Voiceless dental plosive


Voiceless dental plosive

The voiceless dental plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is IPA|t̪, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t_d. This is the symbol for the voiceless alveolar plosive with the "bridge below" diacritic meaning dental.

Features

Features of the voiceless dental plosive:

* Its manner of articulation is plosive or stop, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract.
* Its place of articulation is dental which means it is articulated with the tongue on either the lower or the upper teeth, or both.
* Its phonation type is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
* It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.
* It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the center of the tongue, rather than the sides.
* The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.

Varieties of the voiceless dental plosive

Occurrence

True dental consonants are relatively uncommon. In the Romance languages, IPA|/t/ is often called dental. However, the rearmost contact (which is what gives a consonant its distinctive sound) is actually alveolar, or perhaps denti-alveolar; the fact that the front of the tongue touches the teeth may be more visible, but is unimportant acoustically.Fact|date=January 2008 The difference between the IPA|/t/ sounds of the Romance languages and English is not so much where the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth as which part of the tongue makes the contact. In English, it is the tip of the tongue (such sounds are termed apical), whereas in a number of Romance languages, it is the flat of the tongue just above the tip (such sounds are called laminal).

However, there are languages with true apical (or less commonly laminal) dental "t". Many Indian languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain IPA| [t̪] . In Finnish, the dental plosive IPA|/t/ contrasts with the alveolar plosive IPA|/d/, although the latter is typically voiced or tapped as a secondary cue; moreover, in native words, the alveolar plosive appears only as a lenition of the dental plosive. Pazeh contrasts a voiced alveolar plosive with a voiceless interdental one. [Harvcoltxt|Blust|1999|p=324] Many Australian Aboriginal languages contrast alveolar and dental varieties of IPA|/t/.

ee also

* List of phonetics topics

References

Bibliography

*Harvard reference
last =Blust
first= Robert
authorlink=Robert Blust
year= 1999
title= Notes on Pazeh Phonology and Morphology
journal= Oceanic Linguistics
volume= 38(2)
pages = 321-365

*Harvard reference
last=Carbonell
first=Joan F.
last2=Llisterri
first2=Joaquim
year=1992
title=Catalan
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=22
issue=1-2
pages=53-56

* Harvard reference
last=Cruz-Ferreira
first=Madalena
year= 1995
title=European Portuguese
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=25
issue=2
pages=90-94

*Harvard reference
last = Jassem
first = Wiktor
year= 2003
title=Polish
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=33
issue=1
pages=103-107

*Harvard reference
last =Jones
first= Daniel
last2 =Dennis
first2= Ward
year= 1969
title= The Phonetics of Russian
publisher=Cambridge University Press

*Harvard reference
last =Roca
first= Iggy
last2 =Johnson
first2= Wyn
year= 1999
title= A Course in Phonology
publisher=Blackwell Publishing

*Harvard reference
last = Rogers
first = Derek
last2 = d'Arcangeli
first2 = Luciana
year= 2004
title=Italian
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=34
issue=1
pages=117-121

*Harvard reference
last =Watson
first= Janet
year= 2002
title= The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic
publisher=Oxford University Press


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