- German occupation of Luxembourg in World War I
The German occupation of Luxembourg in World War I was the first of two
military occupations of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg by Germanyin the twentieth century. From August 1914 until the end of World War Iin November 1918, Luxembourgwas under full occupation by the German Empire. The German government justified the occupation by citing the need to support their armies in neighbouring France, although many Luxembourgers, contemporary and present, have interpreted German actions otherwise.
During this period, Luxembourg was allowed to retain its own government and political system, but all proceedings were overshadowed by the German army's presence. Despite the over-bearing distraction of the occupation, the Luxembourgian people attempted to lead their lives as normally as possible. The political parties attempted to focus on other matters, such as the
economy, education, and constitutional reform.
The domestic political environment was further complicated by the death of
Paul Eyschen, who had been Prime Minister for 27 years. With his death came a string of short-lived governments, culminating in rebellion, and constitutional turmoil after the withdrawal of German soldiers.
Since the 1867 Treaty of London, Luxembourg had been an explicitly neutral state. The
Luxembourg Crisishad seen Prussia thwart France's attempt to purchase the Grand Duchy from the Netherlands. Luxembourg's neutrality was accepted by Prussia's then-Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, who boasted, "In exchange for the fortress of Luxembourg, we have been compensated by the neutrality of the country, and a guarantee that it shall be maintained in perpetuity." [Speech by Bismarck to the North German Reichstag (in German), 27 September 1867.]
In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the thrones of
Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by pan-Slavic nationalists, leading to a sudden deterioration in relations between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. Austria-Hungary was supported by the German Empire, whilst Serbia had the backing of the Russian Empire. On 28 July, Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia, which, in turn, required the mobilisation of Russia, hence of Germany, thanks to its responsibilities under the Dual Alliance.
Since the 1860s, Luxembourgers had been keenly aware of German ambition, [Calmes (1989), p. 340] and Luxembourg's government was well aware of the implications of the Schlieffen Plan. In 1911, Prime Minister
Paul Eyschencommissioned an engineer to evaluate Germany's western railroad network, particularly the likelihood that Germany would occupy Luxembourg to suit its logistical needs for a campaign in France. [fr icon [http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lux-pm.html "Operational Intelligence Report"] . 24 September 1911. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.] Moreover, Luxembourg was home to many German people(including both " Auslandsdeutsche" and " Volksdeutsche"), and it was feared that Germany might seek to annex Luxembourg into its empire. The government of Luxembourg aimed to avoid this by re-affirming the country's neutrality.Thewes (2003), p. 56]
On 1 August 1914, Germany declared war on Russia. On the outbreak of war with its eastern neighbour, Germany put the Schlieffen Plan into action, and Luxembourg's government's fears were realised. Initially, Luxembourg was only a transit point for Albrecht von Württemberg's Fourth Army. One of the
railways from the northern Rhinelandinto France passed through Troisvierges, in the far north of Luxembourg, and Germany's first infringement of Luxembourg's sovereignty and neutrality was the unauthorised use of Troisvierges station. [Telegram from Eyschen to Jagow (in German), 1 August 1914.] Eyschen protested, but could do nothing to prevent Germany's incursion.
The next day, Germany launched a full invasion. German soldiers began moving through south-eastern Luxembourg, crossing the
Moselle Riverat Remichand Wasserbillig, and headed towards the capital, Luxembourg City. [Telegram from Eyschen to assorted foreign ministers (in French), 2 August 1914.] Tens of thousands of German soldiers had been deployed to Luxembourg in those twenty-four hours (although the Grand Duchy's government refuted any precise number that was suggested). [Speech by Eyschen to the Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies (in French), 3 August 1914.] Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde ordered that the Grand Duchy's small army, which numbered under 400, [cite web | url = http://www.nat-military-museum.lu/pageshtml/luxembourgarmy.php#4A | title = "The Luxembourg Army" | accessdate = 2006-07-23 | author = Roland Gaul | last = Gaul | first = Roland ] not resist, and, on the afternoon of the 2 August, she and Eyschen met the German commander, " Oberst" Richard Karl von Tessmar, on Luxembourg City's Adolphe Bridge, the symbol of Luxembourg's modernisation.cite web | url =http://worldatwar.net/nations/luxembourg/narrative.html | title = "The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg" | accessdate = 2006-07-23 | author = Richard Doody | last = Doody | first = Richard ] They protested mildly, but both the young Grand Duchess and her ageing statesman accepted German military rule as inevitable. [O'Shaughnessy (1932), p. 155 ] On 2 August, German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollwegjustified the complete occupation of Luxembourg in terms of military necessity, arguing that France was ready to invade Luxembourg itself.Telegram from Bethmann-Hollweg to Eyschen (in German), 2 August 1914.] The French minister in Luxembourg dismissed this argument, claiming that it would not have considered violating Luxembourg's neutrality unless Germany had done so first. [Letter from Mollard to Eyschen (in French), 3 August 1914.] Bethmann Hollweg attempted to prove his country's regret by offering Luxembourg compensation for the losses due to the military presence. On 4 August, Bethmann Hollweg told the Reichstag: cquote|We have been forced to ignore the just protestations of Luxembourg and the Belgian government. We shall make amends for this injustice as soon as our military goal is accomplished. [Speech by Bethmann-Hollweg to the German Reichstag (in German), 4 August 1914.]
