Abundances of the elements (data page)


Abundances of the elements (data page)

<< "Chemical elements data references"

Earth bulk continental crust and upper continental crust

*C1 &mdash; Crust: CRC Handbook
*C2 &mdash; Crust: Kaye & Laby
*C3 &mdash; Crust: Greenwood
*C4 &mdash; Crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
*C5 &mdash; Crust: Ahrens (Wänke)
*C6 &mdash; Crust: Ahrens (Weaver)
*U1 &mdash; Upper crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
*U2 &mdash; Upper crust: Ahrens (Shaw)Mass fraction, in kg/kg.

Notes

Due to the estimate nature of these values, no single recommendations are given. All values are normalized for these tables. Underlined zeroes indicate figures of indeterminable significance that were present in the source notation.

References

CRC Handbook

From these sources in an online version of David R. Lide (ed.), "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition". CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 14, Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics; Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea::*R.S. Carmichael (ed.), "CRC Practical Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals", CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, (1989).:*I. Bodek "et al.", "Environmental Inorganic Chemistry", Pergamon Press, New York, (1988).:*A.B. Ronov, A.A. Yaroshevsky, "Earth's Crust Geochemistry", in Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences, R.W. Fairbridge (ed.), Van Nostrand, New York, (1969).:Estimated abundance of the elements in the continental crust (C1) and in seawater near the surface (W1). The median values of reported measurements are given. Concentrations of the less abundant elements may vary with location by several orders of magnitude.

Kaye & Laby

National Physical Laboratory, Kaye and Laby "Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants" (2005). [http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/chemistry/3_1/3_1_3.html Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements] , B.E.J. Pagel:Abundances in sea water (W2) and in crustal rocks (C2) from::*K.K. Turekian (1970) in "McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology", 4, 627.:For the sun (S1) and the solar system (Y1) from::*N. Grevesse, E. Anders, J. Waddington (ed.) in "Cosmic Abundances of Matter", Amer. Inst. Phys., New York, p. 1. (1988).:Except solar iron abundance from::*H. Holweger, A. Bard, A. Kock, M. Kock, Astron. Astrophys., 249, 545. (1991).:Accuracy of the solar abundances varies between ± 10% and a factor of two, values more uncertain than that are marked with "about". The solar system abundances are mainly derived from carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and are assumed generally accurate to ± 10% or better. Solar system abundances based on other sources are marked with asterisks (*).

Greenwood

A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, "Chemistry of the Elements", 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997). ISBN 0-7506-3365-4 Appendix 4, Abundance of Elements in Crustal Rocks.:From this source with some modifications and additions of later data::*W.S. Fyfe, "Geochemistry", Oxford University Press, (1974).:Further referring to::*C.K. Jorgensen, "Comments Astrophys." 17, 49-101 (1993).:Values are subject to various geological assumptions but assumed acceptable as an indication of elemental abundance in crustal rocks (C3).

Ahrens

Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), "Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants", American Geophysical Union (1995). ISBN 0-87590-851-9 Composition of the Solar System, Planets, Meteorites, and Major Terrestrial Reservoirs, Horton E. Newsom. Tables 1, 14, 15.

:Bulk continental crust (C4) and upper continental crust (U1) from::*S.R. Taylor, S.M. McLennan, "The continental crust: Its composition and evolution", Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, 330 pp. (1985).:Upper continental crust (U2) from::*D.M. Shaw, J. Dostal, R.R. Keays, "Additional estimates of continental surface Precambrian shield composition in Canada", Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 40, 73-83, (1976).:Bulk continental crust (C5) from::*H. Wänke, G. Dreibus, E. Jagoutz, "Mantle chemistry and accretion history of the Earth", in Archean Geochemistry, A. Kröner, G.N. Hanson, A.M. Goodwin (eds.), pp. l-24, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1984).:Bulk continental crust (C6) from::*B.L. Weaver, J. Tamey, "Major and trace element composition of the continental lithosphere", in "Physics and Chemistry of the Earth", 15, H.N. Pollack, V.R. Murthy (eds.) pp. 39-68, Pergamon, Oxford, (1984).:Solar system (Y2) from::*E. Anders, N. Grevesse, "Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar", Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 197-214, (1989).


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chemical elements data references — Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. Any changes to the infobox data should be checked against these pages, and/or the available references should be expanded …   Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia:WikiProject Elements/Chemical elements data references — Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. Any changes to the infobox data should be checked against these pages, and/or the available references should be expanded …   Wikipedia

  • Noble gas (data page) — This page provides supplementary data about the noble gases, which had to be excluded from the main article for reasons of space and focus. Contents 1 Physical properties 1.1 Solid 1.2 Liquid 1.3 Gas …   Wikipedia

  • Abundance of the chemical elements — Estimated proportions of matter, dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled atoms is composed of chemical elements. The abundance of a chemical element measures how relatively… …   Wikipedia

  • Colonization of the Moon — Lunar outpost redirects here. For NASA s plan to construct an outpost between 2012 and 2024, see Lunar outpost (NASA). Moonbase redirects here. For other uses, see Moonbase (disambiguation). 1986 artist concept The colonization of the Moon is the …   Wikipedia

  • Cadmium telluride — Other names Irtran 6 Identifiers …   Wikipedia

  • Neodymium — praseodymium ← neodymium → promethium ↑ Nd ↓ U …   Wikipedia

  • Tellurure de cadmium — Tellurure de cadmium …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sun — This article is about the star. For other uses, see Sun (disambiguation). The Sun …   Wikipedia

  • Moon — This article is about Earth s Moon. For moons in general, see Natural satellite. For other uses, see Moon (disambiguation) …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.