Monarchies in Europe


Monarchies in Europe
A map of Europe exhibiting the continent's republics (blue) and monarchies (red).

There are twelve monarchies in Europe today. Europe's monarchies are: the Principality of Andorra, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Principality of Monaco, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Norway, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the State of the Vatican City. Ten of these are states where the head of state (a monarch) inherits his or her office, and usually keeps it for life or until they abdicate. As for the other two: in the Vatican City (an elective monarchy, styled a theocracy), the head of state, the pope, is elected at the papal conclave, while in Andorra (technically a semi-elective diarchy), the joint heads of state are the elected President of France and the appointed Bishop of Urgell.

Most of the monarchies in Europe are constitutional monarchies, which means that the monarch does not influence the politics of the state: either the monarch is legally prohibited from doing so, or the monarch does not utilise the political powers vested in the office by convention. The exceptions are Liechtenstein, which is usually considered a semi-constitutional monarchy due to the large influence the prince still has on politics, and the Vatican City, which is a theocratic absolute elective monarchy. There is currently no major campaign to abolish the monarchy (see monarchism and republicanism) in any of the twelve states, although there is a significant minority of republicans in many of them (e.g. the political organisation Republic in the United Kingdom). Currently seven of the twelve monarchies are members of the European Union: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

At the start of the 20th century, France, Switzerland and San Marino were the only European nations to have a republican form of government. The ascent of republicanism to the political mainstream started only at the beginning of the 20th century, facilitated by the toppling of various European monarchies through war or revolution; as at the beginning of the 21st century, most of the states in Europe are republics with either a directly or indirectly elected head of state.

Contents

Current monarchies

Belgium

Belgium has been a kingdom since 21 July 1831 without interruption, after it became independent from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands with Léopold I as its first king. Belgium is the only remaining popular monarchy in the world: The monarch is formally known as the "King of the Belgians", not the "King of Belgium".[citation needed] While in a referendum held on 12 March 1950, 57.68 per cent of the Belgians voted in favour of allowing Léopold III, whose conduct during World War II had been considered questionable and who had been accused of treason, to return to the throne; due to civil unrest, however, he opted to abdicate in favour of his son Baudouin I on 16 July 1951.[1] The current monarch is Albert II.

The crown of Christian IV, part of the Danish Crown Regalia.

Denmark

In Denmark, the monarchy goes back to the prehistoric times of the legendary kings, before the 10th century. Currently, about 80 per cent support keeping the monarchy.[2] The current monarch is Margrethe II. The Danish monarchy also includes the Faroe Islands and Greenland which are parts of the Kingdom of Denmark with internal home rule. Due to this status, the monarch has no separate title for these regions.

Luxembourg

Luxembourg has been an independent grand duchy since 9 June 1815. Originally, Luxembourg was in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 16 March 1815 until 23 November 1890. While Wilhelmina succeeded Willem III in the Netherlands, this was not possible in Luxembourg due to the order of succession being based on Salic law at that time; he was succeeded instead by Adolphe. In a referendum held on 28 September 1919, 80.34 per cent voted in favour of keeping the monarchy.[3] The current monarch is Henri.

The Netherlands

The Netherlands originally became independent as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, which lasted from 26 July 1581 until 18 January 1795, when the Netherlands became a French puppet state as the Batavian Republic. The Batavian Republic existed from 19 January 1795 until 4 June 1806. It was transformed into the Kingdom of Holland on 5 June 1806; since then, the Netherlands have been a kingdom. They were subsequently annexed to the French Empire in 1810. The United Kingdom of the Netherlands was established on 16 March 1815. With the independence of Belgium on 21 July 1831, the Netherlands again took a new form, as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Nowadays, about 70 to 80 per cent of the Dutch are in favour of keeping the monarchy.[4][5] The current monarch is Beatrix.

Norway

Norway was united and independent for the first time in the period around 1000–1400. Norway was part of the Kalmar Union from 1397 until 1524, then part of Denmark–Norway from 1536 until 1814, and finally part of the Union between Sweden and Norway from 1814 until 1905. Norway became independent again on 7 June 1905. Support for establishing a republic lies around 20 per cent.[6] The current monarch is Harald V.

