- Joseph Standing
Joseph Standing Standing [For Joseph Standing’s middle name also being Standing see, Alice Standing (ed), "History of James Standing and Mary Standing Standing and Family", (Provo, Utah: Stevenson's Genealogy Centre, 1992) p. 54.] (
October 5, 1854– July 21, 1879) was a missionary for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saintswho was killed by a mob near the town of Varnell, Whitfield County, Georgiain 1879. [The site of the murder is located convert|13.9|mi|km north of Dalton, Georgia and convert|26.8|mi|km southeast of Chattanooga, Tennessee on [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=Standing+Road,+Varnell,+Georgia+30756&sll=37.0625,-95.677068&sspn=58.209122,103.359375&ie=UTF8&ll=34.92183,-85.004654&spn=0.029839,0.050468&z=14&om=1 Standing Road, Varnell, Georgia 30756.] ]
A native of
Salt Lake City, Utah Territoryand resident of Box Elder County, Standing was born to British immigrants, James and Mary Standing. [Records available at [http://www.familysearch.org/ familysearch.org] indicated that Mary Standing’s maiden name was also Standing.] He was one of ten children. His father was a stone mason who worked on the Nauvoo and Logan Temples. [ [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Search/Census/household_record.asp?HOUSEHOLD_CODE=1880US_4230054&HOUSEHOLD_SUB=1&frompage=99 1880 United States Census June 14, 1880 Deweyville, Box Elder, Utah Page 95D] ; see the previous household record for [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Search/Census/household_record.asp?HOUSEHOLD_CODE=1880US_4230053&frompage=99 John Standing] , possibly Joseph’s older brother; also James Standing obituary, “James Standing-” " Deseret Evening News", January 19, 1886; [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/deseretnews4&CISOPTR=0&CISOSHOW=73&REC=1 Death of James Standing, "Deseret News", January 20, 1886] , and “Mother of Elder Joseph Standing Called Home by Death” "Deseret Evening News", May 4, 1894. "Further Particulars Regarding Her Last Illness" "Deseret Evening News", May 5, 1894, reports that Mary “was the mother of ten children, seven of whom are still living.”] Prior to his missionary service, Standing was a fireman with the Wasatch Engine Company. [ [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/deseretnews6&CISOPTR=12202&CISOSHOW=12264&REC=16 “The Firemen’s Tribute”, "Deseret News", August 08, 1879.] ] He was not married and had no children.
Standing's first mission call, in 1875, was to the Eastern
United Stateswhere he primarily served in Illinoisand Indiana. In March 1878 he was again called to missionary service, this time to the church’s Southern States Mission, headquartered in Chattanooga, Tennessee. During an August mission conference in Haywood Valley, Chattooga County, Georgia, Standing, along with fellow missionary Matthias F. Cowley, were sustained as the ‘traveling Elders’ of the Southern States Mission. [ [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/deseretnews3&CISOPTR=2218780&CISOSHOW=2218811&REC=5 "Southern States Conference," Editorial Notes, "Deseret News", September 11, 1878 p. 7] ]
By April 1879 Standing was the presiding Elder of the Georgia Conference, responsible for overseeing all church affairs in the state. That same month, at a general conference of the church in Salt Lake City, 22-year-old
Rudger Clawsonwas called with seven other men to serve in the Southern States Mission. Clawson was assigned by mission presidentJohn Morgan to be Standing’s companion. [Richardson, Arthur M. "The Life and Ministry of John Morgan," 1965., p. 225.]
