- Prickle (protein)
The first prickle
proteinwas identified in " Drosophila" as a planar cell polarity protein. Vertebrate prickle-1 was first found as a ratprotein that binds to a transcription factor, neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF). It was then recognized that other vertebrates including mice and humans have two genes that are related to "Drosophila" prickle [M. Katoh and M. Katoh (2003) "Identification and characterization of human PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 genes as well as mouse Prickle1 and Prickle2 genes homologous to Drosophila tissue polarity gene prickle" in "International Journal of Molecular Medicine" Volume 11, pages 249-256. Entrez Pubmed|12525887] . Mouse prickle-2 was found to be expressed in mature neurons of the brainalong with mouse homologs of "Drosophila" planar polarity genes flamingo and dischevelled [F. Tissir and A. Goffinet (2006) "Expression of planar cell polarity genes during development of the mouse CNS" in "The European Journal of Neuroscience" Volume 23, pages 597-607. Entrez Pubmed|16487141] . Prickle is recruited to the cell surface membrane by strabismus, another planar cell polarity proteinR. Bastock, H. Strutt and D. Strutt (2003) "Strabismus is asymmetrically localised and binds to Prickle and Dishevelled during Drosophila planar polarity patterning" in "Development" Volume 130, pages 3007-3014. Entrez Pubmed|12756182] . In the developing "Drosophila" wing, prickle becomes concentrated at the proximal side of cells. Prickle can compete with the ankyrin-repeat protein Diego for a binding site on Dishevelled [A. Jenny, J. Reynolds-Kenneally, G. Das, M. Burnett and M. Mlodzik (2005) "Diego and Prickle regulate Frizzled planar cell polarity signalling by competing for Dishevelled binding" in "Nature Cell Biology" Volume 7, pages 691-697. Entrez Pubmed|15937478] .
In "Drosophila", prickle is present inside cells in multiple forms due to alternative splicing of the prickle mRNADavid Gubb, Clare Green, David Huen, Darin Coulson, Glynnis Johnson, David Tree, Simon Collier and John Roote (1999) "The balance between isoforms of the prickle LIM domain protein is critical for planar polarity in Drosophila imaginal discs" in "Genes in Development" Volume 13, pages 2315-2327. Entrez Pubmed|10485852] . The relative levels of the alternate forms may be regulated and involved in the normal control of planar cell polarity.
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