- Barbara Greene
Barbara Greene (born
September 1, 1945) is a Canadian politician. She served in the Canadian House of Commonsfrom 1988 to 1993 as a member of the Progressive Conservative Party. She was previously a municipal politician in North York, and campaigned for mayor of the city in 1985. She is a Red Tory, and holds progressive views on most social issues.
Early life and career
Greene was born in Pembroke in eastern Ontario, where her father was stationed during
World War II. Her parents were Alfred Greene and Mary Margaret Greene (nee Hutchinson) of Toronto. Both were graduates of St. Michael's College, University of Toronto. Her parents returned to Toronto following the war, and she attended St. Monica's Separate School in North Toronto. She graduated from St Michael's College, University of Toronto in 1966 with a Bachelor of Artsin English and from the College of Education in 1967 with qualifications in English and Theatre Arts. She taught English at Victoria Park Secondary School for the North York Board of Education from September 1967 until she was elected to office in 1971.
North York City Controller, 1972-1980
Greene was first elected to the North York City Council in December 1972, winning a position on the city's Board of Control. The position gave her an automatic seat on the Metropolitan Toronto council. Greene's first campaign was centred primarily around a zoning issue: she opposed a municipal
bylawrestricting cohabitation by people unless they were related or one person was an owner (she and her female housemates had been threatened with eviction under the terms of this bylaw). Greene also argued that she would speak for the rights of women, single persons, tenants and salaried workers. [Barbara Greene, "Civic election" (Letter to the editor), "Globe and Mail", 2 December 1972, p. 6.] One of the first issues she was involved in was the Ambulance service. She fought a "one woman war" which resulted in the amalgamation of ambulances services in Metropolitan Toronto and the establishment of the Toronto Ambulance Service.
She was re-elected to the Board of Control in 1974, 1976 and 1978 before standing down in 1980. As a result of topping the poll for the Board of Control (on which sat the Mayor and four Controllers elected at-large), Greene became the Deputy Mayor of North York in 1974. In this capacity she sat on the Executive Committee and Budget sub committee of Metropitan Toronto and reviewed the budgets of numerous departments at various times including those of the Community Services and Housing departments, the Police and the Ambulance Departments. She also campaigned for the
Legislative Assembly of Ontarioin the 1975 provincial election, losing to New Democrat Odoardo Di Santoin Downsview.
Greene's support for cohabitation law reform placed her in opposition to North York Mayor
Mel Lastman, who initially supported her but then wanted to exclude boarding houses from the city. Following an eight-year legal battle conducted by lawyer Barry Swadron QC, on behalf of Doug Bell, a resident of North York who had been charged with living with other people to whom he was not related, the Supreme Court of Canadaupheld Greene's position and struck down the municipal bylawin April 1979. ["Bylaw limiting home to family is struck down", "Globe and Mail", 25 April 1979, P4.]
Greene favoured market-value assessment reforms for Metro Toronto properties, and criticized provincial Treasurer
Darcy McKeoughfor backing away from this proposal in 1978. ["Politicians' reactions to the shelving of taxation reform range from jubilation to disgust and disappointment", "Globe and Mail", 9 June 1978, P4.] In 1979, she spoke out against tobaccoadvertising on the Toronto Transit Commission. [Dick Beddoes, "Smoking out cigaret ads", "Globe and Mail", 16 May 1979, P8.] She also supported electoral reforms, including the abolition of regional Boards of Control and the direct election of the Metro Chair. [James Jefferson, "Politicians hail plan for direct election to Metro", "Globe and Mail", 29 April 1978, P1; Alden Baker, "Paul Godfrey: lots of power, no election expenses", "Globe and Mail", 9 October 1980, P5.]
