- Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolph I, also known as Rudolph of Habsburg (German: "Rudolf von Habsburg",
Latin"Rudolfus") May 1, 1218– July 15, 1291) was King of the Romansfrom 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburgfamily to a leading position among the German feudal dynasties.
Rudolf was the son of
Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, and Hedwig, daughter of Ulrich, Count of Kyburg, and was born in Limburg im Breisgau. At his father's death in 1239, Rudolf inherited the family estates in Alsaceand Aargau. In 1245 he married Gertrude, daughter of Burkhard III, Count of Hohenberg. As a result, Rudolf became an important vassal in Swabia, the ancient Alemannic stem duchy.
Rudolf paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather, the
Emperor Frederick II, and his loyalty to Frederick and his son, Conrad IV of Germany, was richly rewarded by grants of land. In 1254 he was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IVas a supporter of King Conrad, due to ongoing political conflicts between the Emperor, who held the Kingdom of Sicily and wanted to reestablish his power in Northern Italy, especially in Lombardy, and the Papacy, whose States lay in between and feared being overpowered by the Emperor.
Rise to power
The disorder in Germany after the fall of the
Hohenstaufenafforded an opportunity for Rudolph to increase his possessions. His wife was an heiress; and on the death of his childless maternal uncle, Hartmann VI, Count of Kyburg, in 1264, he seized Hartmann's valuable estates. Successful feuds with the bishops of Strassburg and Basel further augmented his wealth and reputation, including rights over various tracts of land that he purchased from abbots and others. He also possessed large estates inherited from his father in the regions now known as Switzerlandand Alsace.
These various sources of wealth and influence rendered Rudolph the most powerful prince and noble in southwestern Germany (where the tribal duchy
Swabiahad disintegrated, leaving room for its vassals to become quite independent) when, in the autumn of 1273, the princes met to elect a king after the death of Richard of Cornwall. His election in Frankfurt on 29 September 1273, when he was 55 years old, was largely due to the efforts of his brother-in-law, Frederick III of Hohenzollern, Burgraveof Nuremberg. The support of Albert II, Duke of Saxony(Wittenberg) and of Louis II, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Duke of Upper Bavaria, had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolph's daughters. As a result, Otakar II (1230-78), King of Bohemia, a candidate for the throne and grandson of Philip of Swabia, King of Germany (being the son of the eldest surviving daughter), was almost alone in opposing Frederick. Another candidate was Frederick of Meissen (1257-1323), a young grandson of the excommunicated Emperor Frederick IIwho did not yet have a principality of his own as his father yet lived.
King of Germany
Rudolph was crowned in
Aachen Cathedralon 24 October 1273. Friedrich Schillerin "Der Graf von Habsburg" ("The Count of Habsburg") presents a fictionalized rendering of the feast King Rudolf held following his coronation. To win the approbation of the Pope, Rudolph renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory, and Sicily, and promised to lead a new crusade. Pope Gregory X, in spite of Otakar's protests, not only recognized Rudolph himself, but persuaded Alfonso X, King of Castile (another grandson of Philip of Swabia), who had been chosen German king in 1257 as the successor to William of Holland, to do the same. Thus, Rudolph surpassed the two heirs of the Hohenstaufen dynasty that he had earlier served so loyally.
In November 1274 it was decided by the Diet of the Realm in Nuremberg that all crown estates seized since the death of the Emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that Otakar must answer to the Diet for not recognizing the new king. Otakar refused to appear or to restore the provinces of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and
Carniola, which he had claimed through his first wife, a Babenbergheiress, and which he had seized while disputing them with another Babenberg heir, Hermann VI, Margrave of Baden. Rudolf refuted Otakar's succession to the Babenberg patrimony, declaring that the provinces reverted to the crown due to the lack of male-line heirs (a position that conflicted with the provisions of Privilegium Minus). King Otakar was placed under the state ban; and in June 1276 war was declared against him. Having persuaded Otakar's ally Henry I, Duke of Lower Bavaria, to switch sides, Rudolph compelled the Bohemian king to cede the four provinces to the control of the royal administration in November 1276. Rudolf then invested Otakar with Bohemia, betrothed one of his daughters to Otakar's son Wenceslaus, and made a triumphal entry into Vienna. Otakar, however, raised questions about the execution of the treaty, made an alliance with some Polish chiefs, and procured the support of several German princes, including his former ally, Henry of Lower Bavaria. To meet this coalition, Rudolph formed an alliance with Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary, and gave additional privileges to the citizens of Vienna. On 26 August 1278the rival armies met on the banks of the River Marchin the Battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigenwhere Otakar was defeated and killed. Moraviawas subdued and its government entrusted to Rudolph's representatives, leaving Kunigunda, the Queen Regent of Bohemia, in control of only the province surrounding Prague, while the young Wenceslaus was again betrothed to one of Rudolf's daughters.
