- Universal algebra
Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of
mathematicsthat studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures.For instance, rather than take particular groups as the object of study, in universal algebra one takes "the theory of groups" as an object of study.
From the point of view of universal algebra, an algebra (or algebraic structure) is a set "A" together with a collection of operations on "A". An "n"-ary operation on "A" is a function that takes "n" elements of "A" and returns a single element of "A". Thus, a 0-ary operation (or "nullary operation") can be represented simply as an element of "A", or a "
constant", often denoted by a letter like "a". A 1-ary operation (or " unary operation") is simply a function from "A" to "A", often denoted by a symbol placed in front of its argument, like ~"x". A 2-ary operation (or " binary operation") is often denoted by a symbol placed between its arguments, like "x" * "y". Operations of higher or unspecified arity are usually denoted by function symbols, with the arguments placed in parentheses and separated by commas, like "f"("x","y","z") or "f"("x"1,...,"x""n"). Some researchers allow infinitaryoperations, such as where "J" is an infinite index set, thus leading into the algebraic theory of complete lattices. One way of talking about an algebra, then, is by referring to it as an algebra of a certain type , where is an ordered sequence of natural numbers representing the arity of the operations of the algebra.
After the operations have been specified, the nature of the algebra can be further limited by
axioms, which in universal algebra often take the form of identities, or equational laws. An example is the associativeaxiom for a binary operation, which is given by the equation "x" * ("y" * "z") = ("x" * "y") * "z". The axiom is intended to hold for all elements "x", "y", and "z" of the set "A".
An algebraic structure which can be defined by identities is called a variety, and these are sufficiently important that some authors consider varieties the only object of study in universal algebra, while others consider them an object.Fact|date=July 2008
Restricting one's study to varieties rules out:
Predicate logic, notably quantification, including existential quantification() and universal quantification()
* Relations, including inequalities, both and order relations
In this narrower definition, universal algebra can be seen as a special branch of
model theory, in which we are typically dealing with structures having operations only (i.e. the type can have symbols for functions but not for relations other than equality), and in which the language used to talk about these structures uses equations only.
algebraic structures in a wider sense fall into this scope. For example ordered groups are not studied in mainstream universal algebra because they involve a binary relation.
A more fundamental restriction is that universal algebra cannot study the class of fields, because there is no type in which all field laws can be written as equations.
One advantage of this restriction is that the structures studied in universal algebra can be defined in any category which has "finite products". For example, a
topological groupis just a group in the category of topological spaces.
Most of the usual algebraic systems of mathematics are examples of varieties, but not always in an obvious way – the usual definitions often involve quantification or inequalities.
To see how this works, let's consider the definition of a group. Normally a group is defined in terms of a single binary operation *, subject to these axioms:
* Associativity (as in the previous section): "x" * ("y" * "z") = ("x" * "y") * "z".
Identity element: There exists an element "e" such that "e" * "x" = "x" = "x" * "e".
Inverse element: For each "x", there exists an element "i" such that "x" * "i" = "e" = "i" * "x".(Sometimes you will also see an axiom called "closure", stating that "x" * "y" belongs to the set "A" whenever "x" and "y" do. But from a universal algebraist's point of view, that is already implied when you call * a binary operation.)
Now, this definition of a group is problematic from the point of view of universal algebra. The reason is that the axioms of the identity element and inversion are not stated purely in terms of equational laws but also have clauses involving the phrase "there exists ... such that ...". This is inconvenient; the list of group properties can be simplified to universally quantified equations if we add a nullary operation "e" and a unary operation ~ in addition to the binary operation *, then list the axioms for these three operations as follows:
* Associativity: "x" * ("y" * "z") = ("x" * "y") * "z".
* Identity element: "e" * "x" = "x" = "x" * "e".
* Inverse element: "x" * (~"x") = "e" = (~"x") * "x".(Of course, we usually write "x "-1" instead of "~"x", which shows that the notation for operations of low
arityis not "always" as given in the second paragraph.)