She considered running against Lastman for
Mayor of North Yorkin 1980, but declined on the grounds that she did not have the financial resources to conduct a successful campaign. [Dick Beddoes, "Very stable sort, those Islanders", "Globe and Mail", 15 July 1980, P8.] She did not seek re-election to the Board of Control, and instead announced that she would enrol in a Master of Public Administration (postgraduate) program at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. ["Controller Greene heads for Harvard", "Globe and Mail", 1 August 1980, P5.] Greene sought a prominent civil service position after returning to Toronto, but was unsuccessful and returned to teaching high-school English. [John Haslett Cuff, "The Greeneing of North York isn't over yet", "Globe and Mail", 15 May 1982, F6.]
North York City Controller, 1982-1985
Greene returned to municipal politics in 1982, winning election to the second position on North York's Board of Control and receiving an automatic position on Metro's executive committee. ["Greene bid shakes North York", "Globe and Mail", 2 November 1982, P4.] She argued for cutbacks to the
Toronto Transit Commission's budget, arguing that it had become "out of control" by 1984. [Geoffrey York, "Large increase in TTC's budget leads to review", "Globe and Mail", 25 January 1984, P5.] Greene supported the direct election of Metro Councillors, on the grounds that indirectly elected council members were not sufficiently accountable. [Paul McGrath, "The divine right of Godfrey", "Globe and Mail", 7 January 1984, CL2.]
She resumed her previous role as a prominent critic of Mel Lastman, arguing that his style of politics favoured backroom deals and often removed councillors from the decision-making process. [Bryan Johnson, "Bad Boy Mel: The fridge huckster who stole the hearts of North York voters", "Globe and Mail", 2 April 1983, P10.] Greene also called for the resignation of city planning commissioner Bruce Davidson in August 1983, arguing that his $265,000 debt to a major developer created a serious conflict-of-interest situation. ["Planner should be fired North York controller says", "Globe and Mail", 30 August 1983, P4.] She was one of only four councillors to oppose significant cutbacks to North York's public health department in June 1984, and was subsequently the only City Controller to support an
affirmative actionprogram for city. [ John Sewell, "June bugs, dog days", "Globe and Mail", 2 July 1984, M1; Dyanne Rivers, "Controllers wary of affirmative action", "Globe and Mail", 27 September 1984, M5.]
Greene accused North York Councillor
Andrew Borinsof improper behaviour in 1983-84, arguing that his family's property holdings put him in an undeclared conflict of interest over the proposed North York Civic Centre. [John Sewell, "Politicians in conflict", "Globe and Mail", 8 March 1984, M1.] Borins sued Greene for slander and Greene responded by charging Borins with Conflict of Interest. Borins was successful in the lower courts on March 20, 1984, but this decision was overturned on appeal. A Divisional Court judge subsequently upheld Greene's accusation, and stripped Borins of his council seat on April 16, 1985. ["Alderman absolved of conflict of interest", "Globe and Mail", 21 March 1984, M1; Geoffrey York, "North York alderman removed from office", 17 April 1985, M1; Geoffrey York, "Libel lawsuit against controller sparked alderman's downfall", "Globe and Mail", 18 April 1985, M1.]
She was offered the Progressive Conservative Party's nomination for
Eglinton—Lawrencein the 1984 federal election, but declined. [Alden Baker, "Ottawa, Queen's Park beckon Metro politicians seek higher ground", "Globe and Mail", 30 December 1983, P4.]
Greene challenged Mel Lastman for
Mayor of North Yorkin 1985, promising a more open government and arguing that Lastman had "den [ied] North York residents the right to participate in planning their neighborhoods". [Dyanne Rivers, "Lastman faces 1st fight in 9 years Greene to run for North York mayor", "Globe and Mail", 4 September 1985, P18.] She was defeated by a significant margin, in a contest marked by undisguised animosity between the candidates. Greene returned to teaching after the election, teaching Media Studies, English and Dramatic Arts with the North York Board of Education. [Alden Baker, "Politicians split on severance pay", "Globe and Mail", 18 January 1986, A16; David Miller, "Celebrity Job-seekers", "Toronto Star", 2 February 1986, D1.]