Clawson may have been aware of the church’s situation in Georgia prior to his arrival. By at least 1876, Standing’s letters were periodically published in the "Deseret Evening News". One published on
April 30, 1878provides insight into his experiences in the post-Reconstruction South;
"A person traveling among the Southern people realizes that though they have been whipped by the North, yet there is a feeling of enmity existing in their bosoms, which only needs a little breeze to inflame their passions to deeds of carnage and strife." [Standing, Joseph "The Work in the South, Haywood Valley Georgia", "Deseret Evening News", April 30, 1878. For additional letters see [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/deseretnews3&CISOPTR=2230491&CISOSHOW=2230568&REC=1| “Last Letter from Elder Joseph Standing", "Deseret News", August 13, 1879.] ]
Local opposition to
Mormonismincreased as Standing and other elders increasingly gained converts in rural areas in North Georgia. Mormons missionaries were seen by some as spiritual carpetbaggers, deceivers who preyed on the poor and uneducated. [“In Brigham’s Bosom,” " The Atlanta Constitution", August 7, 1879.] The majority of those who were baptized into the faith followed the church’s council to “gather with the Saints” and left their homes for Mormon settlements in Utah and Colorado.
Joseph Brown, former Georgia Governor (1857-1865) and future
U.S. Senator(1880-1991), told the " New York Herald";
"In traveling through the section about Dalton, embracing particularly the lower part of Chatooga, the upper part of Floyd and Walker, Catoosa and Murray counties, I was astonished to find what a hold the Mormons have on various communities. In each of these counties they have staunch believers and in most of them small congregations. Elders canvas through these counties continually and preach regularly. Every few months they send off bunches of converts for Utah. One of the strangest features of the whole matter is that no one can explain why the Mormon elders have chosen this section for their field of operations. They can be heard of no where in Georgia,
Alabamaor the Carolinasoutside of this mountainous area, covering a dozen or so counties. It may be because these counties are off the railroad, comparatively inaccessible and inhabited in certain localities by uneducated people.” [ Quoted in [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/slt4&CISOPTR=13868&CISOSHOW=13890&REC=13 “More of Granny’s Lies”, "Salt Lake Tribune", August 16, 1879, p. 2] ]
As the threat of violence toward Mormons increased, Standing sent a letter to Georgia Governor
Alfred H. Colquitton June 12, 1879 briefly outlining the activities of armed mobs in Whitfield County and requesting assistance.
“I am fully aware dear Sir, that the popular prejudice is very much against the Mormons, and that there are minor officers who have apparently winked at the condition of affairs above referred to. But I also am aware that the laws of Georgia are strictly opposed to all lawlessness and extend to her citizens the right of Worshipping God according the dictates of conscience. . . A word or line from the Governor would undoubtedly have the desired effect. Ministers of the Gospel could then travel without fear of being stoned or shot and the houses of the Saints would not be entered into in defiance of all good law and order.” [Richardson, Arthur M. "The Life and Ministry of John Morgan," 1965, p. 226.]
Through his secretary J. W. Warren, Governor Colquitt replied;
“The Governor directs me to say that your statement is entirely correct. . . Under the provisions of our Sate Constitution, the reformation of religious faith, or of opinion on any subject, cannot legitimately be the object of legislation, and no human authority can interfere with the right to worship God according to the requirements of conscience. So long as the conduct of men shall conform to the law, they cannot be molested, and, even for non-conformity thereto, they cannot be interfered with only as the law may direct. . . The Governor regrets to hear the report you give from Whitfield County. He will instruct the State Prosecuting Attorney for the District to inquire into the matter, and if the report be true, to prosecute the offenders.” [ Richardson, Arthur M. "The Life and Ministry of John Morgan," 1965, p. 227.]
Mobbing and death
On Sunday morning
July 21, 1879 Standing and Clawson were leaving Varnell for Rome, Georgia(approximately convert|57|mi|km south of Varnell) when they were accosted by an armed mob of a dozenmen. Most were on foot; at least three were on horseback. When Standing asked by what authority they were stopped on a public road, one member of the mob reportedly told them;
“The government of the United States is against you, and there is no law in Georgia for Mormons.” [Nicholson, John. "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing or the Murder of a “Mormon” missionary a true story also an appendix giving a succinct description of the Utah Penitentiary written in Prison by John Nicholson “a convict for conscience sake”", The Deseret News Company, 1886, p. 21; hereafter cited as Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing". ]
The mob led them into woods and stopped at a spring. It does not appear that it was the intention of all in the mob to kill them. James Faucett told them; “I want you men to understand that I am the captain of this party, and that if we ever again find you in this part of the country we will hang you by the neck like dogs.” [ Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 22.] According to Clawson, after an hour of “desultory conversation… of which the vilest accusations were laid against the “Mormons,” [and] the beastly talk of the mobbers,” three men who had left on horseback returned and directed Standing and Clawson to go with them. [ Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 26.]
