- Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders, or RWB ( _fr. Reporters sans frontières, _es. Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF, _de. Reporter ohne Grenzen or ROG, _it. Reporter senza frontiere, _fa. گزارشگران بدون مرز, _ar. مراسلون بلا حدود, zh-stp|s=无国界记者|t=無國界記者|p=Wú Guójiè Jìzhě| [This is the official Chinese name on the official web site: [http://www.rsf-chinese.org Official Chinese Language website of RSF] , accessed
April 4, 2008] ) is a Paris-based international non-governmental organizationthat advocates freedom of the press. It was founded in 1985 by current Secretary General Robert Ménard, Rony Brauman (then president of Doctors Without Borders) and the journalist Jean-Claude Guillebaud. [http://www.rfointernational.net/article245.html Reporters sans frontières] , "RFO", 6 November 2006 fr icon]
RWB was founded in
Montpellier, France in 1985. At first, the association was aimed at promoting alternative journalism, but before the failure of their project, the three founders stumbled on disagreements between themselves. Finally, only Robert Ménard stayed and became its Secretary General. Ménard changed the NGO's aim towards freedom of press.
Reporters Without Borders states that it draws its inspiration from Article 19 of the 1948
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, according to which everyone has "the right to freedom of opinion and expression" and also the right to "seek, receive and impart" information and ideas "regardless of frontiers." This has been re-affirmed by several charters and declarations around the world. In Europe, this right is included in the 1950 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
Reporters Without Borders is a founding member of the
International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a virtual network of non-governmental organisations that monitors free expression violations worldwide and defends journalists, writers and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to freedom of expression.
In 2005, Reporters Without Borders shared the
European Parliament's Sakharov Prizefor freedom of thought with Nigerian human rights lawyer Hauwa Ibrahimand Cuba's Ladies in Whitemovement. [European Parliament. [http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/public/focus_page/008-1530-293-10-42-901-20051017FCS01528-20-10-2005-2005/default_en.htm Ladies, Ibrahim and Reporters joint Sakharov prize winners] ]
Over the years, RWB has published several books to raise public awareness of threats to press freedom around the world. A recent publication is the "Handbook for Bloggers and Cyber-Dissidents", [ [http://www.rsf.org/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=542 Reporters sans frontières - Handbook for bloggers and cyber-dissidents ] ] which was launched in
September 2005. The handbook provides technical tips on how to bloganonymously and avoid censorship. It includes contributions from well-known blogger-journalists Dan Gillmor, Jay Rosenand Ethan Zuckerman.
Worldwide Press Freedom Index
RWB compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. Small countries, such as
Maltaand Andorra, are excluded from this report. The 2007 list was published on 16 October2007.
The report is based on a questionnaire sent to partner organisations of Reporters Without Borders (14 freedom of expression groups in five continents) and its 130 correspondents around the world, as well as to journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. [Reporters Without Borders. [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=19391 How the index was compiled] ]
The survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press. RWB is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom, and does not measure the quality of journalism. Due to the nature of the survey's methodology based on individual perceptions, there are often wide contrasts in a country's ranking from year to year.
According to RWB, its total budget is of €4,000,000, mostly financed by sale of photo-albums (of which the authors freely grant
copyright, and which are freely distributed by the " Nouvelles Messageries de la presse parisienne", NMPP ), as well as extras such as T-shirts, etc .
More than 20% of its funding comes from private groups, such as
Sanofi-Aventis(€400,000, 10% of its budget ), François Pinault, the Fondation de France, the Open Society Instituteof George Soros, the Sigrid Rausing Trust, Benetton, or the anti-Castrist Center for a Free Cuba(which gives it €64,000). [ [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=22503 reporters sans frontières : liberté de la presse, contre la censure, information libre, défense des libertés ] ] . Furthermore, Saatchi & Saatchihas realized various communication campaigns of RWB for free (for instance, concerning censorship in Algeria[ [http://www.elwatan.com/spip.php?page=article&id_article=21040 Atteintes à la liberté de la presse en Algérie] , " El Watan", 11 June 2005 fr icon ] ).
Some of its funding (19% of total) comes from
North American and European governmental organisations, among them the American National Endowment for Democracy(NED). [ [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=10594 Income and expenditure] ] [Z Magazine. [http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=45&ItemID=7851 The Reporters Without Borders Fraud] ] According to RWB president Robert Ménard, the donations from the French government account for 4,8% of RWB's budget; the total amount of governmental aid being 11% of its budget (including money from the French government, the OSCE, UNESCOand the Organisation internationale de la francophonie).
