USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73)


USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73)

The USS "Gambier Bay" (CVE-73) was a "Casablanca" class escort carrier of the United States Navy. She was sunk in the Battle off Samar after helping to turn back a much larger attacking Japanese surface force.

Named for Gambier Bay on Admiralty Island in Southeast Alaska, she was originally classified AVG-73, was reclassified ACV-73 on 20 August 1942 and again reclassified CVE-73 on 15 July 1943; launched under a Maritime Commission contract by Kaiser Company, Inc.'s, Vancouver, Washington, 22 November 1943; sponsored by Mrs. H. C. Zitzewitz, wife of Lieutenant Commander Zitzewitz, the Senior Naval Liaison Officer (SNLO) assigned to Kaiser's Vancouver Yard from the Navy's Bureau of Ships; and commissioned at Astoria, Oregon, 28 December 1943, Captain Hugh H. Goodwin in command.

The ship was referred to as the "Bonus Ship" by yard personnel because she was the 19th carrier delivered in 1943. The yard had originally projected 16 carriers would be delivered before the end of 1943, however, in September the Navy asked the yard to increase that number by at least two more. To rally the workers, Kaiser initiated a campaign called "18 or More by '44" to meet the new challenge. "Gambier Bay," being the 19th and last Kaiser-built carrier commissioned in 1943, hence was dubbed the "Bonus Ship".

Early career

After shakedown out of San Diego, the escort carrier sailed 7 February 1944 with 400 troops embarked for Pearl Harbor, thence to rendezvous off the Marshalls, guarded by the USS|Norman Scott|DD-690|2, where she flew 84 replacement planes to the carrier USS|Enterprise|CV-6|2. She returned to San Diego via Pearl Harbor, ferrying aircraft for repairs and qualified carrier pilots off the coast of Southern California. She departed 1 May to join Rear Admiral H. B. Sallada's Carrier Support Group 2 (TG 52.11), staging in the Marshalls for the invasion of the Marianas.

"Gambier Bay" gave close air support to the initial landings of Marines on Saipan 15 June 1944, destroying enemy gun emplacements, troops, tanks, and trucks. On the 17th her combat air patrol shot down or turned back all but a handful of 47 enemy planes headed for her task group and her gunners shot down two of the three planes that did break through to attack her.

The following day, warning of another air attack sounded. As her fighters prepared to take off, they found intense antiaircraft fire of the entire task group covering their flight path. Captain Goodwin called the event "another shining example of the adaptability and courage of the young men of our country." Eight pilots of Composite Squadron VC-10 did take off to help repulse the aerial attack.

"Gambier Bay" remained off Saipan, repulsing aerial raids and launching planes which strafed enemy troop concentrations, bombed gun emplacements, and supported marines and soldiers fighting ashore. Meanwhile, American carriers slashed the carrier air strength of the combined Japanese Mobile Fleet and turned it back in defeat in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. "Gambier Bay" continued close ground support operations at Tinian (19 July31 July), then turned her attention to Guam, where she gave identical aid to invading troops until 11 August.

Invasion of the Philippines

After a respite for logistics in the Marshalls, "Gambier Bay" spent 15 September to 28 September supporting the amphibious attack which drove ashore and captured Peleliu and Angaur, Southern Palaus. She then steamed by way of Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura), New Guinea, to Manus, Admiralties, where the invasion of the Philippines was staged. Screened by four destroyer escorts, "Gambier Bay" and USS|Kitkun Bay|CVE-71|2 escorted transports and amphibious landing ships safely to Leyte Gulf before joining Rear Admiral Clifton A. F. Sprague's escort carrier task unit 19 September off Leyte.

The task unit comprised six escort carriers, screened by three destroyers and four destroyer escorts, and was known by its voice radio call as "Taffy 3." Under the command of Rear Admiral Thomas L. Sprague, eighteen escort carriers, divided into three "Taffy" units, maintained air supremacy over Leyte Gulf and eastern Leyte. During the invasion their planes destroyed enemy airfields, supply convoys, and troop concentrations; gave troops driving inland vital close air support; and maintained combat air patrol over ships in Leyte Gulf. While "Taffy 1" and "Taffy 2" were respectively stationed off northern Mindanao and off the entrance to Leyte Gulf, "Taffy 3" steamed off Samar.

