris Miletić (IDA)
timezone = CET
area_code = 52
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 52100
utc_offset = +1
website = http://www.pula.hr/
Pula ( _la. Pietas Iulia; _sl. Pulj; Istriot "Pula"; _it. Pola) is the largest city in
Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 62,080 (2006).Like the rest of the region, it is known for its mild climate, tame sea, and unspoiled nature. The city has a long tradition of winemaking, fishing, shipbuilding, and tourism. Pula has also been Istria's administrative center since ancient Roman times.
Pula is the largest
cityin Istriacounty, with a metropolitan areaof 90,000 people. The city itself has 62,080 residents (2005), while the metropolitan area includes Barban(2,802 residents), Fažana(3,050 residents), Ližnjan(2,945 residents), Marčana(3,903 residents), Medulin(6,004 residents), Svetvinčenat(2,218 residents) and Vodnjan(5,651 residents). The official bilingual name of the municipality is: "Pula - Pola" [ [http://www.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeno/2006/2045.htm] The Bulletin of Croatian Parliament: the law about the official topographical names - see "Članak 21. XVIII. ISTARSKA ŽUPANIJA"] .
Its population density is 1,093.27 residents/km², ranking Pula fifth in Croatia.
Its birth rate is 1.795 per cent and its mortality rate is 1.014 per cent (in 2001 466 people were born and 594 deceased), with a natural population decrease of -0.219 per cent and vital index of 78.45.
The majority of its citizens are
Croatsrepresenting 71.65% of the population (2001 census). Ethnic minorities and their composition is as follows: 3,415 Serbs(5.83 per cent), 2,824 Italians(4.82 per cent), 980 Bosniaks(1.67 per cent), 731 Slovenians(1.25 per cent) and the rest belong to other minor ethnic communities. [ [http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/censuses/Census2001/Popis/E01_02_02/E01_02_02_zup18.html Croatia 2001 census] ]
The city lies on and beneath seven hills (Monte Zaro, Monte Serpente, Monte Ghiro, Monte Magno, Monte Paradiso, Monte Rizzi and Monte Vidal), on the inner part of a wide gulf and a naturally well-protected port (depth up to convert|38|m|ft|0|abbr=on) open to the northwest with two entrances: from the sea and through Fažana channel. Today, Pula's geographical area amounts to convert|5165|ha|acre, convert|4159|ha|acre on land and convert|1015|ha|acre at sea, bounded from the north by islands Sv. Jerolim and Kozada, city areas Štinjan, Veli Vrh and Šijanic forest; from the east area Monteserpo, Valmade, Busoler and Valdebek; from the south with the old gas works, commercial port Veruda and island Veruda; and from the west Verudela, Lungomare and Musil.
Like the rest of the region it is known for its mild climate, tame sea, and unspoiled nature with an average of sunny days of 2,316 hours per year or 6.3 hours a day, with an average air temperature of convert|13.2|°C|°F (convert|6.1|°C|°F in February to convert|26.4|°C|°F in July and August) and sea temperature from convert|7|°C|°F to convert|26|°C|°F.
Human remains, dating back to 1 million years B.C., have been found in the cave of
Šandaljanear Pula. [ [http://www.croatianhistory.net/etf/jadran.html A short historical overview of Istria and, especially, Pula] ] Pottery from the Neolithicperiod (6000-2000 B.C.), indicating human settlement, have been found around Pula.
The city's earliest recorded permanent habitation dates back to the 10th century BC. It was founded by the
Illyriantribe of the Histri, an ancient people that lived in Istria.
The town was known to early Greek voyagers, since its founding was attributed to the
Colchis. It was mentioned in the mythological story of Jasonand Medea, who had stolen the golden fleece. The Colchis, who had chased Jason into the northern Adriatic, were unable to catch him and ended up settling in the region where the Illyric tribe lived. They called the place Polai, signifying "city of refuge". Greek pottery and a part of a statue of Apollohave been found, attesting to the presence of the Greek culture.
