Brodmann area 10


Brodmann area 10

Brodmann area 10, or BA10, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. BA10 encompasses the most anterior part of the frontal cortex, known as the frontopolar region. This area is believed to play a part in strategic processes involved in memory retrieval and executive function.

This area is also called frontopolar area 10, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined frontal region of cerebral cortex. It occupies the most rostral portions of the superior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus. In humans, on the medial aspect of the hemisphere it is bounded ventrally by the superior rostral sulcus (H). It does not extend as far as the cingulate sulcus. Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the granular frontal area 9, caudally by the middle frontal area 46, and ventrally by the orbital area 47 and by the rostral area 12 or, in an early version of Brodmann's cortical map (Brodmann-1909), the prefrontal Brodmann area 11-1909.

Guenon

Brodmann area 10 is a subdivision of the frontal lobe of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. Brodmann-1909 did not regard it as cytoarchitecturally homologous to his human frontopolar area 10. Distinctive features (Brodmann-1905): compared to Brodmann area 9-1909, the multiform layer (VI) of area 10 shows an unusual organization of cells into trains oriented parallel to the cortical surface that are separated from one another by narrow cell-free fiber bundles; less marked differences are an overall thinner cortical thickness and a somewhat thicker molecular layer (I). Compared to Brodmann area 6-1909, area 10 has a subtle but clearly present internal granular layer (IV); layer 3b of the external pyramidal layer (III) is weakly developed and composed of medium sized pyramidal cells; and the internal pyramidal layer (V) is more developed.

Human vs. nonhuman

Prefrontal white matter, strongly associated with neotenous acceleration of neural maturation and particularly notable in BA10, shows the largest difference between human and nonhuman. Gray matter shows no significant difference, which suggests accelerated genetic expression and neotenous maturation of BA10 played a key role in human brain evolution.

Morphological comparisons

Casts taken from the inside of skull of 'Flo', the female "Homo floresiensis" designated LB1, revealed significant enlargement of Brodmann's area 10, a brain region thought responsible for planning. This neuromorphological feature is unique to "H. floresiensis", sometimes referred to as "hobbits." By relative size, this area is much more prominent in Flo than in chimpanzees, or even in modern humans. This finding is compatible with earlier primate research, which suggests robust gorillas have less frontal cortex white matter than their gracile cousins, the chimpanzees, just as relatively robust humans appear to have relatively less development of BA10 compared to "H. floresiensis".

Prefrontal white matter, strongly associated with neotenous acceleration of neural maturation and particularly notable in the BA10 of hominids, shows the largest difference between human and nonhuman mammals. Gray matter shows no significant difference, suggesting accelerated genetic expression and neotenous maturation of BA10 played a key role in human brain evolution.

Function

Although this region is quite extensive in humans, its exact function is still poorly understood. Koechlin & Hyafil have proposed that processing of 'cognitive branching' is the core function of the frontopolar cortex [Koechlin, E. & Hyafil, A. (October 26, 2007). Anterior prefrontal function and the limits of human-decision making. Science, Vol. 318, 594-598.] . Cognitive branching enables a previously running task to be maintained in a pending state for subsequent retrieval and execution upon completion of the ongoing one. Many of our complex behaviors and mental activities require simultaneous engagement of multiple tasks, and they suggest the anterior prefrontal cortex may perform a domain-general function in these scheduling operations. However, other hypotheses have also been proffered, such as those by Burgess "et al." [Burgess, P.W., Dumontheil, I., & Gilbert, S.J. (2007). The gateway hypothesis of rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10) function. Trends in Cognitive Science, Vol. 11, No. 7.] .

ee also

* Brodmann area
* List of regions in the human brain
* Prefrontal cortex

References

External links

* - "frontopolar area 10"
* - "Brodmann area 10"
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VS3-4FP1JB5-1&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2005&_alid=272240713&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=6251&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a6b6ebfc6efb1eada98eeac56be2c18f ScienceDirect.com]
* [http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~ptschoen/papers/NN-schoenemannn-prefrontal.pdf PDF]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Brodmann area 11 — is one of Brodmann s cytologically defined regions of the brain. It is involved in planning, reasoning, and decision making.HumanBrodmann area 11, or BA11, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. BA11 covers the medial part of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 22 — is one of Brodmann s cytologically defined regions of the brain. It is involved in auditory processing.HumanBrodmann area 22 is a region of the human brain (the 22nd numbered Brodmann area). On the left side of the brain this area helps with… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 23 — (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. It lies between Brodmann area 30 and Brodmann area 31 and is located on the medial wall of the cingulate gyrus between the callosal sulcus and the… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 7 — is one of Brodmann s cytologically defined regions of the brain. It is involved in locating objects in space. It serves as a point of convergence between vision and proprioception to determine where objects are in relation to parts of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 5 — is one of Brodmann s cytologically defined regions of the brain. It is involved in somatosensory processing.HumanBrodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. It is situated immediately posterior to the primary somatosensory… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 15 — Brodmann s Area 15 is one of Brodmann s subdivisions of the cerebral cortex in the brain. Area 15 was defined by Brodmann in the guenon monkey, but he found no equivalent structure in humans. However, functional imaging experiments have found… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 26 — is the name for a small part of the brain.HumanIn the human this area is called ectosplenial area 26. It is a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. It is a narrow band located in the isthmus of… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 39 — Brodmann area 39, or BA39, is part of the parietalcortex in the human brain. BA39 encompasses the angular gyrus, lying near to the junction of temporal, occipital and parietal lobes.This area is also known as angular area 39 (H). It corresponds… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 25 — (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. It is also called the subgenual area or area subgenualis . It is the 25th Brodmann area defined by Korbinian Brodmann (thus its… …   Wikipedia

  • Brodmann area 13 — is a subdivision of the cerebral cortex as defined on the guenon monkey and on the basis of cytoarchitecture. Along with Brodmann area 14 and 15, Brodmann area 13 is found only in primates and no equivalent structure exists in… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.