However, when it seemed that Germany was on the verge of victory, the Chancellor began to revise his statements. In his "
Septemberprogramm", Bethmann Hollweg called for Luxembourg to become a German federal state, and for that result to be forced upon the Luxembourgian people once Germany achieved victory over the Triple Entente. [de icon [http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/dokumente/hollweg/ "Septemberprogramm des Reichskanzlers Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg"] . 9 September 1914. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.] Given this promise, it came as a great relief to most Luxembourgers that the British and French halted the German advance at the Battle of the Marne in mid-September. The result for the combatant nations was trench warfare, but, for Luxembourg, it was the indefinite continuation of German occupation.
Just as the war was in the balance on the Western Front, so the fate of Luxembourg was see-sawing back and forth. It was clear to all that the good conduct of the Luxembourgian government, if fully receptive to the needs of the German military administrators, could guarantee Luxembourg's continued self-government, at least in the short-term. Eyschen was a familiar and overwhelmingly popular leader, and all factions put their utmost faith in his ability to steer Luxembourg through the diplomatic minefield that was occupation. On 4 August 1914, he expelled the French minister in Luxembourg at the request of the German minister, [Telegram from Eyschen to Mollard (in French), 4 August 1914] followed by the Belgian minister four days later and the Italian minister when his country entered the war. [cite book |last=Mersch |first=Jules |authorlink=Jules Mersch |title=Biographie Nationale du Pays de Luxembourg |year=1953 |publisher=Victor Buck |location=Luxembourg City |chapter=Paul Eyschen |page=p. 132] To the same end, Eyschen refused to speak ill of the German "
Zollverein", even though he had talked openly of exiting the customs unionbefore the war began. [Letter from Eyschen to Nyssens (in French), 28 December 1882.]
On occasions, Eyschen's principles got the better of him. On 13 October 1914, a Luxembourgian journalist named Karl Dardar was arrested by the German army for publishing anti-German stories. He was then taken to
Koblenz, and tried and sentenced by court-martialto three months imprisonment. Eyschen was outraged that the Germans had kidnapped a Luxembourgian citizen and tried him for an extra-territorial offence, and Eyschen did nothing to hide his indignation. Eyschen told the German minister in Luxembourg that the action was a 'direct injury to the Grand Duchy's national sovereignty'. [Telegram from Eyschen to Buch (in German), 8 December 1914.]
Such vexatious complaints were repeated, by both Eyschen and
Victor Thorn, when a railway worker was arrested in January 1915 for allegedly working for French military intelligence, and subsequently tried and sentenced in Trier. As Minister for Justice, Thorn was incensed that the Luxembourgian legal system had been treated with such disdain. [Telegram from Thorn to Berg (in German), 1 February 1915.] Such objections were not received well by the German authorities. Although they tired of Eyschen's stubborn ways, he remained a useful tool to unite the various Luxembourgian political factions.
Eyschen was not alone in letting his principles obstruct government business. In the summer of 1915, Eyschen pushed to further reduce the role of the Catholic church in the
state schoolsystem. Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde objected. A fervently religious Catholic (as was most of the country, but not her late father, who was Protestant), she was reputed to have said, "I will not allow their most precious heritage [Roman Catholicism] to be stolen while I have the key." [O'Shaughnessy (1932), pp. 134–135] Marie-Adélaïde refused to budge, inviting Eyschen to resign if he could not accept her decision. Eyschen nearly did, but decided to control himself. [Calmes (1989), p. 93] Nevertheless, he would not be long in the job.
