official_name = Comune di Pavia
img_coa = Pavia-Stemma.png
image_caption = The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) across the Ticino is a symbol of Pavia
province = Pavia (PV)
elevation_m = 77
area_total_km2 = 62
name = Pavia
31 August 2007
population_total = 70294
coordinates = coord|45|11|N|09|09|E
telephone = 0382
postalcode = 27100
gentilic = Pavesi
saint = St. Sirus
mayor = Piera Capitelli (since 2005)
website = [http://www.comune.pavia.it www.comune.pavia.it]
Pavia (pronounced "Pavìa", IPA| [paˈviˑa] ), the ancient
Ticinum, is a town and comuneof south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milanon the lower Ticino rivernear its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c. 71,000.
Pavia is the capital of a fertile province known for agricultural products including
wine, rice, cereals, and dairyproducts. Some industries located in the suburbs do not disturb the peaceful atmosphere which comes from the preservation of the city's past and the climate of study and meditation associated with its ancient University. The University of Pavia, together with the IUSS (Institute for Advanced Studies of Pavia), the Ghislieri College, the Borromeo College, the Nuovo College, the Santa Caterina Collegeand the EDiSU, belongs to the Pavia Study System. Furthermore, Pavia is the see cityof the Roman Catholic diocese of Pavia.
::"For the main article on the Roman city, see
Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia (then known as "Ticinum") was a municipality and an important military site under the
Here, in 476,
Odoacerdefeated Flavius Orestesafter a long siege. To punish the city for helping the rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. However, Orestes was able to escape to Piacenza, where Odoacer followed and killed him, deposing his son Romulus Augustus. This was commonly considered the end of the Western Roman Empire.
A late name of the city in Latin was "Papia" (probably related to the
Pope), which evolved to the Italian name "Pavia". Sometimes it's been referred to as "Ticinum Papia", combining both Latin names.
Goths, Pavia became a fortified citadeland their last bulwark in the war against Belisarius.
Lombardsconquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom. During the Rule of the Dukes, it was ruled by Zaban. It continued to function as the administrative centre of the kingdom, but by the reign of Desiderius, it had deteriorated as a first-rate defensive work and Charlemagnetook it in the Siege of Pavia(June, 774) assuming the kingship of the Lombards. Pavia remained the capital of the Italian Kingdom and the centre of royal coronations until the diminution of imperial authority there in the twelfth century. In the 12th century Pavia acquired the status of a self-governing commune. In the political division between Guelphs and Ghibellinesthat characterizes the Italian Middle Ages, Pavia was traditionally Ghibelline, a position that was as much supported by the rivalry with Milanas it was a mark of the defiance of the Emperor that led the Lombard Leagueagainst the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who was attempting to reassert long-dormant Imperial influence over Italy.
In the following centuries Pavia was an important and active town.Under the Treaty of Pavia, Emperor Louis IV granted during his stay in Italy the Palatinate to his brother Duke Rudolph's descendants. Pavia held out against the domination of
Milan, finally yielding to the Viscontifamily, rulers of that city in 1359; under the Visconti Pavia became an intellectual and artistic centre, being the seat from 1361 of the University of Paviafounded around the nucleus of the old school of law, which attracted students from many countries.
Battle of Pavia(1525) marks a watershed in the city's fortunes, since by that time, the former cleavage between the supporters of the Pope and those of the Holy Roman Emperor had shifted to one between a French party (allied with the Pope) and a party supporting the Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Thus during the Valois- Habsburg Italian Wars, Pavia was naturally on the Imperial (and Spanish) side. The defeat and capture of king Francis I of Franceduring the battle ushered in a period of Spanish occupation which lasted until 1713. Pavia was then ruled by the Austrians until 1796, when it was occupied by the French army under Napoleon.
In 1815, it again passed under Austrian administration until the
Second War of Italian Independence(1859) and the unification of Italyone year later.
Pavia's most famous landmark is the "Certosa", or
Carthusianmonastery, founded in 1396 and located eight kilometres north of the city.
Among other notable structures are:
*Cathedral of Pavia ("
Duomodi Pavia"), begun in 1488; however, only by 1898 were the façade and the dome completed according to the original design. The central dome has an octagonal plan, stands 97 m high, and weighs some 20,000 tons. This dome is the third for size in Italy, after St. Peter's Basilicaand Santa Maria del Fiorein Florence. Next to the Duomo were the Civic Tower (existing at least from 1330 and enlarged in 1583 by Pellegrino Tibaldi): its fall on March 17, 1989, was the final motivating force that started the last decade's efforts to save the Leaning Tower of Pisafrom a similar fate.