What has changed is that in the usual definition there are:
* a single binary operation (signature (2))
* 1 equational law (associativity)
* 2 quantified laws (identity and inverse)...while in the universal algebra definition there are
* 3 operations: one binary, one unary, and one nullary (signature (2,1,0))
* 3 equational laws (associativity, identity, and inverse)
* no quantified laws
It's important to check that this really does capture the definition of a group. The reason that it might not is that specifying one of these universal groups might give more information than specifying one of the usual kind of group. After all, nothing in the usual definition said that the identity element "e" was "unique"; if there is another identity element "e"', then it's ambiguous which one should be the value of the nullary operator "e". However, this is not a problem, because
identity elements can be proved to be always unique. The same thing is true of inverse elements. So the universal algebraist's definition of a group really is equivalent to the usual definition.
We assume that the type, , has been fixed. Then there are three basic constructions in universal algebra: homomorphic image, subalgebra, and product.
homomorphismbetween two algebras "A" and "B" is a function "h": "A" → "B" from the set A to the set B such that, for every operation "f" (of arity, say, "n"), "h"("f""A"("x"1,...,"x""n")) = "f""B"("h"("x"1),...,"h"("x""n")). (Here, subscripts are placed on "f" to indicate whether it is the version of "f" in "A" or "B". In theory, you could tell this from the context, so these subscripts are usually left off.) For example, if "e" is a constant (nullary operation), then "h"("e""A") = "e""B". If ~ is a unary operation, then "h"(~"x") = ~"h"("x"). If * is a binary operation, then "h"("x" * "y") = "h"("x") * "h"("y"). And so on. A few of the things that can be done with homomorphisms, as well as definitions of certain special kinds of homomorphisms, are listed under the entry Homomorphism. In particular, we can take the homomorphic image of an algebra, "h"("A").
A subalgebra of "A" is a subset of "A" that is closed under all the operations of "A". A product of some set of algebraic structures is the
cartesian productof the sets with the operations defined coordinatewise.
Some basic theorems
Isomorphism theorems, which encompass the isomorphism theorems of groups, rings, modules, etc.
* Birkhoff's HSP Theorem, which states that a class of algebras is a variety if and only if it is closed under homomorphic images, subalgebras, and arbitrary direct products.
Motivations and applications
In addition to its unifying approach, universal algebra also gives deep theorems and important examples and counterexamples. It provides a useful framework for those who intend to start the study of new classes of algebras.It can enable the use of methods invented for some particular classes of algebras to other classes of algebras, by recasting the methods in terms of universal algebra (if possible), and then interpreting these as applied to other classes. It has also provided conceptual clarification; as J.D.H. Smith puts it, "What looks messy and complicated in a particular framework may turn out to be simple and obvious in the proper general one."
In particular, universal algebra can be applied to the study of
monoids, rings, and lattices. Before universal algebra came along, many theorems (most notably the isomorphism theorems) were proved separately in all of these fields, but with universal algebra, they can be proven once and for all for every kind of algebraic system.
Category theory and operads
A more generalised programme along these lines is carried out by
category theory. Given a list of operations and axioms in universal algebra, the corresponding algebras and homomorphisms are the objects and morphisms of a category. Category theory applies to many situations where universal algebra does not, extending the reach of the theorems. Conversely, many theorems that hold in universal algebra do not generalise all the way to category theory. Thus both fields of study are useful.
A more recent development in category theory that generalizes operations is
operad theory– an operad is a set of operations, similar to a universal algebra.
Alfred North Whitehead's book "A Treatise on Universal Algebra," published in 1898, the term "universal algebra" had essentially the same meaning that it has today. Whitehead credits William Rowan Hamiltonand Augustus De Morganas originators of the subject matter, and James Joseph Sylvesterwith coining the term itself [Grätzer, George. Universal Algebra, Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1968, p. "v".] .
At the time structures such as
Lie algebras and hyperbolic quaternions drew attention to the need to expand algebraic structures beyond the associatively multiplicative class. In a review Alexander MacFarlane wrote: "The main idea of the work is not unification of the several methods, nor generalization of ordinary algebra so as to include them, but rather the comparative study of their several structures." At the time George Boole's algebra of logic made a strong counterpoint to ordinary number algebra, so the term "universal" served to calm strained sensibilities.