The Istrian peninsula was conquered by the Romans in 177 B.C., starting a period of Romanization. The town was elevated to colonial rank between 46-45 B.C. . During that time the town grew and had at its zenith a population of about 30,000 It became a significant Roman port with a large surrounding area under its jurisdiction. During the civil war of 42 B.C. of the triumvirate of
Octavian, Mark Antonyand Lepidus against Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius, the town took the side of Cassius, since the town had been founded by Cassius Longinus, brother of Cassius. After Octavian's victory, the town was demolished. It was soon rebuilt at the request of Octavian's daughter Iulia and was then called "Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea"'. Great classical constructions were built of which a few remain. The Romans also supplied the city with a water supply and sewage systems. They fortified the city with a wall with ten gates. A few of these gates still remain: the triumphal Arch of the Sergii, the Gate of Hercules (in which the names of the founders of the city are engraved) and the Twin Gates. During the reign of emperor Septimius Severusthe name of the town was changed into "Res Publica Polensis"
In 425 A.D. the town became the center of a bishopric, attested by the remains of foundations of a few religious buildings.
After the fall of the
Western Roman Empire, the city and region were destroyed by the Ostrogoths. Their rule ended about 60 years later, when Pula came under the rule of the Exarchate of Ravenna(540-751). During this period Pula prospered and became the major port of the Byzantinefleet. The cathedral and the Saint Mary Formosa chapel date from this period.
The first arrival of the
Slavsin the environs of the town dates to the 7th century, but they never really settled the city, which always kept its Italian soul. The history of the city continued to reflect its location and significance, like that of the region, in the redrawing of borders between European powers.
From 788 on Pula was ruled by the Frankish kingdom under
Charlemagne. Pula became the seat of the elective counts of Istria until 1077. The town was taken in 1148 by the Venetians and in 1150 Pula swore allegiance to the Republic of Venice, thus becoming a Venetian possession. For centuries thereafter, the city's fate and fortunes were tied to those of Venetian power. It was conquered by the Pisans in 1192 but soon reconquered by the Venetians.
In 1238 Pope Gregory IX formed an alliance between Genoa and Venice against the Empire, and consequently against Pisa too. As Pula had sided with the Pisans, the city was sacked by the Venetians in 1243. It was destroyed again in 1267 and again in 1397 when the Genoese defeated the Venetians in a naval battle.
Pula then slowly went into decline. This decay was accelerated by the infighting of local families: the ancient Roman Sergi family and the Ionotasi (1258-1271) and the clash between Venice and Genoa for the control of the city and its harbour (late 13th - 14 th century).
Pula is quoted by the Italian poet
Dante Alighieri, who had visited Pula, in the " Divine Comedy": "come a Pola, presso del Carnaro ch'Italia chiude e i suoi termini bagna" or "as Pula, along the Quarnero, that marks the end of Italy and bathes its boundaries". The "Istarski Razvod" (1325), dates from this same period. This is a crucial Croatian manuscript written in Latin, German, and Croatian, using the oldest Croatian alphabet called Glagolitic alphabet.
Venetian, Napoleonic and early Habsburg rule
Venetians took over Pula in 1331 and would rule the city until 1797. During the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, Pula was attacked and occupied by the Genoese, a Croatian-Hungarian army and the Habsburgs; several outlying medieval settlements and towns were destroyed. In addition to war, the plague,
malariaand typhoidravaged the city. By the 1750s there were only 300 inhabitants left in the city.
With the collapse of the Venetian Republic in 1797, when Venice was beaten by the army of Napoleon, the city became part of the
Habsburg Monarchy. It was invaded in 1805 after the French had beaten the Austrians. It was included in the French Empire's puppet Kingdom of Italy, then placed directly under the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces.
Austro-Hungarian and Italian rule
In 1813, Pula and Istria were restored to the
Austrian Empire(later the Austro-Hungarian Empire), and became part of the Austrian Littoral crown land. During this period Pula regained prosperity. From 1859 Pula's large natural harbor became Austria's main naval base and a major shipbuildingcenter. The city transformed from a small city with a fading antique splendor into an industrial town. The island of Brioni(Brijoni) to the south of Pula became the summer vacation resort of Austria's Habsburg royal family.
World War I, the port was the main base for Austro-Hungarian dreadnoughts and other naval forces of the Empire."First World War" - Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 186-187] .
During this period (XVIII-XX century) the most inhabitans were Italian speaking. According the Italian census of 1921, in Pula there were 41,125 Italians and 5,155 Croats ["Istra v popisu prebivalstva iz leta 1857. Ob 150-ti obletnici prvega habsburškega popisa prebivalstva, Conference 20 oct. 2007.] .
Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Pula and the whole of Istria - except the territory of
Kastav- were given to Italyunder the Peace Treaty. That period was marked by economic and political unrest. Under the fascist government of Benito Mussolini, non-Italians, especially Slavic residents, faced huge political and cultural repression and many fled the city and Istria altogether. Italian rule lasted until its capitulation during World War II, in September 1943. The Nazi German army entered to fill the vacuum left by retreating Italian soldiers. During German military rule, Pula saw a very difficult period: arrests, deportations and executions of people suspected of helping the Partisans' guerrilla struggle. Also, Allied strategic bombings repeatedly destroyed whole parts of the city.
Post-WWII and modern era
For several years after 1945, Pula was administered by the
United Nations. Istria was partitioned into occupation zones until the region became officially united with the rest of Croatia within the SFR Yugoslavia on September 15, 1947. Pula was an enclaveFact|date=August 2008 occupied by a company of the United States 351st Infantry and a British battalion of the 24th Guards Brigade within Yugoslavia.
When the city was ceded to Yugoslavia upon the ratification of the Italian Peace Treaty on 15 September 1947, creating the
Free Territory of Trieste, its population of 45,000 was largely made up of ethnic Italians [According the Italian census of 1921, in Pula there are 41,125 Italians and 5,155 Croats. G.Perselli, "I censimenti della popolazione dell'Istria, con Fiume e Trieste, e di alcune città della Dalmazia tra il 1850 e il 1936", Unione Italiana di Fiume - Università Popolare di Trieste - Centro di Ricerche Storiche di Rovigno, Trieste-Rovigno 1993, p. 269] . However, between December 1946 and September 1947, most of the city's Italian residents ( Istrian exodus) opted to emigrate to Italy. On August 18, 1946it was the site of the Vergarolla explosion.
Subsequently, the city's Croatian name, Pula, became official. Since the collapse of Yugoslavia in 1992, Pula and Istria have become part of the modern-day Republic of Croatia.
The city is best known for its many surviving ancient Roman buildings, the most famous of which is its first century
amphitheatre, sixth largest in the worldand locally known as the Arena. This is one of the best preserved amphitheatres from antiquity and is still in use today during summer film festivals. During the World War IIItalian fascist administration, there were attempts to disassemble the arena and move it to mainland Italy, which were quickly abandoned due to the costs involved.
Two other notable and well-preserved ancient Roman structures are the 1st century AD
triumphal arch, the Arch of the Sergiiand the co-eval temple of Rome and Augustus, built in the 1st century AD built on the forum during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus.
The Twin Gates (Porta Gemina) is one of the few remaining gates after the city walls were pulled down at the beginning of the 19th century. It dates from the mid-2nd century, replacing an earlier gate. It consists of two arches, columns, a plain
architraveand a decorated frieze. Close by are a few remains of the old city wall.
The Gate of Hercules dates from the first century. At the top of the single arch one can see the bearded head of
Hercules, carved in high-relief, and his club on the adjoining voussoir. A damaged inscription, close to the club, contains the names of Lucius Calpurnius Piso and Gaius Cassius Longinus who were entrusted by the Roman senate to found a colony at the site of Pula. Thus it can be deducted that Pula was founded between 47 and 44 BC.
The Augustan "Forum"' was constructed in the first century BC, close to the sea. In Roman times it was surrounded by temples of Jupiter,
Junoand Minerva. This Roman commercial and administrative centre of the city remained the main square of classical and medieval Pula. It still is the main administrative and legislative centre of the city. The temple of Roma and Augustus is still preserved today. A part of the back wall of the temple of Juno was integrated into the Communal Palace in the 13th century.
Two Roman theatres have withstood the ravages of time: the smaller one (diam. circa 50 m; 2nd c. AD) near the centre, the larger one (diam. circa 100 m; 1st c. AD) on the southern edge of the city.
The city's old quarter of narrow streets, lined with
Medievaland Renaissancebuildings, are still surfaced with ancient Roman paving stones.
