Voiced alveolar plosive


Voiced alveolar plosive
Voiced alveolar plosive
d
IPA number 104
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d
Unicode (hex) U+0064
X-SAMPA d
Kirshenbaum d
Sound

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The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is d (although the symbol can be used to distinguish the dental version, see voiceless dental plosive), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.

Contents

Features

Features of the voiced alveolar plosive:

  • Its manner of articulation is stop, or plosive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Varieties

IPA Description
d modal d
or breathy voice or murmured d
palatalized d
labialized d
pharyngialized d
unreleased d
voiceless or slack voice d
stiff voice d
apical d
laminal d
dental or denti-alveolar d
or d̪͆ interdental d
postalveolar d

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian դեմք/demk’ About this sound [dɛmkʰ] ’face’ See Armenian phonology
Czech do [do] 'into' See Czech phonology
Dutch[1] dak [dɑk] 'roof' See Dutch phonology
English admit [ædˈmɪt] 'admit' See English phonology
Finnish sidos [sido̞s] 'bond' See Finnish phonology
French dais [dɛ] 'canopy' See French phonology
German Dach [dax] 'roof' See German phonology
Greek ντροπή/dropí [dro̞ˈpi] 'shame' See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian adó [ɒdoː] 'tax' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[2] dacing [ˈdatʃiŋ] 'balance scale'
Japanese[3] 男性的/danseiteki [danseiteki] 'masculine' See Japanese phonology
Korean 아들/adeul [adɯl] 'son' See Korean phonology
Malay dahan [dahan] 'branch'
Maltese dehen [den] 'wit'
Norwegian dans [dɑns] 'dance' See Norwegian phonology
Slovak do [do] 'into'
West Frisian doarp [dwɑrp] 'village'
Yi /dda [da˧] 'competent'

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Maddieson, Ian (1984), Patterns of Sound, Camebridge University Press 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97 
  • Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (2): 209–213 

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