- Voiced alveolar plosive
Voiced alveolar plosive d Image IPA number 104 Encoding Entity (decimal)
Unicode (hex) U+0064 X-SAMPA
The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is d (although the symbol d̪ can be used to distinguish the dental version, see voiceless dental plosive), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.
Features of the voiced alveolar plosive:
- Its manner of articulation is stop, or plosive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)
- Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
IPA Description d modal d dʱ or d̤ breathy voice or murmured d dʲ palatalized d dʷ labialized d dˤ pharyngialized d d̚ unreleased d d̥ voiceless or slack voice d d̬ stiff voice d d̺ apical d d̻ laminal d d̪ dental or denti-alveolar d d̟ or d̪͆ interdental d d̠ postalveolar d
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes Armenian դեմք/demk’ [dɛmkʰ] (help·info) ’face’ See Armenian phonology Czech do [do] 'into' See Czech phonology Dutch dak [dɑk] 'roof' See Dutch phonology English admit [ædˈmɪt] 'admit' See English phonology Finnish sidos [sido̞s] 'bond' See Finnish phonology French dais [dɛ] 'canopy' See French phonology German Dach [dax] 'roof' See German phonology Greek ντροπή/dropí [dro̞ˈpi] 'shame' See Modern Greek phonology Hungarian adó [ɒdoː] 'tax' See Hungarian phonology Indonesian dacing [ˈdatʃiŋ] 'balance scale' Japanese 男性的/danseiteki [danseiteki] 'masculine' See Japanese phonology Korean 아들/adeul [adɯl] 'son' See Korean phonology Malay dahan [dahan] 'branch' Maltese dehen [den] 'wit' Norwegian dans [dɑns] 'dance' See Norwegian phonology Slovak do [do] 'into' West Frisian doarp [dwɑrp] 'village' Yi ꄿ/dda [da˧] 'competent'
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
- Maddieson, Ian (1984), Patterns of Sound, Camebridge University Press
- Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97
- Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (2): 209–213
International Phonetic Alphabet IPA topics IPA Phonetics Special topics Encodings Consonants IPA pulmonic consonants chartchart image • audio Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal ↓ Manner Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal Nasal m ɱ n̪ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Plosive p b p̪ b̪ t̪ d̪ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ я * Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ⱱ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯ Lateral Fric. ɬ ɮ ɭ˔̊ ʎ̥˔ ʟ̝̊ Lateral Appr. l ɭ ʎ ʟ Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̠ ʎ̯ Non-pulmonic consonants Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ᶑ ɠ ʛ Ejectives pʼ tʼ cʼ ʈʼ kʼ qʼ fʼ θʼ sʼ ɬʼ xʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ Affricates p̪f ts dz tʃ dʒ tɕ dʑ ʈʂ ɖʐ tɬ dɮ cç ɟʝ Co-articulated consonants Fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ Approximants ʍ w ɥ ɫ Stops k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help] Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible. * Symbol not defined in IPA. Chart image Vowels
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