The Byzantine chapel of St. Mary Formosa was built in the 6th century (before 546) in the form of a Greek cross, resembling the churches in
Ravenna. It was built by deacon Maximian, who became later Archbishop of Ravenna. It was, together with another chapel, part of a Benedictine abbey that was demolished in the 16th century. The floors and the walls are decorated with 6th-century mosaics. The decoration bears some resemblance to the Mausoleum of Galla Placidiaat Ravenna. The wall over the door contains a Byzantine carved stone panel. The 15th-century wall paintings may be restorations of Early Christian paintings. When the Venetians raided Pula in 1605, they removed many treasures from this chapel to Venice, including the four columns of oriental alabaster that stand behind the high altar of St Mark's Basilica.
The church of St. Francis dates from the end of the 13th century. It was built in 1314 in late Romanesque style with Gothic additions such as the
rose window. The church consists of a single navewith three apses. An unusual feature of this church is the double pulpit, with one part projecting into the street. A 15th-century wooden polyptychfrom an Emilian artist adorns the altar. The west portal is decorated with shell motifs and a rose window. The adjoining monastery dates from the 14th century. The cloisters display some antique Roman artifacts.
The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was built in the 6 th century, when Pula became the seat of a bishopry, over the remains over the original site where the Christians used to gather and pray in Roman times. It was enlarged in the 10th century. After its destruction by Genoese and venetian raids, it was almost completely rebuilt in the 15th century. It got its present form when a late Renaissance façade was added in the early 16th century. The church still retains several Romanesque and Byzantine characters, such as some parts of the walls (dating from the 4th century), a few of the original column
capitals and the upper windows of the nave. In the altar area and in the room to the south one can still see fragments of 5th to 6th-century floor mosaics with memorial inscriptions from worshipers who paid for the mosaics. The windows of the aisles underwent reconstruction in Gothic style after a fire in 1242. The belfry in front the church was built between 1671 and 1707 with stones form the amphitheatre. There also used to stand a baptistery from the 5th century in front of the church, but it was demolished in 1885.
The Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas with its Ravenna-style polygonal apse, originally dates from the 6th century, but was partially rebuilt in the 10th century. In 1583 it was assigned to the Orthodox community of Pula, mainly immigrants from
Cyprusand Nauplion. The church owns several icons from the 15th and the 16th century and an iconostasisfrom the Greek artists Tomios Batosfrom the 18th century.
The star-shaped castle with four
bastions is situated on top of the central hill of the old city. It was built, over the remains of the Roman capitolium, by the Venetians in the 14th century, following the plans of the French military architect Antoine de Ville. Since 1961 it now houses the Historical Museum of Istria. Close by, on the northeastern slopes, one can see the remains of a 2nd-century theatre.The Archaeological Museum of Istria is situated in the park on a lower level than the Roman theatre and close to the Twin Gates. Its collection was started by Marshall Marmontin August 1802 when he collected the stone monuments from the temple of Roma and Augustus. The present-day museum was opened in 1949. It displays treasures from Pula and surroundings from prehistory until the Middle Ages.
As a result of its rich political history, Pula is a city with a cultural mixture of people and languages from the
Mediterraneanand Central Europe, ancient and contemporary. Pula's architecturereflects these layers of history. Residents are commonly fluent in foreign languages, especially Italian, often also German and English. From October 30, 1904to March 1905 Irish writer James Joycetaught English at the Berlitz School; his students were mainly Austro-Hungarian naval officers who were stationed at the Naval Shipyard. While he was in Pula he organized the local printing of his broadsheet "The Holy Office," which satirized both William Butler Yeatsand George Russell[http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/speccoll/JJoyce/dear_dirty_dublin.htm] .
Alida Valli, Italian actress, was born in Pula.
Robert Kochworked on the nearby Brijuniislands.
Herman Potočnik(pseudonym Hermann Noordung) a rocket engineer and pioneer of cosmonautics (astronautics) was also born in Pula.
Georg Ritter von Trapp- Austrian naval hero and head of the famous singing family immortalized in the musical The Sound of Musiclived in Pula.
Hede von Trapp, Austrian painter
*Among the "polesi" (Italian natives of the city) is
Sergio Endrigo, one of the most famous Italian singer-songwriters.