On 11 October 1915, Luxembourg's political system was brought to its knees by the death of Paul Eyschen.Thewes (2003), p. 64.] When war broke out, Eyschen had been 73 years old, but his premiership of twenty-seven years was the only government that most Luxembourgers had known. Throughout the first year of German occupation, he had been a rock for the Luxembourgian people. He had also been of great importance to Marie-Adélaïde; the Grand Duchess had never been groomed for the position, [O'Shaughnessy (1932), p. 65.] was fifty-three years Eyschen's junior, and was considered both politically naïve and dangerously partisan for a
constitutional monarch. The recent strains were relatively cosmetic.
Critically, Eyschen had the confidence of the Chamber of Deputies, and he had managed to hold together a government containing all major factions, seemingly by force of personality alone. To make matters worse for national unity, the strain of occupation had broken apart the pre-war anti-clericalist alliance between the socialist and the liberal factions, thus depriving both the clericalists and anti-clericalists of a legislative
majority. The Catholic conservatives formed the largest bloc, but they were least likely to form a majority coalition.
The day after Eyschen's death, Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde invited
Mathias Mongenast, who had been Minister for Finance since 1882, to form a minority government. Mongenast's special status as a 'caretaker' Prime Minister is underlined by his official title; he was not ' President of the Government', as all other Prime Ministers since 1857 had been, but held the lesser title of ' President of the Council'.Thewes (2003), p. 65.]
Mongenast's administration was never intended to be long-lived, and Marie-Adélaïde's main objective when appointing the experienced Mongenast was to steady the ship. Nevertheless, nobody expected the government to fall as soon as it did. On 4 November 1915, Mongenast nominated a new candidate for head of Luxembourg's "école normale". The nomination did not meet with Grand Ducal approval, and Marie-Adélaïde rejected him. Mongenast persisted; education had been a hobby horse of his, and he imagined that the Grand Duchess would accept the advice of a minister as experienced as he was. He was wrong; the Grand Duchess had always been single-minded, and resented a minority Prime Minister, particularly one so new to the job, making demands of her. The next day, Mongenast resigned, just twenty-five days after being given the job.
Having fought with Mongenast, the Grand Duchess decided to appoint an all-conservative cabinet. The Chamber of Deputies was steadfastly opposed; the Party of the Right held only 20 seats out of 52, but they formed the
plurality.Thewes (2003), p. 66] Marie-Adélaïde sought to end this deadlock by dissolving the Chamber of Deputies and by calling for the voters to grant a mandate to the conservatives. This outraged the left, which assumed that its deputies alone had the constitutional right to grant the government confidence; it was dubbed by those on the left a ' coup d'étatby the Grand Duchess'. [Kreins (2003), p. 88.] Nonetheless, on 23 December 1915, Luxembourg went to the polls. Although the position of the Party of the Right was improved, taking 25 seats, it fell a whisker short of winning an absolute majority. On 11 January 1916, the Chamber of Deputies passed a motion of no confidence, and Loutsch resigned.
National Union Government
Forming a consensus
After the failure of the all-conservative government, the Grand Duchess turned to the leading liberal politician,
Victor Thorn, to form a new government. After Eyschen's premiership of 27 years, two governments had come and gone in three months, and the Luxembourgian people were becoming disillusioned with the failure of the politicians. Thorn's nature was to be a conciliatory leader, and he made a direct appeal to the Chamber of Deputies to support his government, no matter the deputies' individual ideological persuasions: "If you want a government that acts, and is capable of acting, it is imperative that all parties support this government." [Speech by Thorn to the Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies (in French), February 1916] This support was forthcoming from all parties, but only on the condition that each was invited into the government; Thorn was left with no choice but to afford them this. The resulting grand coalitioncabinet included every leading light in Luxembourgian politics; besides Thorn himself, there were the conservatives Léon Kauffmannand Antoine Lefort, the socialist leader Dr Michel Welter, and the liberal Léon Moutrier.Thewes (2003), p. 69.]