Although it is not clear where they intended to take them, all accounts agree that Standing resisted by turning towards the mob and in a loud voice commanded them to “Surrender.” [ Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 27.] When he made this declaration he was holding a
pistola member of the mob had left unguarded on a near by tree stump. [ [http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/MStar&CISOPTR=38980&filename=38981.pdf ”The Murder of Elder Joseph Standing.”] " Millennial Star", August 25, 1879.] In response, Standing was immediately shot in forehead “directly above the nose”. [ Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 29.] Another member of the mob then pointed to Clawson and said “Shoot that man.” Clawson folded his arms and said “Shoot.” All though he appeared calm and maintained composure, he nearly passed out in the anxietyof the moment. For reasons unknown, the same man who moments ago told the mob to shoot Clawson now said “Don’t shoot.” [Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 28-29.] As Clawson examined Standing, one man said; “This is terrible; that he should have killed himself in such a manner,” [Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 30.] claiming that Standing accidentally shot himself “while bringing his weapon into position.” [ [http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/MStar&CISOPTR=38980&filename=38981.pdf ”The Murder of Elder Joseph Standing.”] " Millennial Star", August 25, 1879.]
Clawson convinced the group that he should leave for help to remove Standing’s body. He contacted Henry Holston, two miles (3 km) away, and Holston agreed to go to the site of the incident and look after Standing’s body while Clawson road a horse to Catoosa Springs to contact the
coroner(approximately convert|8|mi|km from Holston’s home). [Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing" p. 31.] Before returning with the coroner, Clawson sent the following telegramto Governor Colquitt in Atlanta; “Joseph Standing was shot and killed to-day, near Varnell’s, by a mob of ten or twelve men.” [ Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 37.] He sent the same message to John Hamilton Morganin Salt Lake City with the additional line; “Will leave for home with the body at once, Notify his family.” [ Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 38.]
When they reached the spring, the mob had dispersed and a crowd of spectators were gathered around Standing’s body. The body now had more than 20 bullet wounds in the face and neck. [Driggs, Ken “There is no law in Georgia for Mormons’: The Joseph Standing Murder Case of 1879.” "The Georgia Historical Quarterly", winter 1989, number 4, p.769.] It is believed this was done by the mob to protect the original shooter from conviction by having each man participate in the crime. [ Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing" p. 43 - 44.] Following the shooting the "Atlanta Constitution" called Standing “fat and beardless, and with not a very bright look, judging from his picture” and reported that those in the community became “alarmed for fear some member of their family might fall a victim to the seductive arguments and pleadings of the young Mormon [s] … [their] services were regularly attended by those who every week became more and more inoculated with the pernicious creed.” [“In Brigham’s Bosom,” "The Atlanta Constitution",
August 7, 1879.] In spite of this perception Clawson told a reporter he believed the actions of the mob were not in harmony with the sentiments of the general population. [“In Brigham’s Bosom,” "The Atlanta Constitution", August 7, 1879.]
Clawson accompanied Standing’s body back to Utah by train and funeral services were held in the
Salt Lake Tabernacleon Sunday, August 3, 1879. Speakers included, John Taylor and George Q. Cannon. Approximately 10,000 attended the service. [ [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/deseretnews3&CISOPTR=2230413&CISOSHOW=2230479&REC=17 “The Funeral Services of Elder Joseph Standing”, " Deseret News", August 6, 1879] reported 10,000. “In Brigham’s Bosom”, "The Atlanta Constitution", August 7, 1879, reported 5,000. In 1879 seating capacity in the Tabernacle was 12,000.] Transcripts of Taylor and Cannon’s remarks were published in the "Deseret News" and later in the multi-volume " Journal of Discourses". [ [http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9614&REC=1. Slain for the Testimony of Jesus--Funeral Rites of Joseph Standing Discourse by President John Taylor Aug 3, 1879 "Journal of Discourses", p. 252 -255.] ; also See "Deseret News", August 13, 1879.]