Wolf von Aichelburg, Rumanian-German writer
Franz Karl Ginzkey, Austrian officer, poet and writer
Karl Albrecht von Habsburg-Lothringen, Austrian and Polish officer and landowner
Johann Palisa, discoverer of ca.30 asteroids
Antonio Smareglia(1854-1929), Italian composer
Stiven Rivic, Croatian footballer of the German club Energie Cottbus
Alojz Gradnik, Slovenian poet, worked in Pula as a judge
Major industries include shipbuilding, processing industry, tourism, traffic, food industries, construction industries and other non-metal industries.
Major companies located in Pula:
* Tehnomont (shipbuilding) [http://www.tehnomont.hr]
* Istra cement d.o.o. (cement production)
* Brionka d.d. (food industry) [http://www.brionka.hr/]
DURANd.d. (glass production) [http://www.duran-group.com/english/products/boral/index.html]
* Bina Istra d.d. (construction industry) [http://www.bina-istra.hr/]
* Istragradnja d.d. (construction industry) [http://www.istragradnja.hr/]
* Cesta d.o.o. (construction industry)
* Arenaturist d.d. (tourism) [http://www.arenaturist.hr/]
* Uniline d.o.o (tourism) [http://www.uniline.hr]
NK Istra 1961" (second Croatian league) and " NK Istra" (third Croatian league)
Volleyball-"OK OTP Banka Pula" (first Croatian league)
Basketball-"KK Stoja" and "KK Pula1981"
Judo-"JK Istarski borac" and "JK PulaFit"
The natural beauty of Pula's surrounding countryside and turquoise water of the
Adriatichave made the city an internationally popular summer vacation destination. The pearl nearby is Brijuni national park visited by numerous world leaders since it was the summer residence of Josip Broz Tito. Roman villas and temples still lie buried among farm fields and along the shoreline of the dozens of surrounding fishing and farming villages. The coastal waters offer beaches, fishing, wreck divesto ancient Roman galleys and World War Iwarships, cliff diving, and sailingto unspoiled coves and islands large and small.
Pula is the end point of the
EuroVelo9 cycle route that runs from Gdanskon the Baltic Seathrough Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Sloveniaand Croatia.
It is possible to track
dinosaurfootprints on the nearby seashores; certain more important finds have been made at an undisclosed location near Bale.
Pula had an electric tramway system in the early 20th century. It was built in 1904 as a part of Pula's economic crescendo during the Austro-Hungarian rule. After WWI, during the Fascist rule, the need for tram transportation declined and it was finally dismantled in 1934.
Pula Airportis located south-east of Pula, and serves both domestic and international destinations. Similarly to nearby Rijeka Airport, it is not a major international destination. However, this is likely to change as low-cost airline, Ryanairhas started scheduled flights to Pula since November 2006. Nearby international airports include Triestein Italy, Zagreb, Croatia's capital and Ljubljana, Slovenia's capital. There are direct flights into Pula airport from London and Dublin during whole year and several other large airports in Western Europe during summer.
A train service operates north from Pula through to Slovenia, however the line remains disconnected from the rest of the
Croatian Railwaysnetwork. Plans to tunnel the 'missing link' between this line and from Rijeka have existed for many years, and despite work commencing on this project previously, has never seen completion.
Buses serve Pula from a wide range of local, domestic and international locations and operate from the large bus terminal on the edge of the city centre. Public bus operation is ran by Pulapromet.
Passenger ferries also operate from the port area to nearby islands, and also to
Veniceand Triestein Italy.
Nearby towns and villages
Twin towns and partner towns
Graz(since 1972, partnership established in 1961)
Other forms of partnership:
Szeged(A request for partnership in 2003.)
Veles(Document of friendship and cultural cooperation in 2002)
Novorossiysk(Protocol of partnership and town twinning in 1997)
Strong friendly relationships and continuous contacts are maintained with these towns:
* several towns from
Villefranche-de-Rouergue(location of Croatian rebellion, partnership since 2005)
*Turner, J. -
Grove Dictionary of Art- Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed edition ( January 2, 1996); ISBN 0-19-517068-7
* [http://pulainfo.hr/k62/pulainfo_-_english/ City of Pula Official homepage]
* [http://www.pulainfo.hr Tourism Office Pula]
* [http://www.mdc.hr/pula/ Archaeological Museum of Istria]
* [http://www.croatianhistory.net/etf/jadran.html History of Pula]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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