Both the NED and the Centre for a Free Cuba are funded by the US Government. However, Daniel Junqua, the vice-president of the French section of RWB (and also vice-president of the NGO "Les Amis du
Monde diplomatique"), claims that the NED's funding, which reachs an amount of €35,000 Marie-Christine Tabet, [http://www.lefigaro.fr/actualites/2008/04/21/01001-20080421ARTFIG00365-revelations-surlefinancement-de-reporters-sans-frontieres.php Révélations sur le financement de RSF] , " Le Figaro", 21 April 2008 fr icon] , does not compromise RWB's impartiality. Daniel Junqua, [http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2007/08/A/15044 Reporters sans frontières] , " Le Monde diplomatique", August 2007 fr icon ]
RSF's Chinese website credits support from
Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, [http://www.rsf-chinese.org/spip.php?article59 rsf-chinese about page, paragraph 14] a quasi-government organization funded by the ROCMinistry of Foreign Affairs. [http://www.tfd.org.tw/english/about.php?id=en0101 TFD about page, paragraph 3]
The NGO, which has 25 full-time employees, pays its director Ménard (as well as a marketing expert, formerly at
Price Waterhouse) around €5,000 per month .
Controversy and campaigns
Robert Ménard on torture
In an interview with
France Culture, whilst speaking about the case of the kidnapped journalist Daniel Pearl, RWB president Robert Ménarddiscussed the use of torture. [Jean-Noël Darde, [http://rue89.com/2007/08/26/quand-robert-menard-de-rsf-legitime-la-torture Quand Robert Ménard, de RSF, légitime la torture] , " Rue 89", 26 August 2007 fr icon] Menard told France Culture:
cquote|Where do we stop? Shall we accept this logic that consists of… since we could do it in some cases, ‘you kidnap, we kidnap; you mistreat, we mistreat; you torture, we torture …?
What justifies…? Perhaps in order to free somebody, can we go there? It is a real question.
That is real life, it is that, what François just said: we are no longer in ideas, it is war, we are no longer dealing with principles. I don’t what to think. Because this happens to Marianne Pearl, I’m not saying, I’m not saying that they made a mistake because she thought that it was appropriate to do it, that it was necessary to do that, that her husband had to be saved, she was pregnant… for the sake of the baby that was going to be born, everything was permitted.
And it was absolutely necessary to save him and if it was necessary to attack a certain number of people, they had to attack a certain number of people, physically attack them, you understand, threatening them and torturing them, even though we might have to kill some.
I don’t know, I am lost. Because sometimes I don’t know where you have to stop, where you have to put on the brakes. What is acceptable and what is unacceptable? And at the same time, for the families of those that were kidnapped, because many times they are the people we talk to first, in Reporters without Borders; legitimately, I, if my daughter were kidnapped there would be no limit, I tell you, I tell you, there would be no limit on torture. [ [http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=6837] Reporters without Borders, follows in Washington’s steps and legitimizes torture, Global Research, September 21, 2007]
Relationship with Otto Reich
Lucie Morillon, RWB's Washington representative, confirmed in an interview on 29 April 2005 that the organization has a contract with US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere,
Otto Reich, who signed it in his capacity as a trustee for the Center for a Free Cuba, to inform Europeans about the repression of journalists in Cuba. [ [http://www.counterpunch.org/barahona05172005.html Reporters Without Borders Unmasked] , Counterpunch, 17 May 2005] The Otto Reich link has been controversial: when Reich headed the Reagan administration's Office of Public Diplomacyin the 1980s, the body partook in what its officials termed “White Propaganda” – covert dissemination of information to influence domestic opinion regarding US backing for military campaigns against Left-wing governments in Latin America. [ [http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=2446 The Return of Otto Reich] , FAIR, 8 June 2001] An investigation into the Office’s activities by the US Comptroller-General found that under Otto Reich it was engaged in "prohibited, covert propaganda activities ... beyond the range of acceptable agency public information activities". [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,646835,00.html Friends of Terrorism] , The Guardian, 8 February 2002]
In 2002, Reich was appointed to the visiting board of the
Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, [ [http://www.loyno.edu/~quigley/LReview-Quigley.pdf The Case for closing the School of the Americas] , Bill Quigley, Brigham Young University, 2005] which was formerly known as the School for the Americas, and described in 2004 by the LA Weeklyas a “torture-teaching institution”. [ [http://www.laweekly.com/news/news/teaching-torture/1495/ Teaching Torture] , LA Weekly, 22 July 2004] According to Amnesty International, the School in the past has produced training manuals which advocated torture, blackmail, beatings and executions. [ [http://www.amnestyusa.org/askamnesty/torture200301_1.html Amnesty International USA's Executive Director Dr. William F. Schulz] on “Ask Amnesty”, Amnesty International USA]