Member of Parliament
Greene returned to political life again in 1988, narrowly winning the federal Progressive Conservative nomination for
Don Valley Northover Peter Ayre Phillips. [Rosemary Todd, "Greene gets Tory nod in tight Don Valley race", "Globe and Mail", 4 August 1988, C8. Greene won the nomination by 147 votes to 130.] She subsequently won the riding in the 1988 federal election, defeating Liberal Sarkis Assadourianby a close margin. (Concert pianist Anton Kuertifinished third for the New Democratic Party.) There was some media speculation that Greene would be appointed to cabinet, but she instead served in parliament as a backbench supporter of Brian Mulroney's government. [John Cruickshank, "MacDonald's defeat opens spot on cabinet", "Globe and Mail", 22 November 1988, C1.]
Greene encouraged the Progressive Conservative government to change a section of the Immigration Act in 1989, saying that it discriminated against disabled people. [Julia Nunes, "MP says Ottawa likely to alter act to remove bias against disabled", "Globe and Mail", 21 June 1989, A3.] She also argued that Canadian copyright laws should be adjusted to permit teachers to copy and reproduce material for classroom analysis. [Licia Corbella, "Scarborough board leads fight against copyright law", "Toronto Star", 7 September 1989, N9.] In late November 1989, she was appointed to a parliamentary task force examining Canada's
abortionlaws. [David Vienneau, "Task force of MPs named on abortion", "Toronto Star", 23 November 1989, A1.]
Greene protested against her own government's cutbacks to multicultural organizations in 1990. [Val Sears, "Coalition in battle to regain funds for heritage languages", "Toronto Star", 30 March 1990, A13.] She chaired the parliamentary standing committee on Health, Welfare, Social Affairs, Seniors and Status of Women and two subcommittees on Child Poverty and the Status of women. [David Vienneau, "18,000 Metro children go hungry, MPs told", "Toronto Star", 7 February 1991, A6; David Vienneau, "Ottawa urged to take the lead in battle against abuse of women", "Toronto Star", 13 February 1991, A11; David Vienneau, "Probe on violence toward women blocked", "Toronto Star", 9 June 1991, A4.] Her committee's report on violence, entitled "The War Against Women", was supported by the prime minister and opposition parties, but opposed by some Progressive Conservative backbenchers on the grounds that its title was "confrontational and inflammatory". [David Vienneau, "PM criticizes Tories against violence study", "Toronto Star", 20 June 1991, A3.] This subsequently resulted in a significant program to combat violence against women which included funds for women's shelters and education programs for police.
Greene supported stricter firearms controls, and announced plans to introduce a bill creating a national firearms registry in late 1991. The initiative was opposed by many in her party. [Gord McIntosh, "Ottawa's record attacked regarding women's issues", "Kitchener-Waterloo Record", 8 March 1991, A12; Geoffrey York, "Campaign launched for gun registration", "Globe and Mail", 16 December 1991, A6.] She also supported changing Canadian laws to outlaw discrimination based on
sexual orientation["Tories split on gay rights", "Globe and Mail", 18 April 1992, A1.]
In April 1991, Greene called for existing tax and social benefits to be rolled into a single national child support program targeted to benefit low-income Canadians. [Rosemary Speirs, "See related story by Robin Harvey on the same page", "Toronto Star", 14 April 2002, A1.] Greene argued that existing benefits favoured wealthier families over the poor, and that the balance needed to be changed. Critics expressed concern that the proposed changes would threaten the universality of these programs, and reduce benefits for vulnerable middle-income families. [Geoffrey York, "New deal for low-income families expected next week", "Globe and Mail", 7 May 1991, A1. Clyde Graham, "Ottawa ponders income scheme", "Kitchener-Waterloo Record", 22 February 1991, A1.] The Mulroney government implemented the child tax credit program but did not implement the recommendations in the report for a national day care program which it had initially supported. [Geoffrey York, "Government scraps day-care commitment", "Globe and Mail", 27 February 1992, A1.] Greene tried to convince her government to re-establish the program later in the year, without success. [Geoffrey York, "Tory tries to revive day-care plan", "Globe and Mail", 17 October 1992, A11.] Greene also sought to create a national standard for social assistance to eliminate the wide disparities between the provinces. [Geoffrey York, "Guaranteed income under study", "Globe and Mail", 29 October 1992, A7.]
