Congruence


Congruence

Congruence is the state achieved by coming together, the state of agreement. The Latin congruō meaning “I meet together, I agree”. As an abstract term, congruence means similarity between objects. Congruence, as opposed to equivalence or approximation, is a relation which implies a kind of equivalence, though not complete equivalence.

Contents

Mathematics

  • Congruence (geometry), being isometric — roughly, the same size and shape
  • In modular arithmetic, having the same remainder when divided by a specified integer
  • Congruence or congruence relation, in abstract algebra, an equivalence relation on an algebraic structure that is compatible with the structure
  • Congruence subgroup, a subgroup defined by congruence conditions on the entries of a matrix group with integer entries
  • Ramanujan's congruences, congruences for the partition function, p(n), first discovered by Ramanujan in 1919
  • Congruence of squares, in number theory, a congruence commonly used in integer factorization algorithms
  • Congruence (manifolds), in the theory of smooth manifolds, the set of integral curves defined by a nonvanishing vector field defined on the manifold
  • Congruence (general relativity), in general relativity, a congruence in a four-dimensional Lorentzian manifold that is interpreted physically as a model of space time, or a bundle of world lines

Psychology

in psychiatry, congruence between feeling or emotion, and affect display or the manner in which that emotion is being expressed
in psychology, consistency between a patient's symptoms and their mood or mental disorder

Other

  • Congruence bias, a type of cognitive bias, similar to confirmation bias
  • An alternative definition of congruence in the work of Virginia Satir, one of the sources of NLP, is the balance between self, other and context.
  • In cladistics, congruence is a test of homology, or shared, derived character states, in which the distributions of supposed homologies among taxa are compared for consistency.
  • Horizontal and vertical congruence, two related principles of grouping
  • In HTML, the graphical symbol for congruence ≅ is written as ⑃ (hexadecimal), ≅ (decimal) and ≅ (named entity).

See also

  • Congruence principle (disambiguation)
  • ≡ (disambiguation)

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • congruence — [ kɔ̃gryɑ̃s ] n. f. • 1771; « convenance » XVe; de congru 1 ♦ Math. Égalité de figures géométriques (dites congruentes). ⇒ énantiomorphe. Congruence de droites : famille de droites à deux paramètres. Congruence sur un ensemble E muni d une loi de …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Congruence — Con gru*ence, n. [L. congruentia: cf. OF. cornguence.] Suitableness of one thing to another; agreement; consistency. Holland. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • congruence — I noun accord, accordance, acquiescence, adjustment, affinity, agreement, coherence, coincidence, common feature, compatibility, compliance, concert, concordance, conformance, conformity, congeniality, congruity, consensus, consistency,… …   Law dictionary

  • congruence — mid 15c., from L. congruentia agreement, harmony, congruity, from congruentem (nom. congruens), prp. of congruere to come together (see CONGRUENT (Cf. congruent)). Related: Congruency …   Etymology dictionary

  • congruence — [käŋ′gro͞o əns, kän′gro͞o əns; kən gro͞o′əns] n. [ME < L congruentia: see CONGRUENT] 1. the state or quality of being in agreement; correspondence; harmony 2. Geom. the property of a plane or solid figure whereby it coincides with another… …   English World dictionary

  • Congruence — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Derrière le terme de congruence se cachent des notions semblables mais de niveaux d abstraction différents. Historiquement, la notion de congruence sur… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • congruence — n. (formal or technical) congruence with * * * [ kɒŋgrʊəns] (formal or technical) congruence with …   Combinatory dictionary

  • congruence — [[t]kɒ̱ŋgruəns[/t]] N UNCOUNT: also a N, usu N between pl n Congruence is when two things are similar or fit together well. [FORMAL] ...a necessary congruence between political, cultural and economic forces …   English dictionary

  • congruence — kongruencija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. congruence vok. Kongruenz, f rus. конгруэнция, f pranc. congruence, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • congruence — palyginimas statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. comparison; congruence; equality matching; matching vok. Gegenüberstellung, f; Kongruenz, f; Vergleich, m rus. сопоставление, n; сравнение, n pranc. comparaison, f …   Automatikos terminų žodynas


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