Meanwhile, the Japanese threw their entire fleet against American naval power in a desperate gamble to destroy the large concentration of American shipping in Leyte Gulf. Powerful enemy forces, comprised of carriers, battleships, cruisers, and destroyers, converged on the Philippines in a three pronged attack to the south, center, and north. The Japanese Southern Force met disaster before dawn 25 October as it tried to drive through Surigao Strait to join the Center Force off Leyte Gulf. While steaming through the Sibuyan Sea en route to San Bernardino Strait, the Center Force was hit hard on the 24th by hundreds of planes from Admiral Halsey's fast attack carriers. After the Battle of Sibuyan Sea, Admiral Halsey no longer considered the Center Force a serious menace, and he sent the carriers north to intercept decoy carriers of the Japanese Northern Force off Cape Engano.

Battle off Samar

These swift moving events left the escort carriers of "Taffy 3" as lone sentinels off Samar, and unaware of the nighttime movement of the Center Force. However, shortly after sunrise 25 October, a gap in the morning mist disclosed the pagoda-like masts of enemy battleships and cruisers on the northern horizon. The still dangerous IJN Center Force, consisting of four battleships, six heavy cruisers, two light cruisers and eleven destroyers, had slipped undetected through San Bernardino Strait and down the fog-shrouded coast of Samar, bound for Leyte Gulf.

Despite the probable outcome of an engagement between two so unequal surface forces, the presence of enemy ships in Leyte Gulf was unthinkable; and "Taffy 3" turned to do battle against the enemy. Immediately, an urgent call for help went out from "Taffy 3" as the escort carriers steamed eastward and launched planes that tried to score hits with torpedoes, bombs, and strafe until their ammunition ran out, then make dummy runs to break the enemy formation and delay its advance. Smoke was laid down to cover their running fight as the destroyers ducked in and out of the mist and smoke to charge battleship, cruiser, and destroyer formations point-blank until ordered back to cover the escort carriers with more smoke. The lone 5 inch gun of "Gambier Bay" spat out at an enemy cruiser that was shelling her; and destroyers USS|Heermann|DD-532|2 and USS|Johnston|DD-557|2 made an unsuccessful effort under the combined fire of the heavy enemy ships to save "Gambier Bay".

"Gambier Bay" was soon dead in the water as three cruisers closed to point blank range. Fires raged through the riddled escort carrier. She capsized and sank at 0907 on 25 October 1944 with the majority of her nearly 800 survivors rescued two days later by landing and patrol craft dispatched from Leyte Gulf. Three other ships, fighting to the end, went down: USS|Hoel|DD-533|2, USS|Samuel B. Roberts|DE-413|2, and USS "Johnston". The latter used only her 5 inch guns in a dummy torpedo run that thwarted the torpedo attack of an entire Japanese Destroyer Squadron led by a cruiser.

Aircraft from "Taffy 2" joined in the epic battle off Samar. The events that followed were described by Admiral Sprague: :"At 0925 my mind was occupied with dodging torpedoes when near the bridge I heard one of the signalmen yell 'They're getting away!' I could hardly believe my eyes, but it looked as if the whole Japanese fleet was indeed retiring. However, it took a whole series of reports from circling planes to convince me. And still I could not get the fact to soak into my battle-numbed brain. At best, I had expected to be swimming by this time."

"Gambier Bay" and other ships of "Taffy 3," aided by planes of "Taffy 2," had stopped the powerful Japanese Center Force and inflicted a great loss. Two enemy cruisers were sunk, much damage inflicted on the other ships, and this overwhelmingly powerful surface fleet was turned back by the escort carriers and their screen of destroyers and destroyer-escorts.

"Gambier Bay" received four battle stars for service in World War II and shared in the award of the Presidential Unit Citation to "Taffy 3" for extraordinary heroism in the Battle off Samar.

References

"Flat Top Flash", published weekly by Kaiser Company, Inc.'s Vancouver Yard during years of carrier construction. Henry J. Kaiser Manuscript Collection, Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley.

Further reading

*

ee also

* List of U.S. Navy losses in World War II

External links

* [http://www.ussgambierbay-vc10.com/ USS "Gambier Bay" (CVE-73) & Composite Squadron VC-10] official website
* [http://www.modelwarships.com/reviews/ships/cv/cve-73/cve-73.html Building the "Gambier Bay" (CVE-73) in 1/72 Scale] article by Bill Waldorf
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/g1/gambier_bay.htm "Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships" "Gambier Bay"]
* [http://www.navsource.org/archives/03/073.htm NavSource Online: Escort Carrier Photo Archive USS "Gambier Bay" (CVE-73)]
* [http://www.bosamar.com/ The Battle Off Samar - Taffy III at Leyte Gulf website] by Robert Jon Cox


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