Whitehead's early work sought to unify
quaternions(due to Hamilton), Grassmann's Ausdehnungslehre, and Boole's algebra of logic. Whitehead wrote in his book::"Such algebras have an intrinsic value for separate detailed study; also they are worthy of comparative study, for the sake of the light thereby thrown on the general theory of symbolic reasoning, and on algebraic symbolism in particular. The comparative study necessarily presupposes some previous separate study, comparison being impossible without knowledge." [Quoted in Grätzer, "op. cit."]
Whitehead, however, had no results of a general nature. Work on the subject was minimal until the early 1930s, when
Garrett Birkhoffand Øystein Orebegan publishing on universal algebras. Developments in metamathematicsand category theoryin the 1940s and 1950s furthered the field, particularly the work of Abraham Robinson, Alfred Tarski, Andrzej Mostowski, and their students (Brainerd 1967).
In the period between 1935 and 1950, most papers were written along the lines suggested by Birkhoff's papers, dealing with free algebras, congruence and subalgebra lattices, and homomorphism theorems. Although the development of mathematical logic had made applications to algebra possible, they came about slowly; results published by
Anatoly Maltsevin the 1940s went unnoticed because of the war. Tarski's lecture at the 1950 International Congress of Mathematiciansin Cambridge ushered in a new period in which model-theoretic aspects were developed, mainly by Tarski himself, as well as C.C. Chang, Leon Henkin, Bjarni Jónsson, R. C. Lyndon, and others.
In the late 1950s, E. Marczewski [Marczewski, E. "A general scheme of the notions of independence in mathematics." Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci. Ser. Sci. Math. Astronom. Phys. 6 (1958), 731-736.] emphasized the importance of free algebras, leading to the publication of more than 50 papers on the algebraic theory of free algebras by Marczewski himself, together with J. Mycielski, W. Narkiewicz, W. Nitka, J. Płonka, S. Świerczkowski, K. Urbanik, and others.
Universal algebraic geometry
* Bergman, George M., 1998. " [http://math.berkeley.edu/~gbergman/245/ An Invitation to General Algebra and Universal Constructions] " (pub. Henry Helson, 15 the Crescent, Berkeley CA, 94708) 398 pp. ISBN 0-9655211-4-1.
* Brainerd, Barron, Aug-Sep 1967. Review of "Universal Algebra" by
P. M. Cohn. " American Mathematical Monthly", 74(7): 878-880.
* Burris, Stanley N., and H.P. Sankappanavar, 1981. " [http://www.thoralf.uwaterloo.ca/htdocs/ualg.html A Course in Universal Algebra] " Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-90578-2 "Free online edition".
* Cohn, Paul Moritz, 1981. "Universal Algebra". Dordrecht , Netherlands: D.Reidel Publishing. ISBN 90-277-1213-1 "(First published in 1965 by Harper & Row)"
* Freese, Ralph, and Ralph McKenzie, 1987. " [http://www.math.hawaii.edu/~ralph/Commutator Commutator Theory for Congruence Modular Varieties] , 1st ed. London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, 125. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-34832-3. Free online second edition".
* Grätzer, George, 1968. "Universal Algebra" D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.
* Hobby, David, and Ralph McKenzie, 1988. " [http://www.ams.org/online_bks/conm76 The Structure of Finite Algebras] " American Mathematical Society. ISBN 0-8218-3400-2. "Free online edition."
* Jipsen, Peter, and Henry Rose, 1992. " [http://www1.chapman.edu/~jipsen/JipsenRoseVoL.html Varieties of Lattices] ", Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1533. Springer Verlag. ISBN 0-387-56314-8. "Free online edition".
* Pigozzi, Don. [http://bigcheese.math.sc.edu/~mcnulty/alglatvar/pigozzinotes.pdf "General Theory of Algebras"] .
* Smith, J.D.H., 1976. "Mal'cev Varieties", Springer-Verlag.
* Whitehead, Alfred North, 1898. " [http://historical.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/cul.math/docviewer?did=01950001&seq=5 A Treatise on Universal Algebra] ", Cambridge. ("Mainly of historical interest.")
* [http://ca.geocities.com/macfarlanebio/utilualg.html Utility of Universal Algebra] —comments on MacFarlane's 1899 review of Whitehead's "Universal Algebra".
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