San Michele Maggiore" (St. Michael) is an outstanding example of Lombard-Romanesque church architecture in Lombardy. It is located on the site of a pre-existing Lombard church, which the lower part of the campanilebelongs to. Destroyed in 1004, the church was rebuilt from around the end of the 11th century (including the crypt, the transept and the choir), and finished in 1155. It is characterized by an extensive use of sandstoneand by a very long transept, provided with a façade and an apse of its own. In the church the Emperor Frederick Barbarossawas crowned in 1155.
*The Basilica of "
San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro" ("St. Peter in Golden Sky"), where Saint Augustine, Boethius and the Lombard king Liutprand are buried, was begun in the 6th century. The current construction was built in 1132. It is similar to San Michele Maggiore, but different in the asymmetric façade with a single portal, the use of brickworkinstead of sandstone, and, in the interior, the absence of matronei, galleries reserved for women and the shortest transept. The noteworthy arch housing the relics of St. Augustine was built in 1362 by artists from Campione, and is decorated by some 150 statues and reliefs. The church is mentioned by Dante Alighieriin the X canto of his " Divine Comedy".
*"San Teodoro" (1117), dedicated to
Theodore of Pavia, a medieval bishop of the Diocese of Pavia, is the third romanesque basilica in the city, though smaller than the former ones. It is situated on the slopes leading down to the Ticino riverand served the fishermen. The apses and the three-level tiburium are samples of the effective simplicity of romanesque decoration. Inside are two outstanding bird's-eye-view frescoes of the city (1525) attributed to the painter Bernardino Lanzani. The latter, the definitive release, was stripped off disclosing the unfinished first one. Both are impressively detailed and reveal how little Pavia’s urban design has changed during the last 500 years.
*the large fortified "
Castello Visconteo" (built 1360-1365 by Galeazzo II Visconti). In spite of its being fortified, it actually was used as a private residence rather than a stronghold. The poet Francesco Petrarcaspent some time there, when Gian Galeazzo Visconticalled him to take charge of the magnificent library which owned about a thousand books and manuscripts, subsequentely lost. The Castle is now home to the City Museums ( Musei Civici) and the park is a popular attraction for children. An unconfirmed legend wants the Castle to be connected by a secret underground tunnel to the "Certosa".
*The church of "Santa Maria del Carmine" is one of the best known examples of Gothic brickwork architecture in northern Italy. It is the second largest church in the city after the cathedral and is built on the Latin cross plan, with a perimeter of 80 x 40 meters comprising a nave and two aisles. The characteristic façade has a large
rose windowand seven cusps.
*The renaissance church of "
Santa Maria di Canepanova" is attributed to Bramante.
University of Paviawas founded in 1361, although a school of rhetoric is documented in 825. The "Centrale" Building is a wide block made up of twelve courts of the XV-XIX centuries. The sober façade shifts from baroque style to neoclassic. The "Big Staircase", the "Aula Foscolo", the "Aula Volta", the "Aula Scarpa" and the "Aula Magna" are neoclassic too. The "Cortile degli Spiriti Magni" hosts the statues of some of the most important scholars and alumni. Ancient burial monuments and gravestones of scholars of the XIV-XVI centuries are walled up in the "Cortile Voltiano" (most come from demolished churches). The "Cortile delle Magnolie" holds an ancient pit. The "Cortile di Ludovico il Moro" has a renaissance loggia and terracotta decorations. Both courts, as well as two more, were the cloisters of the ancient Ospedale di San Matteo. The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Paviais the university's botanical garden.
medieval towersstill shape the town skyline. The main clusters still rising are rallied in Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, Via Luigi Porta, and Piazza Collegio Borromeo.
People born in Pavia include:
Lanfranc(c. 1005 – 1089), abbot and Archibishop of Canterbury
Gerolamo Cardano(1501–1576), scientist
Benedetto Cairoli(1825–1889), twice head of the government
Tranquillo Cremona(1837–1878), painter
Claudia Muzio(1889–1936), opera singer
Carlo M. Cipolla(1922–2000), economic historian
People who have lived in Pavia include:
Alessandro Volta(1745-1827) , scientist
Simion Bărnuţiu(1808-1864), philosopher and politician
Camillo Golgi(1843 –1926, biologist
Albert Einstein(1879–1955), physicist
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