- Swedish settlement in Argentina
Infobox Ethnic group
group = Swedish-Argentines
poptime = 175,000
Misiones Provinceand Buenos Aires.
langs = Predominantly in Spanish. Minority speak Swedish
related = Swedes,
Swedish settlement in Argentina took place principally in the mid to late 19th century, when
Swedish peoplearrived in Argentina. Many Swedes came to Argentina for economic reasons and in order to start a new life. Swedes also helped build Argentina, in particular helping to build Argentina's railroads in the mid 19th century.
The first Swedes to arrive in Argentina were registered as new converts by
Jesuits in Córdoba in 1763. Many of the Swedes who showed up during the first half of the 19th century were adventurers who fought in the civil warbetween the Unitarians and Federalists (on both sides). A good number of them were sons of prominent families who were fleeing a debt or had some other reason to make themselves scarce. They became the black sheepof the Pampas.Back home in northern Sweden, they had hunted moose. In Misiones Province's subtropical rainforest, they hunted tapir.
The womanizing aristocrat
Nils Fleming, for example, spread a rumour that he had an affair with Governor Rosas' daughter to give more publicity to the brothelhe was opening in Buenos Aires. His business venture did not succeed, however, because he often got jealous of his customers and threw them out.
"Azul y Oro"
"Azul y oro" - blue and yellow/gold - have always been Sweden's colours. In Argentina however, they are forever associated with the soccer club
Boca Juniorswhere such national stars as Diego Maradonahave worn the yellow and blue jerseys. The choice was made in 1907 and the inspiration came from the Swedish colours on a Johnson Lineship that happened to be in port at the time.
The prospect of growing
yerba mate, used to make the herbal tea that is Argentina's national addiction, drew Swedes to Misiones at the beginning of the 20th century, not all the way from Sweden but from Brazil, where they had been lured by German-based recruitment offices.In Brazil, the new arrivals soon discovered that the recruitment officers propaganda was nothing more than empty promises. Around 1913 word started going around that across the border, in the Argentinian territory of Misiones, the land was more fertile and the government was providing incentives for farmers to grow a profitable cash crop known as the green gold - yerba mate.
Two contingents of emigrants made the voyage south. In 1890-91, most of the 2 000 were workers and families from the crisis-ridden industries in
Stockholmand Sundsvall. In 1909-11, most of the 700 were miners from the far north who left after the failure of a nation-wide strike. The first Swedes to cross the border to Argentina found not only Brazilian, Paraguayan and German colonists, but also a group of Finnish intellectuals who had fled their country in 1906 for political reasons. After the town of Oberáwas officially founded in 1928, the Swedes soon became a minority, but as they had come first there are today neighbourhoods that carry the names of those pioneering farmers - Villa Kindgren, Villa Fredriksson, Villa Erasmie.
In 1914 ten men cleared a 20-km path (picada) through the jungle between the first Swedish settlement,
Villa Sveaand a German colony. The road is still known as the "Picada Sueca". Around 500 Swedes were estimated to have settled in the area by the 1920s and they organized a school, an ethnic-based association and a congregation.In September many Swedish descendants still participate in the OberáImmigrants Festival.
Notable Swedes in Argentina
Henrik Åberg and Carl August Kihlberg
Henrik Åberg(Enrique Aberg) [ [http://runeberg.org/nfcm/0491.html Article] on Åberg in "Nordisk Familjebok".] and Carl August Kihlberg(Carlos Kihlberg) were the designers of the famous Presidential Palaceof Argentina, the " Casa Rosada". They were also appointed as Argentina's first (and only) national architects in 1875; Åberg also drew the blueprints for various hospitals, the Museum of National History in La Plata, and the José de San Martínmausoleum inside Buenos Aires Cathedralon Plaza de Mayo.
Among the first Swedes to step ashore in Argentina were
Daniel Solanderand Anders Sparrman. They were disciples of botanist Carl von Linnéand accompanied Captain Cookon his world expeditions to pick exotic flowers and record anomalies. Several other Nordic scientists were drawn to this area at the beginning of the century. Most remembered among them all is the geologist and polar explorer Otto Nordenskiöldwho, along with his crew, survived two winters in Antarcticaafter a shipwreck. The Argentine government pulled off a successful rescue expedition in 1903. Thousands of people in Buenos Aires celebrated the return of the marine officials and the Swedish scientists. Today the vessel used in the rescue, the corvette"Uruguay", is a floating museum in Dock 1 of Puerto Madero.