The most pressing concern of the Luxembourgian government was that of food supply.Thewes (2003), p. 68.] The war had made importation of food an impossibility, and the needs of the German occupiers inevitably came before those of the Luxembourgian people.Letter from Thorn to Buch (in German), 28 August 1916] To halt the deteriorating supply of food, Michel Welter, the Director-General for both agriculture and commerce, banned the export of food from Luxembourg. [Letter from Tessmar to assorted commanders (in German), 8 May 1916] Furthermore, the government introduced
rationingand price controlsto counteract the soaring demand and to make food more affordable for poorer Luxembourgers. However, the measures did not have the desired effect. Increasing numbers of Luxembourgers turned to the black market, and, to the consternation of the Luxembourgian government, the German army of occupation seemed to do little to help. Moreover, the government accused Germany of aiding the development of the black market by refusing to enforce regulations, and even of smuggling goods themselves.
Through 1916, the food crisis deepened, compounded by a poor
potatoharvest across all of the Low Countries; in neighbouring Belgium, the harvest was between 30% and 40% down on the previous year. [Letter from Hooover to Percy, 7 October 1916] Although many Luxembourgers were on near- starvationlevel dietary intakes, the country managed to avoid famine. In part, this was due to a reduction of German soldiers' dependence upon local food sources, instead relying on imports from Germany. [Letter from Buch to Thorn (in German), 4 October 1916]
Despite the avoidance of a famine, the Luxembourgian government lost much of the faith placed in it by the public and by the politicians. On 22 December 1916, Michel Welter, the minister responsible, was censured by the Chamber of Deputies, which demanded his resignation. Thorn procrastinated, seeking any option but firing the leader of one of three major parties, but could find none. On 3 January 1917, Welter was fired, and replaced by another socialist,
Ernest Leclère. Even after the change and von Tessmar's promise of his soldiers' better conduct in future, Léon Kauffmann was capable of citing thirty-six instances of German soldiers caught smuggling foodstuffs between March 1917 and June 1918. [Letter from Kauffmann to Kirsch (in German), 26 September 1918]
Discontent amongst the population grew constantly, particularly in the country's industrialised south. The autumn of 1916 had seen the first
unionisationwithin the iron and steel industries, with trade unions springing up in both Luxembourg City and Esch-sur-Alzette. Despite the war demand, iron production had slumped,cite web |url=http://www.statec.lu/html_en/portrait_economique_du_luxembourg/english/chap1/graf/steel.gif|title=Graph of iron and steel production |accessdate=2006-07-23 |author=Chambre of Commerce – Groupment des Industries Sidérurgiques Luxembourgeoises |format=GIF |publisher= Statec|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060824185300/http://www.statec.lu/html_en/portrait_economique_du_luxembourg/english/chap1/graf/steel.gif|archivedate=2006-08-24 ] leading to greater employment insecurity. In March and April, three independents were elected as deputies from the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette, where the economy was dominated by iron and steel. As independents, these newly-elected deputies were the only legislative opposition to the National Union Government.
For many Luxembourgers, particularly the miners, expression of disgust at the government could not be directed through the ballot box alone. Sensing the threat of civil disobedience or worse, von Tessmar threatened any individual committing an act of violence (in which he included
strike action) with the death penalty. [Proclamation by Tessmar to steel workers at Differdange (in German), 10 May 1917] However, on 31 May 1917, the workers sought to use their most potent weapon, by defying von Tessmar's ultimatum and downing tools. [Telegram from Thorn to Arendt (in German), 2 June 1917] Germany was dependent upon Luxembourgian iron, as the British Royal Navy's naval blockadeforced Germany to look to accessible local supplies; in 1916, Luxembourg produced over one-seventh of the Zollverein's pig iron. [ [http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/rectdata/01/a01215.dat Zollverein pig iron production] . National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.] As such, Germany simply could not afford a strike, lest it be deprived of critical raw materials.
In putting down the strike, von Tessmar was ruthlessly efficient, but he was not required to resort to the executions that he had threatened. Within nine days, the strike was defeated and the leaders arrested.Letter from Kauffmann to Zimmerman (in German), 3 August 1917] The two ringleaders were then sentenced by German court-martial in
Trierto ten years imprisonment, to the disgust of the government. The continued refusal of the German authorities to respect the Luxembourgian government, and the humiliating manner in which the strike was put down by German military muscle rather than the Luxembourgian gendarmerie, were too much for Thorn. On 19 June 1917, the government resigned.
