- Phrase structure rules
Phrase-structure rules are a way to describe a given language's
syntax. They are used to break a natural languagesentence down into its constituent parts (also known as syntactic categories) namely phrasal categories and lexical categories (aka parts of speech). Phrasal categories include the noun phrase, verb phrase, and prepositional phrase; lexical categories include noun, verb, adjective, adverb, and many others. Phrase structure rules were commonly used in transformational grammar(TGG), although they were not an invention of TGG; rather, early TGG's added to phrase structure rules (the most obvious example being "transformations"; see the page transformational grammarfor an overview of the development of TGG.) A grammar which uses phrase structure rules is called a phrase structure grammar - except in computer science, where it is known as just a grammar, usually context-free.
Phrase structure rules are usually of the form , meaning that the constituent is separated into the two subconstituents and . Some examples are:
The first rule reads: An S consists of an NP followed by a VP. This means "A sentence consists of a noun phrase followed by a verb phrase". The next one: "A noun phrase consists of a determiner followed by a noun.
Associated with phrase structure rules is a famous example of a grammatically correct sentence. The sentence was constructed by
Noam Chomskyas an illustration that syntactically but not semantically correct sentences are possible.
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously" can be diagrammed as a phrase tree, as below:
where "S" represents a grammatical sentence. The theory of
antisymmetryproposed in the early '90s by Richard Kayne is an attempt to derive phrase structure from a single axiom.
A number of theories of grammar dispense with the notion of phrase structure rules and operate with the notion of
schemainstead. Here phrase structures are not derived from rules that combine words, but from the specification or instantiation of syntactic schemata or configurations, often expressing some kind of semantic content independently of the specific words that appear in them. This approach is essentially equivalent to a system of phrase structure rules combined with a noncompositional semantic theory, since grammatical formalisms based on rewriting rules are generally equivalent in power to those based on substitution into schemata.
So, in this type of approach, instead of being derived from the application of a number of phrase structure rules, the sentence "colorless green ideas sleep furiously" would be generated by filling the words into the slots of a schema having the following structure:
(NP(ADJ N) VP(V) AP(ADV))
And which would express the following
X DOES Y IN THE MANNER OF Z
Though they are noncompositional, such models are
monotonic. This approach is highly developed within Construction grammar, and has had some influence in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammarand Lexical functional grammar.
Context free grammar
Phrase structure grammar
Bare Phrase Structure
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phrase-structure grammar — /frayz struk cheuhr/, Ling. a grammar that consists of phrase structure rules. [1965 70] * * * … Universalium
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Head-driven phrase structure grammar — (HPSG) is a highly lexicalized, non derivational generative grammar theory developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag (1985). It is the immediate successor to generalized phrase structure grammar. HPSG draws from other fields such as computer science … Wikipedia
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Structure editor — A structure editor, also structured editor, is any document editor that is cognizant of the document’s underlying structure. Structure editors can be used to edit hierarchical or marked up text, computer programs, diagrams, chemical formulas, and … Wikipedia