Spain

Spain came into existence as a single, united kingdom under Charles I of Spain on 23 January 1516. The monarchy was briefly interrupted by the First Spanish Republic from 11 February 1873 until 29 December 1874. The monarchy was abolished again on 14 April 1931, first by the Second Spanish Republic – which lasted until 1 April 1939 – and subsequently by the dictatorship of Generalísimo Francisco Franco, who reigned until his death on 20 November 1975. Monarchy was restored on 22 November 1975 under Juan Carlos I, who is also the current monarch. Today, there is a large number of organisations campaigning in favour of establishing a Third Spanish Republic;[7] however, only 25 per cent of Spaniards are in favour of establishing a republic.[8]

Sweden

Sweden and its monarchy goes back as far as the Danish one, to the semi–legendary kings before the 10th century, since then it has not been interrupted. However the current royal family, the House of Bernadotte, only goes as far back as one of Napoleon's marshals, and it is nonetheless not considered[by whom?] impossible that monarchy could be abolished in Sweden.[9] The current monarch is Carl XVI Gustaf.

United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland can be defined to have started either with the Kingdoms of England (871) or Scotland (843), with the Union of the Crowns on 24 March 1603, or with the Acts of Union of 1 May 1707. It was briefly interrupted by the English Interregnum, with the Commonwealth of England existing in its stead from 30 January 1649 until 15 December 1653 and from 26 May 1659 until 25 May 1660 and The Protectorate taking its place from 16 December 1653 until 25 May 1659. The current monarch is Elizabeth II.

Support for establishing a republic instead of a monarchy was around 18 per cent in the United Kingdom in 2006, while a majority thinks that there will still be a monarchy in the United Kingdom in ten years' time, public opinion is rather uncertain about a monarchy still existing in fifty years and a clear majority believes that the monarchy will no longer exist in a century since the poll was done.[10] Public opinion is, however, certain that the monarchy will still exist in thirty years. About 30 per cent are in favour of discontinuing the monarchy after Elizabeth's death.[11] The monarch of the United Kingdom is also the monarch of the fifteen other Commonwealth realms, none of which are in Europe. Some of these realms have significant levels of support for republicanism.[12]

European microstates

Andorra

Andorra has been a co-principality since the signing of a paréage in 1278, when the count of Foix and the bishop of La Seu d'Urgell agreed to share sovereignty over the landlocked country. After the title of the count of Foix had been passed to the kings of Navarre, and after Henry of Navarre had become Henry IV of France, an edict was issued in 1607 which established the French head of state as the legal successor to the count of Foix in regard to the paréage. Andorra was annexed by the First French Empire together with Catalonia in 1812–1813. After the Empire's demise, Andorra became independent again.[13] The current joint monarchs are Bishop Joan Enric Vives Sicília and President Nicolas Sarkozy of France.

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein formally came into existence on 23 January 1719, when Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor decreed the lordship of Schellenberg and the countship of Vaduz united and raised to the dignity of a principality. Liechtenstein was a part of the Holy Roman Empire until the Treaty of Pressburg was signed on 26 December 1805; this marked Liechtenstein's formal independence, though it was a member of the Confederation of the Rhine and the German Confederation afterwards. While Liechtenstein was still closely aligned with Austria-Hungary until World War I, it realigned its politics and its customs and monetary institutions with Switzerland instead.[14] Having been a constitutional monarchy since 1921, Hans Adam II demanded more influence in Liechtenstein's politics in the early 21st century, which he was granted in a referendum held on 16 March 2003, effectively making Liechtenstein a semi-constitutional monarchy again. However, the constitutional changes also provide for the possibility of a referendum to abolish the monarchy entirely.[15] The current monarch is Hans-Adam II, who turned over the day-to-day governing decisions to his son and heir Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein on 15 August 2005.

Monaco

Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297. From 1793 until 1814, Monaco was under French control; the Congress of Vienna designated Monaco as being a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860, when the Treaty of Turin ceded the surrounding counties of Nice and Savoy to France. Menton and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, part of Monaco until the mid-19th century before seceding in hopes of being annexed by Sardinia, were ceded to France in exchange for 4,000,000 French francs with the Franco-Monegasque Treaty in 1861, which also formally guaranteed Monaco its independence.[16] Until 2002, Monaco would have become part of France had the house of Grimaldi ever died out; in a treaty signed that year, the two nations agreed that Monaco would remain independent even in such a case. The current monarch is Albert II.