Although the experiment in grand coalition had failed, the need for some political unity remained. As the National Union Government was collapsing, Kauffmann arranged an alliance between his Party of the Right and Moutrier's Liberal League, seeking to achieve change that would outlive the occupation.Thewes (2003), p. 72.] The primary objective was to address the perennial grievances of the left by amending the constitution; in November 1917, the Chamber of Deputies launched a wide-ranging series of debates on various amendments to the constitutions. Ultimately, the constitution was amended to prohibit the government from entering into secret treaties, to improve deputies' pay (hitherto set at just 5 francs a day),fr icon/de icon cite web | url=http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/1868/0232210/0232210.pdf | title=Mémorial A, 1868, No. 23 | accessdate=2006-07-23 | format=PDF | publisher=Service central de législation ] to introduce
universal suffrage, and to change the plurality voting systemto a proportional one.
Whereas all of the above measures were broadly popular, across most of the political spectrum, the same was not true of the proposal to amend Article 32. Said article had not been amended in the overhaul of 1868, and its text had remained unchanged since the original constitution of 1848, stating unequivocally that all
sovereigntyresided in the person of the Grand Duchess. For some, particularly those that resented the close relations between Marie-Adélaïde and the German royalty, the idea of national sovereignty residing in such a person was unacceptable. The Chamber of Deputies voted to review Article 32, but Kauffmann refused to allow it, seeing the redefinition of the source of national sovereignty as covert republicanism.
The summer of 1918 saw a dramatic decline in the fortunes of the government. On 8 July, Clausen, in central Luxembourg City, had been bombed by the British
Royal Air Force, killing ten civilians. [Faber (1932), p. 155] Although this did not endear the Allies to Luxembourgers, the Grand Duchess' instinct was to run to the Germans, who were even less popular amongst the people. On 16 August, German Chancellor Georg von Hertlingpaid a visit to Luxembourg; although Hertling asked only to see the Grand Duchess, Kauffmann asked that he also attend. To the Luxembourgian people, relations between the two countries now seemed unambiguously cordial, and all that was left of Kauffmann's credibility disappeared. This was compounded further by the news on the 26 August of the engagementof Princess Antoinette to Rupprecht of Bavaria, who was " Generalfeldmarschall" in the German army. [Thewes (2003), p. 74.] Pressure mounted on Kauffmann; with his party still strong, but with his personal reputation shattered, he was left with no option but to resign, which he did on 28 September in favour of Émile Reuter, another conservative. [Thewes (2003), p. 76.]
End of the war
By the autumn of 1918, Germany's position in the war was becoming untenable. The massive
Spring Offensivehad been an unmitigated disaster, whereas the Allied counter-attack, the Hundred Days Offensive, had driven Germany back towards its own borders. On 6 November, von Tessmar announced the full withdrawal of German soldiers from Luxembourg. [Letter from Tessmar to Reuter (in German), 6 November 1918.] Five days after von Tessmar's announcement, Germany signed an armistice treaty, which brought an end to the war of four years. One of the terms of the armistice involved the withdrawal of German soldiers from Luxembourg, along with the other occupied countries. [fr icon [http://www.grande-guerre.org/Documents/Armistice.htm La convention d'armistice] , Article A(I). 11 November 1918. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.]
The Allied Powers agreed that the German withdrawal from Luxembourg would be observed by the
United States, and that the USA would receive the honour of liberating the captive country. On 18 November, General John Pershing issued a proclamationto the people of Luxembourg, stating that the United States' newly-formed Third Army would move through Luxembourg to occupy the German Rhineland, but that the Americans would come as allies and as liberators:
The following day, American soldiers crossed the Franco-Luxembourgian border. Everywhere, they were fêted as liberators, in the spirit that Pershing had intended to inspire, and were met by bands and civilians waving flags, and were adorned with flowers. [http://www.arcent.army.mil/history/march_germany.asp "March into Germany"] . US Third Army, 14 July 2004. Retrieved on
2006-07-23.] Luc Housse, the Mayor of Luxembourg City, told the advancing American army that the Germans had, on the whole, been disciplined and well-behaved in the previous three weeks: a marked improvement upon his numerous complaints earlier in the conflict. Finally, on 22 November 1918, the German army completed its withdrawal from Luxembourg, ending its occupation.