Reacting to Otto Reich’s appointment to the visiting board, School of the America’s Watch said, “Reich on a board charged with monitoring the human rights integrity of an institution as notorious as this one is like the fox guarding the henhouse. His appointment to this position exposes the rubber-stamp character and hypocritical function of such a board…The underlying objective of both the school and Mr. Reich is to continue to control the economic and political systems of Latin America by training and arming Latin American militaries.” [ [http://www.soaw.org/print_article.php?id=377 School of the Americas Watch ] ]
According to critics, Reich has a “Stalinist-type contempt for press freedom”. [http://www.coha.org/NEW_PRESS_RELEASES/New_Press_Releases_2002/02.02_Otto_Reich_Appointment.htm Otto Reich About to Slip into State Department Post Via Recess Appointment] , Council on Hemispheric Affairs, 7 January 2002] In the 1980s it is alleged that he conducted sex smears against journalists critical of the Contra rebel group in Nicaragua. Reich himself has joked about his attitude to criticism - in 2002 in mock indignation he joked that opponents had "said that I can't make rational decisions because of my ideology. Well, they are not saying that anymore, because I had them all arrested this morning." [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F03E1DF1639F934A25755C0A9629C8B63 Bush Envoy Puts Latin Post, and a Stormy Past, Behind Him] , New York Times, 17 June 2004]
Under the contract signed with Reich, Reporters Without Borders received $50,000 in 2004 from the Center for Free Cuba. [ [http://www.spinwatch.org/content/view/1211/9/ Spinwatch - Reporters Without Borders Unmasked ] ]
Tensions between Cuban authorities and RWB are high, particularly after the imprisonment in 2003 of 75 dissidents (27 journalists) by the Cuban Government, including
Raúl Riveroand Oscar Elías Biscet. RWB describes the Cuban regime as "totalitarian" and engages in direct campaigning against Castro's regime. [http://www.rsf.org/print.php3?id_article=9477 Reporters Without Borders ordered to pay 6,000 euros to Korda’s heir over use of Che photo] , RSF, March 102004 ] RWB has been described as an "ultra-reactionary" organization by the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party, "Granma". [http://www.rsf.org/print.php3?id_article=9477 Reporters Without Borders ordered to pay 6,000 euros to Korda’s heir over use of Che photo] , RSF, March 10, 2004]
Lucie Morillon, RWB's Washington representative, confirmed in an interview on
29 April, 2005that the organization receives money from the Washington-based Center for a Free Cuba($50,000 in 2004), and that a contract with the US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich, requires them to inform Europeans about repression against journalists in Cuba. However, the organisation has denied that its campaigning on the issue of Cuba—in declarations on radio and television, full-page ads in Parisian dailies, posters, leafletting at airports, and an April 2003 occupation of the Cuban tourism office in Paris—were related to the payments. [ CounterPunch[http://www.counterpunch.org/barahona05172005.html Reporters Without Borders Unmasked] ] 1.3% of total funding came from this source.Reporters Without Borders [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=10594 Income and expenditure] ]
A Paris court ("tribunal de grande instance") ordered RWB to pay 6,000 Euros to the daughter and heir of
Alberto Kordafor non-compliance with a court order of 9 July2003 banning it from using Korda’s famous (and copyrighted) photograph of Ernesto "Che" Guevarain a beret, taken at the funeral of La Coubrevictims. RWB said it was "relieved" it was not given a harsher sentence. [http://www.rsf.org/print.php3?id_article=9477 Reporters Without Borders ordered to pay 6,000 euros to Korda’s heir over use of Che photo] , RSF, March 10, 2004 ] cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/misc/newsid_3500000/3500368.stm |title=RSF y la foto del "Che"| publisher= BBC|date= 2004-03-11|language=Spanish] The face had been superimposed by RSF with that of a May 1968CRS anti-riot police agent, and the postcard handed out at Orly Airportin Paris to tourists boarding on flights for Cuba. Korda's daughter declared to "Granma" that "Reporters Without Borders should call themselves Reporters Without Principles." [ Pedro de La Hoz, [http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2003/julio/vier11/menard.html Ménard trasquilado - Tribunal francés prohíbe utilización espuria de imagen del Che en campaña mediática anticubana] , "Granma", 11 July2003 es icon] Headed by Robert Ménard, RWB also burst into the Cuban Tourism Office in Paris on 4 April, 2003, obstructing the running of the office for nearly four hours. [http://www.france5.fr/cdanslair/D00063/314/ Quand Castro disparaîtra] , " France 5" fr icon] [ [http://www.crdp-strasbourg.fr/actualites/rsf/medias.htm Reporters sans frontières (2) - mobiliser médias et opinion] , presentation of RWB by its delegate in Alsace, Corinne Cumerlato fr icon] On April 24, 2003, RWB organized a demonstration outside the Cuban embassy in Parisl..l
RWB claims it has been the target of hostility from the Cuban authorities since the arrest of 75 dissidents in March 2003. Cuba’s representatives have called for the withdrawal of its consultative status with the United Nations. RWB lost its UN approved NGO status for one year in July 2003 at the request of Cuba and Libya, as a result of protests against