Gustaf de Laval
Gustaf de Lavalpatented the milk separator that separated cream from milk in 1878. When former sea captain Erik Adde started marketing the Separadora in Argentina, less than one percent of the cows were being milked. Cattle was synonymous with meat and hides and Argentina imported dairy products like butter and cheese from Denmarkand France. The Swedish inventor spurred the birth of an Argentine dairy industry and the first salted butter to be exported to Englandwas called "La Escandinava" and was produced by three Swedes. The Addes Pavilion at the La RuralFairground Exhibition in 1886 also showcased Sandvik steel, paper samples and Eskilstunaknives, and marked the kick-off for Swedish exports to Argentina. Sweden's industrial giants - Asea (ABB), Ericsson, AGA etc - were in many cases initially represented by individuals, young entrepreneurs who settled down and set up companies in Buenos Aires, Rosario, Santa Fe and Córdoba. In 1900 10% of Argentina's engineers were from Sweden.
For many people in Sweden, Argentina is both a familiar and a mythological place brought to life by the lyrics of the popular singer-songwriter
Evert Taubewho lived in the South American country for five years between 1910-1915. Contrary to widespread perceptions, Taube did not work as a gaucho(cowboy) on the Pampasbut as a foreman supervising workers who were digging canals designed to prevent flooding on the vast plains.
wedes in Argentina today
King Carl XVI Gustaf
Carl XVI Gustafhas made several private visits to Argentina in recent years. The King and Queen make visits to neighbouring Brazil, it being Queen Silvia's mother's homeland, but the visits to Argentina have been to check on large tracts of undervalued land that the King has acquired during the last few years.Interestingly his ancestor Jean Baptiste Bernadotte who became Karl XIV Johan also had an interest in Argentina. It is believed that he sent the soldier Johan Adam Graaner to Argentina in 1816 to find out what his chances were of claiming the throne of a potential Argentine monarchy. Graaner was the only foreigner present at the declaration of independence from Spain, and his questions raised a lot of suspicion.
In 1845 Sweden formally recognized Argentine sovereignty and shortly afterwards the warships "Lagerbjelke" and "Eugenie" paid a visit to the new country while also checking out trade routes on the
South American continent. They happened to arrive in Buenos Aires just in time for the rebellion against Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas. But the travel accounts written by two naval officers aboard were as much, if not more, about the beautiful "porteña" women of Buenos Aires, as they were about the dramatic political events taking place.
The Swedish Club
The Swedish Club is located in Buenos Aires. It is centrally located in the seven-story Sweden House (Tacuari 147, phone 5411 4334-7813) that also houses the Swedish
Embassyand Swedish Argentine Chamber of Commerce. In the Asociación Sueca restaurant and bar Swedish lunches are provided ( smörgåsbordon Wednesdays). Svenska Föreningen was founded in 1898 by a group of Swedish professionals. The Society had several different homes until the Swedish shipping magnate Axel Axelsson Johnsonmade a substantial donation for a building in 1920.
The Confitería is an exotic Swedish "konditori" (Santa Fe 2333 in the Martínez suburb, open every day except Monday) in Buenos Aires, a city that has some of the best cafes in the world. Here you can feast on tosca and princesstårta, as well as mazarins and Napoleon pastries but semlor have sadly disappeared from the menu. The bakery was started in 1959 by Walter Berg under the name Confitería Berg and is now owned by Lars Flinga who has lived in Argentina since 1948. Sylvia Moyano from Chile has been with the Confiteria right from the start and she also creates such international delicacies as
tiramisu, apple strudeland petit fours.
During the month of September many of Swedish descent in Argentina celebrate Immigrants day along with all of Argentina. The day celebrates Immigrants groups' culture and to be proud of Argentine roots at the same time.
* [http://www.algonet.se/~hogman/slfhh_argentina.htm "Släkt i Argentina - Söderlund"] sv icon
*http://www.clubsueco.com.ar "The Swedish Club in Argentina"
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