Voiced dental fricative


Voiced dental fricative
Voiced dental fricative
ð
IPA number 131
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ð
Unicode (hex) U+00F0
X-SAMPA D
Kirshenbaum D
Sound

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The voiced dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound, eth, is ð. The symbol ð was taken from the Old English letter eth, which could stand for either a voiced or unvoiced interdental fricative. This symbol is also sometimes used to represent the dental approximant, a similar sound not known to contrast with a dental fricative in any language,[1] though that is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic, ð̞. The dental fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the upper teeth, as they are with other dental consonants. It is familiar to English speakers as the th sound in father.

This sound, and its unvoiced counterpart, are rare phonemes. The great majority of European and Asian languages, such as German, French, Persian, Japanese, and Chinese, lack this sound. Native speakers of those languages in which the sound is not present often have difficulty enunciating or distinguishing it, and replace it with a voiced alveolar fricative, a voiced dental plosive, or a voiced labiodental fricative (known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting). As for Europe, there seems to be a great arc where this sound (and/or the unvoiced variant) is present. Most of mainland Europe lacks the sound; however, the "periphery" languages of Welsh, Elfdalian, English, Danish, some Italian dialects, Greek, and Albanian have this phoneme in their consonant inventories.[citation needed]

Within Turkic languages, Bashkir and Turkmen have both voiced and voiceless dental fricatives among their consonants. Among Semitic languages, they are used in Standard Arabic.

Contents

Features

Features of the voiced dental fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. It does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is dental which means it is articulated with the tongue at either the upper or lower teeth, or both. (Most stops and liquids described as dental are actually denti-alveolar.)
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

In the following transcriptions, the undertack diacritic may be used to indicate an approximant [ð̞].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian idhull [iðuɫ] 'idol'
Aleut Atkan dialect dax̂ [ðɑχ] 'eye'
Arabic Standard[2] ذهب [ˈðahab] 'gold' See Arabic phonology
Bashkir ҡыҙ [qɯð́] 'girl'
Basque[3] adar [aðar] 'horn' Allophone of /d/.
Berber Kabyle uḇ [ðuβ] 'to be exhausted'
Berta [fɛ̀ːðɑ̀nɑ́] 'to sweep'
Catalan[4] fada [ˈfaðə] 'fairy' Allophone of /d/. See Catalan phonology
Danish hvid [ˈʋið̞ˀ] 'white' Allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda. See Danish phonology
Elfdalian baiða [ˈbaɪða] 'wait'
English this [ðɪs] 'this' See English phonology
Fijian ciwa [ðiwa] 'nine'
Greek δάφνη/dáfni [ˈðafni] 'laurel' See Modern Greek phonology
Gwich’in niidhàn [niːðân] 'you want'
Harsusi [ðebeːr] 'bee'
Hän ë̀dhä̀ [ə̂ðɑ̂] 'hide'
Icelandic bróðir [proːðir] 'brother' Often closer to an approximant. See Icelandic phonology
Kagayanen[5] ? [kað̞aɡ] 'spirit'
Occitan Gascon que divi [ke ˈðiwi] 'what I should' Allophone of /d/
Portuguese European[6] nada [ˈnaðɐ] 'nothing' Allophone of /d/ in northern and central dialects.[7] See Portuguese phonology
Sioux Nakota ? [ˈðaptã] 'five'
Sardinian nidu [ˈniðu] 'nest' Allophone of /d/
Spanish[8] dedo [ˈd̪e̞ð̞o̞] 'finger' Allophone of /d/. See Spanish phonology
Swahili dhambi [ðɑmbi] 'sin'
Syriac Western Neo-Aramaic ܐܚܕ [aħːeð] 'to take'
Tamil ஒன்பது [onbʌðɯ] 'nine' See Tamil phonology
Tanacross dhet [ðet] 'liver'
Tutchone Northern edhó [eðǒ] 'hide'
Southern adhǜ [aðɨ̂]
Welsh bardd [bɑrð] 'bard'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[9] [example needed] Allophone of /d/

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
ð̠
ɹ̝

The voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), it can represent this sound as in a number of ways including < ð̠ >, <ð͇> (retracted or alveolarized ð, respectively), or < ɹ̝ > (constricted ɹ).

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Icelandic þakið [θ̠akið̠] 'the roof' See Icelandic phonology
English Scouse maid [meɪð̠] 'maid' Allophone of /d/ See English phonology
South Africa round [ɹ̝ɑənd] 'round'

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge, http://books.google.com/books?id=PBqPPLE2iXEC&l 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266 

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