Rudolph's attention next turned to the possessions in Austria and the adjacent provinces, which were taken into the royal domain. He spent several years establishing his authority there but found some difficulty in establishing his family as successors to the rule of those provinces. At length the hostility of the princes was overcome. In December 1282, in
Augsburg, Rudolph invested his sons, Albert and Rudolph, with the duchies of Austria and Styria and so laid the foundation of the House of Habsburg. Additionally, he made the twelve-year-old Rudolf Duke of Swabia, which had been without a ruler since Conradin's execution. The 27-year-old Duke Albert (married since 1274 to a daughter of Count Meinhard II of Tirol (1238-95)) was capable enough to hold some sway in the new patrimony.
In 1286 King Rudolf fully invested the
Duchy of Carinthia, one of the provinces conquered from Otakar, to Albert's father-in-law Meinhard. The princes of the realm did not allow Rudolf to give everything that was recovered to the royal domain to his own sons, and his allies needed their rewards too.
Turning to the west, in 1281 he compelled
Philip, Count Palatine of Burgundy, to cede some territory to him, then forced the citizens of Bernto pay the tribute that they had been refusing, and in 1289 marched against Philip's successor, Otto IV, compelling him to do homage.
In 1281 his first wife died. On
5 February 1284he married Isabella, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, his western neighbor.
Rudolph was not very successful in restoring internal peace to Germany. Orders were indeed issued for the establishment of landpeaces in
Bavaria, Franconiaand Swabia, and afterwards for the whole of Germany. But the king lacked the power, resources, or determination, to enforce them, although in December 1289 he led an expedition into Thuringiawhere he destroyed a number of robber-castles.
In 1291 he attempted to secure the election of his son Albert as German king. However, the princes refused claiming inability to support two kings, but in reality, perhaps, leery of the increasing power of the Habsburgs.
Persecution Of The Jews
In 1286, Rudolf I instituted a new persecution of the Jews, declaring them "servi camerae" ("serfs of the treasury"), which had the effect of negating their political freedoms. Along with many others, Rabbi
Meir of Rothenburg, perhaps the greatest rabbi of the time, left Germany with family and followers, but was captured in Lombardyand imprisoned in a fortress in Alsace. Tradition has it that a large ransom of 23,000 marks silver was raised for him (by the ROSH), but Rabbi Meir refused it, for fear of encouraging the imprisonment of other rabbis. He died in prison after seven years. Fourteen years after his death a ransom was paid for his body by Alexander ben Shlomo (Susskind) Wimpfen, who was subsequently laid to rest beside the Maharam. [http://www.chabad.org/calendar/view/day.asp?id=265714&tDate=3/4/2006#265714]
Rudolph died in
Speyeron July 15, 1291, and was buried in the Speyer Cathedral. Although he had a large family, he was survived by only one son, Albert, afterwards the German king Albert I.
Rudolph's reign is most memorable for his establishment of the House of Habsburg, which henceforth held sway over the southeastern and southwestern parts of the realm. In the rest of Germany, he left the princes largely to their own devices.
the Divine Comedy, Dantefinds Rudolph sitting outside the gates of Purgatorywith his contemporaries, who berate him as "he who neglected that which he ought to have done".
Family and children
He was married twice. First, in 1245, to
Gertrude of Hohenbergand second, in 1284, to Isabelle of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundyand Beatrice of Champagne. All children were from the first marriage.
Albert I of Germany(July 1255 – 1 May, 1308), Duke of Austriaand also of Styria.
# Hartmann (1263,
Rheinfelden– 21 December 1281), drowned in Rheinau.
Rudolph II, Duke of Austriaand Styria (1270– 10 May 1290, Prague), titular Duke of Swabia, father of John the Patricide of Austria.
# Matilda (ca. 1251/53, Rheinfelden–
23 December 1304, Munich), married 1273 in Aachento Louis II, Duke of Bavariaand became mother of Rudolf I, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor.