Germany's defeat created the perfect opportunity for the Allied powers to resolve the Luxembourgian question once and for all. By removing Luxembourg from Germany's
sphere of influence, they hoped to guarantee its continued independence, and thus preserve the peace they had won. On 19 December, at the instigation of the British and French governments, the Luxembourgian government announced its withdrawal from the " Zollverein" and an end to the railway concessions that Luxembourg had previously granted Germany. [Thewes (2003), p. 79.]
Although the Allies were satisfied at this remedy, at the time, the Luxembourgian government was threatened by a
communistinsurgency. After the retreat of the German army, revolutionaries established Russian-influenced Workers' councils across Luxembourg. On 10 November, the day after Karl Liebknechtand Rosa Luxemburgdeclared a similar ' socialist republic' in Germany, communists in Luxembourg Citydeclared a republic, but it lasted for only a matter of hours.Kreins (2003), p. 89.] Another revolt took place in Esch-sur-Alzettein the early hours of 11 November, but also failed.Thewes (2003), p. 81.] The socialists had been fired up by the behaviour of Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde, whose interventionist and obstructive streak had stymied even Eyschen. On 12 November, socialist and liberal politicians, finding their old commonality on the issue, called for her abdication.Dostert et al (2002), p. 21.] A motion in the Chamber of Deputies demanding the abolition of the monarchy was defeated by 21 votes to 19 (with 3 abstentions), but the Chamber did demand the government hold a popular referendumon the issue.
Although the left's early attempts at founding a republic had failed, the underlying cause of the resentment had not been addressed, and, as long as Marie-Adélaïde was Grand Duchess, the liberals would ally themselves to the socialists in opposition to her. The French government also refused to cooperate with a government led by a so-called 'collaborator'; French Foreign Minister
Stéphen Pichoncalled cooperation 'a grave compromise with the enemies of France'. More pressing than either of these troubles, on 9 January, a company of the Luxembourgian army rebelled, declaring itself to be the army of the new republic, with Émile Servais(the son of Emmanuel Servais) as 'Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety'. [ [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Luxembourg.htm Luxembourg country profile] . WorldStatesman.org. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.] However, by January, the vacuum left by the German withdrawal had been filled by American and French soldiers. President of the Chamber François Altwiesasked French troops to intervene. [Kreins (2003), p. 90.] Eager to put an end to what it perceived to be pro-Belgian revolutions, the French army crushed the would-be revolutionaries.
Nonetheless, the disloyalty shown by her own armed forces was too much for Marie-Adélaïde, who abdicated in favour of her sister, Charlotte.
Belgium, which had hoped to either annex Luxembourg or force it into personal union, grudgingly recognised Charlotte on 13 February.Kreins (2003), p. 91.] The dynasty's hold on power would be tenuous until September 1919, when a referendum on the future of the Grand Duchy found 77.8% in favour of continued rule by the House of Nassau-Weilburg. [Dostert et al (2002), p. 22]
Paris Peace Conference
Despite the armistice ending the war, and the end of the revolts, Luxembourg's own future was still uncertain. Belgium was one of the countries hit hardest by the war; almost the whole of the country was occupied by Germany, and over 43,000 Belgians, [cite book | first=Susan | last=Everett | year=1982 | title=History of World War I | edition= | publisher=Simon and Schuster | location=New York | pages=p. 248 | id= ] including 30,000 civilians, [cite book | first=Spencer | last=Tucker | year=1999 | title=The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia | edition=First edition | publisher=Garland | location=New York | pages=pp. 172–4 | id=ISBN 0-8153-3351-X ] had died as a result. Belgium sought compensation, and had its eye on any and all of its neighbours; in November 1918, Lord Hardinge, the
Permanent Secretaryat the Foreign Office, told the Dutch ambassador in London, "The Belgians are on the make, and they want to grab whatever they can." [cite book | first=Paul | last=Belien | year=2006 | title=A Throne in Brussels | edition= | publisher=Imprint Academic | location= Exeter | pages=p. 175 | id=ISBN 1-84540-065-8 ]
, France rejected Belgium's overtures out of hand, thus guaranteeing Luxembourg's continued independence.
