- Kingdom of Lithuania
The Kingdom of Lithuania was a
Lithuanian monarchywhich existed from 1251 to roughly 1263.
The status of a kingdom was granted by
Pope Innocent IV, when the state was placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, on July 17, 1251. Two years later, the Lithuanian ruler Mindaugaswas crowned as the King of Lithuania. In 1259, Mongolsunder Burundaiinvaded the southern border of the kingdom, sacking a few towns and defeating a Lithuanian army. [Rene Grousset. "Empire of Steppes".] After the assassination of Mindaugas and his sons in 1263, the country reverted to paganism, and its status of a kingdom was lost. There was also an attempt by Vytautas the Great(ruled 1401–1430) to receive a royal crown. He was proclaimed king, and Lithuania a kingdom, by Emperor Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperorin 1430, but the royal crown, which was sent by Sigismund to Vytautas, was intercepted by Polish noblemen. Soon afterwards Vytautas died, without being crowned as king. During the 20th century, there was an attempt to recreate the Lithuanian kingdom as a German client state, with Mindaugas IIas King of Lithuania, that was renounced by the Act of Independence of Lithuania.
Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
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