August 1, 1879, eleven days after the shooting, Governor Colquitt offered a $500.00 reward for “the capture of the murders of the Mormon elder” accompanying the thirteen warrants for arrest issued by the local Sheriff. [”Standing’s Assassins $500 Reward for their Capture”, "Salt Lake Herald", August 9, 1879.] Andrew Bradley, Jasper P. Nations, and Hugh Blair were indicted by a grand juryfor first degree murderand riot. [Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 62.]
Accompanied by John Morgan, Clawson returned to Dalton, Georgia for the trial in October. Henry Holston, Mary Hamlin, and Jonathan Owensby testified in behalf of the prosecution. The latter two interacted with the mob while Standing and Clawson were in the mob’s custody prior to the shooting. [Nicholson, "The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing", p. 22-23, 24-25, 70-71.] On October 19, three days after the trial began, the accused were
acquittedof murder. [ [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/deseretnews3&CISOPTR=2231231&CISOSHOW=2231273&REC=16 "Participating in the Crime," "Deseret News", October 22, 1879 p.8.] ] On October 29 the "Deseret News" reported that the accused had also been acquitted of “riot.” [ [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/deseretnews3&CISOPTR=2231363&CISOSHOW=2231402&REC=18 "Murderers Encouraged," Deseret News, October 29, 1879 p.8.] ]
The "Atlanta Constitution" reported that seven of the twelve men were
Christians and at least one a member in good standing in a local church. John Morgan wrote to the paper; “If these men are Christians; if they and their advisers and abettors are to be admitted into the city that “lieth four square," we beg the privilege of locating in the other place, as we think it much preferable." The paper replied;
“We agree with Elder Morgan in his sentiments about the pious "Christians," recognized members and communicants of churches who imbrue their hands in the blood of innocence and mutilate the dead. If heaven is to be their place of abode in the great hereafter region, we shall prefer a home in another region, where murders cannot enter and hypocrites find no rest." [ [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/deseretnews6&CISOPTR=17229&CISOSHOW=17267&REC=20 "Comments from Georgia," "Deseret News",
November 5, 1879 p. 8.] ]
The story of Standing’s murder lived on in the life of Rudger Clawson. In 1898, Clawson was appointed to the church’s Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, the second highest ecclesiastical body in the church, a position he held until his death in 1943. Clawson’s high profile life in Utah, and among Mormons generally, gave opportunity for commentators to look to the events in his life that may have shaped his faith in God and commitment to the church. He was regularly asked to tell the story of Standing’s death, and references were made to the event by church leaders in conferences of the church for decades. The story of Rudger Clawson can not be separated from the story of Joseph Standing. [ Nicholson, The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing; also [http://www.lds.org/portal/site/LDSOrg/menuitem.b12f9d18fae655bb69095bd3e44916a0/?vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=f6573ff73058b010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____&hideNav=1 Jeffrey R. Holland, “Our Priesthood Legacy,” "Ensign", May 1995, 38.] ]
Standing's death also reminded some Latter-day Saints of the murder of
Joseph Smith, Jr.and his brother Hyrum by a mob in 1844.