Treaty of Versaillesset aside two articles (§40 and §41) to address concerns for Luxembourg's status. The main article, §40, revoked all special privileges that Germany had acquired in Luxembourg, with Germany specifically renouncing advantages gained in the treaties of 1842, 1847, 1865, 1866, February 1867, May 1867, 1871, 1872, and 1902. [ [http://history.acusd.edu/gen/text/versaillestreaty/all440.html Treaty of Versailles] , Article 40. 28 June 1919. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.] The effects of these treaties' revocation were then explicitly stated; Luxembourg would withdraw from the "Zollverein", Germany would lose its right to use the Luxembourgian railways, and Germany was obligated to recognise the termination of Luxembourg's neutrality, thus validating the actions of the Luxembourgian government since the armistice. Furthermore, to prevent economic embargoafter the end of the customs union, the treaty allowed Luxembourg an indefinite option on German coal, [Treaty of Versailles, Annex V(5), 28 June 1919] and prohibited Germany from levying duty on Luxembourgian exports until 1924. [Treaty of Versailles, Article 268(c), 28 June 1919]
Thousands of Luxembourgers overseas, unconstrained by the Luxembourgian government's need to remain neutral, signed up to serve with foreign armies. 3,200 Luxembourgian nationals served in the
French Army, of whom 2,800 died. As Luxembourg's pre-war population was only 266,000, [cite web | url = http://www.library.uu.nl/wesp/populstat/Europe/luxembgc.htm | title = Luxembourg: Country population | accessdate = 2006-07-23 | author = Jan Lahmeyer | last = Lahmeyer | first = Jan ] the loss of life solely in the service of the French army amounted to over 1% of the entire Luxembourgian population, relatively greater than the totals for many combatant countries (see: " World War I casualties"). The Luxembourgian volunteers are commemorated by the Gëlle Fra(literally " 'Golden Lady' ") war memorial, which was unveiled in Luxembourg City on 27 May 1923. The original memorial was destroyed on 20 October 1940, during the Nazi occupation, as it symbolised the rejection of German identity and active resistance against Germanisation. After World War II, it was gradually rebuilt, culminating in its second unveiling, on 23 June 1985. [cite book | first=Josy | last=Braun | year=2000 | title=Queesch derduerch | edition= | publisher=Editions Phi | location=Luxembourg City | pages=pp. 129–134 | id=ISBN 3-88865-192-1 ]
The Luxembourgian community in the
United Statesfound itself confronted by a crisis of identity. Traditionally, they had identified themselves as ethnically German, rather than as a separate community of their own.cite web | url = http://www.luxamcc.org/id33.html | title = The Demise of the Luxemburger Gazette | accessdate = 2006-07-23 | author = Fasto Gardini | last = Gardini | first = Fausto |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060208223649/http://www.luxamcc.org/id33.html|archivedate=2006-02-08] As such, they read German languagenewspapers, attended German schools, and lived amongst German Americans. Nonetheless, when it became apparent that the war would not be over quickly, the opinions of Luxembourg Americans changed; on 2 May 1915, the Luxemburger Brotherhood of America's annual convention decided to adopt English as its only official language. Other organisations were less inclined to change their ways; the "Luxemburger Gazette" opposed President Woodrow Wilson's supposed 'favouritism' towards the United Kingdom as late in the war as 1917. However, when the United States entered the war in April of that year, the wavering members of the community supported the Allies, changing forever the relationship between the German and Luxembourgian communities in the USA.
German occupation of Luxembourg in World War II
:"Links to many of the cited primary sources, including speeches, telegrams, and despatches, can be found in the 'References' section."
*/de icon [http://www.gwpda.org/1914/luxemboo.html "German occupation of Luxembourg"] . GWPDA, 21 May 1998. Retrieved on
* cite book | first=Ernest | last=Faber | year=1932 | title=Luxemburg im Kriege 1914–1918 | publisher= | location=Mersch id=
* cite book | first=Jean-Marie | last=Kreins | year=2003 | title=Histoire du Luxembourg | edition=3rd edition | publisher=Presses Universitaires de France | location=Paris | id= ISBN 978-21-3053-852-3
* cite book | last=Thewes | first=Guy | title=Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg depuis 1848 | url=http://www.gouvernement.lu/publications/download/gouvernements_1848_2.pdf | format=PDF | accessdate=2006-07-23 | edition=Édition limitée | year=2003 | month=July | publisher=Service Information et Presse | location=Luxembourg City | id=ISBN 2-87999-118-8
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