Libyareceiving the chairmanship of the United Nations Human Rights Committeein Geneva, during the committee's opening session. [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=7619 Reporters Without Borders suspended for one year from UN commission on human rights] , "Reporters Without Borders", 24 July 2003 en icon (URL accessed on 9 August2007) ]
Western intelligence agencies
According to an article published in the "Frontline", Reporters Without Borders is reputed for having strong ties with the intelligence agencies of the western countries. [http://www.flonnet.com/fl2507/stories/20080411250713100.htm Trouble in Tibet] "Frontline" Volume 25 - Issue 07 Mar. 29-Apr. 11, 2008] The article also stated that Cuba accused Robert Meynard, the head of RWB, of having links with the CIA. The organization has denied the allegation made by Cuba. [ [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=14352 Why we take so much interest in Cuba] ]
The online newsletter
CounterPunchcriticised RWB's reporting of press freedom in Haiti during and after Jean-Bertrand Aristide's presidency, arguing that it was biased. [ CounterPunch. [http://www.counterpunch.com/barahona08012006.html Reporters Without Borders and Washington's Coups] ]
Le Monde diplomatique" has criticized RWB's attitude towards Hugo Chávez's government in Venezuela, in particular during the 2002 coup attempt. Maurice Lemoine, [http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2002/08/LEMOINE/16804 Coups d’Etat sans frontières] , " Le Monde diplomatique", August 2002 fr icon ( [http://diplo.uol.com.br/2002-08,a399 Portuguese translation] ) ] In a right of reply, Robert Ménard declared that RWB had also condemned the support of Venezuela media to the coup attempt.
August 23, 2007, RWB condemned the continuing threats and violence against Philippineradio commentators who report on organized crime and corruption, following a death threat on RGMA Palawanstation manager Lily Uy. [ [http://www.gmanews.tv/story/57296/Intl-groups-slam-attacks-against-broadcasters GMA NEWS.TV, Int'l groups slam attacks against broadcasters] ] On December 27, 2007, RSF appealed to Gloria Macapagal-Arroyoadministration to forthwith arrest the killers of radio broadcaster Ferdinand Lintuan, 51, the 5th journalist killed in 2007 in the Philippines. As first president of the Davao Association of Sports Journalists he was murdered in Davao Cityon December 24. [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=103599 Abs-Cbn Interactive, RWB calls for immediate arrest of Lintuan killers] ]
On January 24 RWB condemned "shots that were fired at an Israeli TV reporter and a cameraman on 15 January while in a kibbutz adjoining the border with the Gaza Strip, although they were clearly identifiable as journalists." [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=25190] The television crew that came under attack filmed the incident. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UUJ3Y5jJHAM YouTube - Palestinians Shoot At News Crew ] ]
International Online Free Expression Day
Reporters Without Borders launched the first International Online Free Expression Day on March 12, 2008. [ [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=26017 Reporters Without Borders - Launch of Online Free Expression Day] ]
UNESCO, who initially had granted patronage to that event, withdrew its patronage on March 12 giving as reasons that RWB "published material concerning a number of UNESCO’s Member States, which UNESCO had not been informed of and could not endorse" and that "UNESCO’s logo was placed in such a way as to indicate the Organization’s support of the information presented." [ [http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=26215&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html UNESCO Statement on the withdrawal of patronage of the International day for freedom of expression on the internet] ] [ [http://mathaba.net/news/?x=585297 UNESCO withdraw patronage to Reporters Without Border] ]
Worldwide Press Freedom Index Ranking
List of indices of freedom
OSCE countries statistics
Committee to Protect Journalists
* [http://www.rsf.org/ Reporters Without Borders]
* Reporters Without Borders. [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=4116 Worldwide press freedom index 2002] .
* Reporters Without Borders. [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=8247 Worldwide press freedom index 2003] .
* Reporters Without Borders. [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=11715 Worldwide press freedom index 2004] .
* Reporters Without Borders. [http://www.rsf.org/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=554 Worldwide press freedom index 2005] ;
* Reporters Without Borders. [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=19388 Worldwide press freedom index 2006] .
* Reporters Without Borders. [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=24025 Worldwide press freedom index 2007] .
* [http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?id=1312 RSF Press Freedom Index: Independent Assessment or EU Propaganda?, John Rosenthal, Nov 6, 2007]
* [http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2002/08/LEMOINE/16804 Coups d’Etat sans frontières, Le Monde, August 2002]
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