Kawanishi H8K


Kawanishi H8K

infobox Aircraft
name = Kawanishi H8K
type = Four engine long-range flying boat
manufacturer = Kawanishi



caption = Kawanishi H8K2 at Kanoya museum, Japan
designer =
first flight = January 1941
introduced = February 1942
retired = 1945
status =
primary user = IJN Air Service
more users =
produced = 1941-194?
number built =167
unit cost =
The Kawanishi H8K (二式大型飛行艇, Type 2 Large Flying Boat. 二式大艇, Nishiki Daitei, Nishiki Taitei) was an Imperial Japanese Navy flying boat used during World War II for maritime patrol duties. The Allied reporting name for the type was "Emily".

Design and development

At the same time as the type's predecessor, the Kawanishi H6K was going into service in 1938, the Navy ordered the development of a larger, longer-range patrol aircraft. The result was a large, shoulder wing design that is widely regarded as the best flying boat of the war [Green 1972, p. 131.] [Van der Klaauw, p. 86.] [Francillon 1979, p. 312.] . Despite this, development was troublesome, with the prototype displaying terrible handling on the water. Further prototypes considerably refined the hull design.

The improved H8K2 variant soon appeared, and its extremely heavy defensive armament earned it deep respect among Allied aircrews, [Francillon 1979, p. 310.] who allegedly nicknamed it the "flying porcupine".Fact|date=December 2007 The H8K2 was an upgrade over the H8K1 by having more powerful engines, slightly revised armament, and an increase in fuel capacity. This was to be the definitive variant, with 112 produced.

Nearly 40 examples of a dedicated transport version, the H8K2-L, were also built, capable of carrying 62 troops. This aircraft was also known as "Seiku" (晴空, "Clear Sky"). They dispensed with the side defensive blisters, ventral defensive hatch, and dorsal turret. To increase the available space within the aircraft, its hull tanks were removed, thus reducing its range capabilities.

Operational history

The H8K entered production in 1941 and first saw operational use on the night of March 4 1942 in an attempt at a second raid on Pearl Harbor. Since the target lay out of range for the flying boats, this audacious plan involved a refuelling by submarine at French Frigate Shoals en route. Two planes attempted to bomb Pearl Harbor but, due to poor visibility, did not accomplish any significant damage. [Raymer, E.C: "Descent Into Darkness", pages 96 - 98. Presidio Press, 1996, ISBN:0-89141-580-0]

H8K2 were used on a wide range of patrol, reconnaissance, bombing, and transport missions throughout the Pacific war. The H8K2 was given the Allied code name, "Emily".

Variants

;H8K1 Prototype:One experimental prototype and two evaluation aircraft.;H8K1 (Navy Flying Boat type 2, Model 11):First operative model of series, 14 built.;H8K1-L:Redesignation of the first prototype, after it was converted into a transport aircraft.;H8K2 (Model 12):Version with more powerful engines and major armament, equipped with search radar, 120 built.;H8K2-L "Seiku" ("Clear Sky"),(Model 32):Transport version of H8K1. Armed examples were equipped with two 20 mm Type 99 cannons and transport capacity of 29-64 passengers (36).;H6K3 (Model 22):Experimental version, H8K2 modified. Equipped with retractable floats in wingtips, sliding hatch side gun locations in place of the blisters, and a retractable dorsal turret all in an effort to increase speed, 2 prototypes.;H8K4 (Model 23):H8K3 with different engines, 2 converted.

Operators

;JPN
*Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

urvivors

Four aircraft survived until the end of the war. One of these, an H8K2, was captured by U.S. forces at the end of the war and was evaluated before being eventually returned to Japan in 1979. It was on display at Tokyo's Museum of Maritime Science until 2004, when it was moved to Kanoya Air Base in Kagoshima.

pecifications (Kawanishi H8K2)

aircraft specification

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War IIRef Jane's|The Kawanishi H8K2 “Emily”|185-186]

crew=10
length main=28.15 m
length alt=92 ft 4 in
span main=38.00 m
span alt=124 ft 8 in
height main=9.15 m
height alt=30 ft
area main=160 m²
area alt=1,721 ft²
empty weight main=18,380 kg
empty weight alt=40,436 lb
loaded weight main=24,500 kg
loaded weight alt=53,900 lb
max takeoff weight main=32,500 kg
max takeoff weight alt=71,500 lb
engine (prop)=Mitsubishi Kasei 22
type of prop=radial engines
number of props=4
power main=1,380 kW
power alt=1,850 hp
max speed main=465 km/h
max speed alt=290 mph
range main=7,150 km
range alt=4,440 mi
ceiling main=8,760 m
ceiling alt=28,740 ft
climb rate main=8.1 m/s
climb rate alt=1,600 ft/min
loading main=153 kg/m²
loading alt=31 lb/ft²
power/mass main=0.22 kW/kg
power/mass alt=0.14 hp/lb
avionics=
*Mark VI Model 1 radar
armament=
*5× 20 mm Type 99 cannon (one each in bow, dorsal, and tail turrets, plus one each in two waist blisters)
*5× 7.7 mm Type 97 machine guns in fuselage hatches
*2× 800 kg (1,760 lb) torpedoes "or" 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) of bombs or depth charges

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Francillon, René J. "Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War". London: Putnam & Company, 1970 (2nd edition 1979). ISBN 0-370-30251-6.
* Green, William. "Warplanes of the Second World War, Volume Five: Flying Boats". London: Macdonald & Co.(Publishers)Ltd., 1962. ISBN 0-356-01449-5.
* Richards, M.C. "Kawanishi 4-Motor Flying-Boats (H6K 'Mavis' and H8K 'Emily')". "Aircraft in Profile Volume 11". Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1972.
* Van der Klaauw, Bart. "Water- en Transportviegtuigen Wereldoorlog II" (in Dutch). Alkmaar, the Netherlands: Uitgeverij de Alk. ISBN 90-6013-6772.

External links

ee also

aircontent

similar aircraft=
* Short Sunderland
* Boeing 314
* Martin M-130

lists=
* List of flying boats
* List of military aircraft of Japan


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