# Katharina (1256–
4 April 1282, Landshut), married 1279 in Viennato Otto III, Duke of Bavariawho later (after her death) became the disputed King Bela V of Hungaryand left no surviving issue.
# Agnes (ca. 1257–
11 October 1322, Wittenberg), married 1273 to Albert II, Duke of Saxe-Wittenbergand became the mother of Rudolf I, Elector of Saxony.
# Hedwig (d. 1285/86), married 1270 in Vienna to
Otto VI, Margrave of Brandenburgand left no issue.
# Klementia (ca. 1262–after
7 February 1293), married 1281 in Vienna to Charles Martel of Anjou, the Papal claimant to the throne of Hungaryand mother of king Charles I of Hungary, as well as of queen Clementia of France, herself the mother of the baby king John I of France.
Judith of Habsburg(Jutte/Bona) ( 13 March 1271– 18 June 1297, Prague), married 24 January 1285to King Wenceslaus II of Bohemiaand became the mother of king Wenceslaus III of Bohemia, Poland and Hungary, of queen Anna I of Bohemia, duchess of Carinthia, and of queen Elisabeth I of Bohemia, countess of Luxembourg.
King Rudolf also had an illegitimate son,
Albrecht I of Schenkenberg, Count of Löwenstein.
* Karl-Friedrich Krieger, "Rudolf von Habsburg", Darmstadt: Primus Verlag, 2003, 294 S.
Kings of Germany family tree. He was related to every other king of Germany.
NAME= Rudolph I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Rudolph I of Germany; Rudolph of Habsburg; Rudolf von Habsburg; Rudolfus
King of the Romans
DATE OF BIRTH=
May 1, 1218
PLACE OF BIRTH=Limburg im
DATE OF DEATH=
July 15, 1291
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Rudolph Moshammer — with Daisy Born September 27, 1940(1940 09 27) Munich, Germany Died … Wikipedia
Rudolph Wilhelm Meyer — was born on April 2, 1826 to Rudolph Heinrich Meyer and Christine Ludewike Sengevald. He came to Hawai i on January 20, 1850 from Hanse City, Hamburg, Germany via Sydney, Australia. Hanse district is situated on the estuary of the Elbe River in… … Wikipedia
Rudolph of France — Rudolph (also Radulf, Ralph, or Raoul) (died 15 January 936) was the duke of Burgundy between 921 and 923 and king of France from thereafter to his death. Rudolph inherited the duchy of Burgundy from his father, Richard the Justiciar. He married… … Wikipedia
Rudolph I of Burgundy — Rudolph I, born 859, died October 25, 912, King of (Upper or Transjurane) Burgundy from his election in 888 until his death.Rudolph belonged to the elder Welf family and was the son of Conrad, Count of Auxerre, from whom he inherited the lay… … Wikipedia
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (TV special) — Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer Promotional advertisement for the original NBC airing Distributed by Classic Media … Wikipedia
Rudolph Dirks — (February 26, 1877 ndash; April 20, 1968) was one of the earliest and most noted comic strip artists.Dirks was born in Heide, Germany to Johannes and Margaretha Dirks [ [http://lambiek.net/artists/d/dirks r.htm] Born in Heide, Germany, Rudolph… … Wikipedia
Rudolph Agricola — Rudolph Agricola † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Rudolph Agricola A distinguished humanist of the earlier period, and a zealous promoter of the study of the classics in Germany, born in 1442, or 1443, at Bafflo, hear Groningen, Holland;… … Catholic encyclopedia
RUDOLPH° — (12th century), monk of French origin, preacher of the Second crusade in Germany, mainly in the Rhineland. His activity is recorded in the chronicle of ephraim b. jacob of Bonn and the letters of bernard of Clairvaux. When recruiting the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Rudolph, Duke of Lorraine — Rudolph (1320 ndash; August 26, 1346 in the Battle of Crécy), called the Valiant ( le Vaillant ), was the duke of Lorraine from 1329 to his death. He was the son and successor of Frederick IV and Elisabeth, daughter of Albert I of Germany, a… … Wikipedia
Rudolph Bauer — (* 28. April 1939 in Amberg, Oberpfalz) war bis 2002 Professor für Sozialpädagogik/Sozialarbeitswissenschaft an der Universität Bremen. Er ist wissenschaftlicher und literarischer Autor, Essayist, Publizist und Bildender Künstler.… … Deutsch Wikipedia