- Ecology movement
The global ecology movement is based upon environmental protection, and is one of several new
social movements that emerged at the end of the sixties. As a values-driven social movement, it should be distinguished from the pre-existing science of ecology.
The movement's growth has been stimulated by a widespread acknowledgement of an ecological crisis of our planet. [ [http://www.deepecology.org/movement.htm "Deep Ecology Movement"] - from [http://www.deepecology.org/index.htm Foundation For Deep Ecology] , Retrieved August 2008.] Its story has run alongside the environmental narratives that have reached popular consciousness. From the
conservation movementat the beginning of the 20th century, then with concern in the sixties about chemical pesticides, the ecological movement was born with Rachel Carson's " Silent Spring". There was a great deal of concern over nuclear weapons and nuclear powerin sixties and seventies, then there was acid rainin the eighties, ozone depletionand deforestationin the nineties, and now climate changeand global warmingare the biggest concern for many. As well as the bigger global issues like these and species extinction, the ecology movement also encompasses any group wishing to protect the environment.
The ecology movement has evolved and branched out to different means of effecting change. There is the political branch with the Green parties. Organisations like
Greenpeacewere more radical, taking direct action against environmental destruction. Its views on people, behaviors, events centered around the political and lifestyle implications of the science of ecologyand the idea of natureas a value in itself. "Ecology movement" is an umbrella termfor different groups, ideologiesand attitudes.
At least since the
Rio de Janeiro Earth Summitin 1992, the discussion about sustainable developmentand sustainabilityhas surfaced and partly replaced older ecological oriented ideologies. This and the establishment of a global anti-globalization movementin the late 1990s can be seen as follow-ups to the ecological movement. (See Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.) Additionally, there are many individuals and groups that believe in either a more political-lobbyist or more scientific, rather than activist approach.
Green partieshave roots in the ecology movement, they are a separate movement. Political Greens have social justiceconcerns that go beyond ecology and ecological issues and matters. Today the term "ecology movement" is associated often with the more moral, more confrontational, and more rigorous stance taken by Greenpeaceand other even more radical NGOs, e.g. Earth First, Earth Action, Sea Shepherd, in favor of the Precautionary Principleand strong fundamental preventive measures for biosafety, biosecurityand biodiversity. The methods of these groups often involve the idea of Direct action.
A radical wing of the ecology movement opposes and actually illegally sabotages or destroys
infrastructural capitalof what they deem to be "Earth rapist" activities. This includes the Anarchist Golfing Association and the Earth Liberation Front, which are sometimes accused of terrorism. Even though no physical harm has come to an animal or human being, they have inflicted large economic losses on many economies. Their acts include the fire-bombing of a Forestry Service installation in Erie, Pennsylvania. Very few in the ecology movement would accept doing bodily harmby non-legal means to achieve their goals - they have no organized presence and are rejected by almost all players in the ecology movement. Some who hold property damage and bodily harmin moral equivalence, may reject this distinction, e.g. the US FBIwhich has labelled the Earth Liberation Frontas a "terrorist group" (although the U.S. Department of Defense does not).
Critique of technology
List of environmental organizations
Timeline of environmental events
* [http://www.deepecology.org/mission.htm Foundation For Deep Ecology] - Mission Statement, Retrieved August 2008.
* [http://www.envirolink.org EnviroLink Network] - A non-profit clearinghouse of environmental news and information
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