- Voiced dental plosive
Voiced dental plosive d̪ Image IPA number 104 408 Encoding Entity (decimal)
Unicode (hex) U+0064 U+032A X-SAMPA
The voiced dental plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is d̪. This is the symbol for the voiced alveolar plosive with the "bridge below" diacritic meaning dental.
Features of the voiced dental plosive:
- Its manner of articulation is stop, or plosive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)
- Its place of articulation is dental which means it is articulated with the tongue at either the upper or lower teeth, or both. (Most stops and liquids described as dental are actually denti-alveolar.)
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
True dental consonants are relatively uncommon. In the Romance languages, /d/ is often called dental. However, the rearmost contact (which is what gives a consonant its distinctive sound) is actually alveolar, or perhaps denti-alveolar. The difference between the /d/ sounds of the Romance languages and English is not so much where the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth as which part of the tongue makes the contact. In English, it is the tip of the tongue (such sounds are termed apical), whereas in a number of Romance languages, it is usually the blade of the tongue just behind the tip (such sounds are called laminal). Indian languages like Hindi and Bengali have true apical voiced dental plosives and contrast aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes Arabic Standard دين [ˈd̪iːn] 'religion' Or alveolar [d]. See Arabic phonology Basque diru [d̪iɾu] 'money' Bengali দাম [d̪am] 'price' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Bengali phonology Catalan dit [ˈd̪it̪] 'finger' See Catalan phonology Dinka dhek [d̪ek] 'distinct' Contrasts with alveolar /d/ English Irish that [d̪æt] 'that' Corresponds to /ð/ in other dialects. See English phonology Georgian კუდი [ˈkud̪i] 'tail' Hindi दाल [d̪ɑːl] 'lentils' Hindi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology Irish dorcha [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə] 'dark' See Irish phonology Italian dare [ˈd̪are] 'to give' See Italian phonology Pashto ﺪﻮﻩ [ˈd̪wɑ] 'two' Polish dom [d̪ɔm] (help·info) 'home' See Polish phonology Portuguese dar [d̪aɾ] 'to give' See Portuguese phonology Russian дышать [d̪ɨˈʂatʲ] 'to breathe' Contrasts with a palatalized voiced alveolar plosive. See Russian phonology Spanish hundido [ũn̪ˈd̪iðo̞] 'sunken' See Spanish phonology Swedish dag [dɑːɡ] 'day' See Swedish phonology Turkish dal [d̪äl] 'twig' See Turkish phonology Ukrainian дерево [ˈd̪ɛ.rɛ̝.wɔ] 'tree' See Ukrainian phonology Urdu دودھ [d̪uːd̪ʰ] 'milk' Urdu contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.The initial is unaspirated and final one is aspirated. See Hindi-Urdu phonology Zapotec Tilquiapan 'dan' [d̪aŋ] 'countryside'
- ^ Watson (2002:14)
- ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
- ^ Remijsen & Manyong (2009:115, 121)
- ^ Hickey (1984:241)
- ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
- ^ a b Ladefoged (2005:141)
- ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
- ^ Jassem (2003:103)
- ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
- ^ Jones & Ward (1969:99)
- ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
- ^ Engstrand (1999:141)
- ^ Merrill (2008:108)
- Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
- Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
- Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
- Hickey, Raymond (1984), "Coronal Segments in Irish English", Journal of Linguistics 20 (2): 233–250, doi:10.1017/S0022226700013876
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Jones, Daniel; Dennis, Ward (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
- Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
- Remijsen, Bert; Manyang, Caguor Adong (2009), "Luanyjang Dinka", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (1): 113–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003605
- Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
- Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
- Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press
International Phonetic Alphabet IPA topics IPA Phonetics Special topics Encodings Consonants IPA pulmonic consonants chartchart image • audio Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal ↓ Manner Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal Nasal m ɱ n̪ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Plosive p b p̪ b̪ t̪ d̪ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ я * Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ⱱ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯ Lateral Fric. ɬ ɮ ɭ˔̊ ʎ̥˔ ʟ̝̊ Lateral Appr. l ɭ ʎ ʟ Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̠ ʎ̯ Non-pulmonic consonants Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ᶑ ɠ ʛ Ejectives pʼ tʼ cʼ ʈʼ kʼ qʼ fʼ θʼ sʼ ɬʼ xʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ Affricates p̪f ts dz tʃ dʒ tɕ dʑ ʈʂ ɖʐ tɬ dɮ cç ɟʝ Co-articulated consonants Fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ Approximants ʍ w ɥ ɫ Stops k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help] Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible. * Symbol not defined in IPA. Chart image Vowels
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