In 1880, the
Young Men’s Mutual Improvement Associationof Salt Lake City placed a monument of Italian marble over Standing’s grave. By the 1980s the obeliskhad cracked in half and rested beside the grave. It was replaced in 2001 with a new marker, a replica of the original, including iron fencing around the base. [ [http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/viewer.exe?CISOROOT=/RelEd&CISOPTR=4791&CISORESTMP=/site-templates/search_results.html&CISOVIEWTMP=/site-templates/item_viewer.html&CISOMODE=grid&CISOGRID=thumbnail,A,1;title,A,1;subjec,A,0;0,200,0;0,A,0;10&CISOBIB=title,A,1,N;subjec,A,0,N;filena,K,0,N;0,A,0,N;0,A,0,N;10&CISOTHUMB=2,5&CISOTITLE=10 Joseph Standing grave, Online Collections at BYU] , see also “The Standing Monument” "Deseret News", July 30, 1880.] The text on the south side of the monument was written by Orson F. Whitney. [ [http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/ogden1&CISOPTR=3434&REC=13&CISOSHOW=3479 “A Martyr's Monument”, "Ogden Standard Examiner", August 4, 1880. p. 3.] ]
right|thumb|175px|Grave marker of Joseph Standing. Salt Lake City, Utah.
:Joseph Standing Son of James and Mary Standing. Born Oct. 5, 1854 in Salt Lake City U.T. (Utah Territory) Erected by the M.I.A. of Salt Lake Stake 1880
:Beneath this stone, by friendship's hand is lain:The martyred form of one, untimely slain;:A servant of the Lord, whose works revealed:The love of Truth for which his doom was sealed.
:where foes beset-when but a single friend:stood true, nor shunned his comrade's cruel end:Deep in the shades of ill-starred Georgia's wood,:Fair freedom's soil was crimsoned with his blood.
:Our brother rests beneath his native sod,:His murderers are in the hands of God.:Weep, weep for them, not him whose silent dust:Here waits the resurrection of the just.
:MARTYRED:For the testimony of Jesus, while with Elder Rudger Clawson, through whose heroism the body was afterwards rescued, July 21st, 1879, Varnell Station Whitfield Co. Ga. by a [sic] armed mob of twelve men named David D. Nation, Jasper N. Nation, A.S. Smith, Daniel Smith, Bedj. Clark, W.M. Nation, Andrew Bradley, Jon Forssett, Hugh Blair, Jos Nations, Jefferson Hunter, Mark McClure
:HIS MURDERERS:were indicted and two of them tried, the first upon a charge of murder and the other for riot. Through bigotry and prejudice, both were acquitted. Evidence of guilt was not lacking, but the assassins boasted, "There is no law in Georgia for the Mormons."
Joseph Standing monument
In May 1952 a monument was dedicated on the site of Standing’s murder in Whitfield County, Georgia by church president
David O. McKay. [Driggs, Ken “There is no law in Georgia for Mormons”: The Joseph Standing Murder Case of 1879. "The Georgia Historical Quarterly", winter 1989, number 4, p. 772.] The convert|0.68|acre|m2|sing=on lot was donated to the church by W. C. Puryear and the road leading the monument was named Standing Road. [ [http://www.whitfieldcountyga.com/freeance/Client/PublicAccess1/index.html?appconfig=2&cmd=zoomTo&themename=21&fieldname=PARCEL_FUL&fieldvalue=11-175-02-000 Whitfield County Parcel Number, 11-175-02-000.] ] The property is maintained by the church and open to the public.
right|thumb|300px| Joseph Standing Monument. Varnell, Georgia.
“This Memorial Park and monument honor the memory of Elder Joseph Standing of Salt Lake City, Utah, a missionary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (Mormon) who was killed here by a mob July 21, 1879. His companion, Elder Rudger Clawson who later became president of the Council of the Twelve Apostles of the Church was unharmed. The cooperation of W. C. Puryear and family who donated the land and were most helpful in other ways, made this memorial possible.”
One of the dormitories at the church’s
Missionary Training Centerin Provo, Utahis named in honor of Joseph Standing.
In May 1978, a Latter-day Saint congregation was organized in
Dalton, Georgia, convert|12|mi|km south of Varnell. [In May 2007, a second Latter-day Saint congregation was organized in Dalton, Georgia for Spanish speakers.]
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