Greene called for an adequate income and programs to assist social assistance recipients to become independent as an alternative to food banks, which she argued were creating an unwanted culture of dependence.
Gerard Kennedy, the director of Toronto's Daily Bread Food Bank, said that her comments reflected a "superficial analysis" of hunger issues in Canada. Greene did not call for food banks to be shut down, despite some reports to the contrary. [Michael Valpy, "Odd timing for a call to shut down food banks", "Globe and Mail", 15 December 1992, A2; Lila Sarick, "Food bank bins placed in stores", "Globe and Mail", 15 December 1992, A9.]
Greene also argued that poverty had become a poorly-defined concept in Canada, as the Low Income Cut Offs used to determine poverty levels in Canada did not include other subsidies. She argued that many people listed as being below the poverty line in Canada were not actually poor, while some of the real poor were not being assisted. She was quoted as saying, "Some of our poor may be the most well-off poor in the world. Our poor have their own apartments and televisions." Several opposition MPs and social agencies criticized Greene's comments, arguing that she was misrepresenting the issue. [Geoffrey York, "MPs try to move the poverty line", "Globe and Mail", 24 February 1993, A1; Geoffrey York, "UN body chastises Canada on poverty", "Globe and Mail", 29 May 1993, A1; Ruth Reichrob, "Harvest boycotts attempt to redefine poverty line", "Winnipeg Free Press", 26 April 1993.] "See related article,
Poverty in Canada#Measures of poverty in Canada"
Greene argued that
breast cancerwas becoming a problem of epidemic proportions in 1992, and argued that the federal Department of Health had become too dependent on information from drug manufacturers in regulating its treatment. She supported the creation of a new arms-length agency to approve drugs and other biomedical products. [John Flanders, "Health minister caught in a squeeze on women's health issues", "Hamilton Spectator", 27 June 1992, C10.] Her committee report on breast cancer resulted in a $50 million research funding program for which she received a national award from the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation in 1992.
Kim Campbell's 1993 bid to succeed Mulroney as Progressive Conservative leader and prime minister, arguing that Campbell's ideology was fiscally conservative and socially liberal. ["Mazankowski, Bouchard should team up, Tory MPs say", "Kitchener-Waterloo Record", 27 February 1993, E12.] After Campbell's victory at the 1993 Progressive Conservative leadership convention, there was renewed speculation that Greene would be appointed to cabinet. [Alan Toulin, "Reducing cabinet complex juggling act", "Financial Post", 23 June 1993, p. 4.] She was not, although she was appointed as parliamentary secretaryto the President of the Treasury Board on September 1, 1993.
The Progressive Conservatives were resoundingly defeated in the 1993 federal election, and Greene lost to Liberal candidate
Sarkis Assadourianby a significant margin in a rematch from 1988.
Greene again returned to her teaching career after leaving federal politics. [Caroline Mallan, "The son, the veteran and the pilot", "Toronto Star", 19 August 1999, A21.] She attempted a political comeback as a provincial Progressive Conservative candidate in a 1997
by-election, but was defeated by Liberal David Caplanin the North York riding of Oriole.
Greene has one daughter. Greene's preganancy in 1978 received significant media attention not only because of the novelty, at the time, of being a pregnant female politician but because she was unmarried and declined to name the father. She is likely the first unmarried Canadian politician to give birth while in office.
* [http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/about/people/key/bio.asp?Language=E&query=1017&s=F Federal political experience]
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