Vatican state

The Vatican City was not a sovereign state until the 20th century. In the 19th century the annexation of the Papal States by the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the subsequent establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, were not recognised by the Vatican. However, by the Lateran Treaty of 1929, the Kingdom of Italy recognised an independent Vatican City state, and vice versa.[17] Since then, the elected monarch of the Vatican City state has been the current pope, at present Benedict XVI.

Succession laws

  male primogeniture, to be changed to equal primogeniture
  male primogeniture
  elective/appointed

The succession order is determined by primogeniture in most European monarchies. Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden now adhere to equal primogeniture, whereby the eldest child inherits the throne, regardless of gender; Monaco, Spain and the United Kingdom have the older system of male-preferance cognatic primogeniture, while Liechtenstein uses agnatic primogeniture.

There are plans to change this in Spain[18] through a rather complicated processes, as the change entails a constitutional amendment. Two successive parliaments will have to pass the law by a two-thirds majority and then put it to a referendum. As parliament has to be dissolved and new elections have to be called after the constitutional amendment is passed for the first time, the current Presidente del Gobierno José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero indicated he would wait until the end of his first term in 2008 before passing the law,[19] although this deadline passed without the referendum being called. The amendment enjoys strong public support.[20]

There have also been suggestions to change the order of succession in the United Kingdom;[21][22][23][24][25] however, as the Queen of the United Kingdom is also the Queen of the fifteen other Commonwealth realms who have independent regulations regarding the order of succession, a change would have to be made simultaneously in all of the Commonwealth realms to continue having a shared monarch, and since the need for change is not imminent yet (as Charles, Prince of Wales will succeed his mother Elizabeth II, and Charles' oldest son Prince William, Duke of Cambridge will succeed him in turn, with no older sisters who would be skipped under the current male primogeniture laws), the change has repeatedly been postponed to a later time. However, the Equality Bill was at first expected to both abolish the preference for male heirs as well as the barring of Catholics from the throne at some point in 2008;[26] the first announcement was later qualified, and it seemed that there were no concrete plans to change the order of succession in the close future,[27] although it was later reported that the marriage between Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton might change this.[28] The heads of government of all sixteen states of which the monarch of the United Kingdom is head of state agreed at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2011 to go ahead and change the rules to equal primogeniture (also abolishing the ban against marrying a Roman Catholic).[29]

Liechtenstein has an even older system of succession (agnatic primogeniture/Salic law), which completely excludes women from the order of succession unless there are no male heirs of any kind present, and was criticised for this by a United Nations committee for this perceived gender equality issue in November 2007.[30]

The co-princes of Andorra are elected and appointed (the president of the French Republic and the Bishop of La Seu d'Urgell, respectively).

The absolute monarch of Vatican City, the Pope Benedict XVI, is elected by the College of Cardinals.

Luxembourg also used agnatic primogeniture until 20 June 2011, when equal primogeniture was introduced.[31]

Table of monarchies in Europe

State Type Succession Incumbent Born Age Reigns since First-in-line
 Andorra co-principality special case:
two co-princes
J. E. Vives i Sicília
(Bishop of Urgell)
24 Jul 1949 62 y. 12 May 2003 None; appointed by the pope
Nicolas Sarkozy
(President of France)
28 Jan 1955 56 y. 17 May 2007 None; elected by the French in 2012
 Belgium kingdom absolute primogeniture Albert II 6 Jun 1934 77 y. 9 Aug 1993 heir apparent: Prince Philippe, Duke of Brabant (eldest child)
 Denmark kingdom absolute primogeniture Margrethe II 16 Apr 1940 71 y. 14 Jan 1972 heir apparent: Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark (elder child)
 Liechtenstein principality agnatic primogeniture Hans-Adam II 14 Feb 1945 66 y. 13 Nov 1989 heir apparent: Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein (eldest son)
 Luxembourg grand duchy absolute primogeniture Henri 16 Apr 1955 56 y. 7 Oct 2000 heir apparent: Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg (eldest child)
 Monaco principality male-preferance cognatic primogeniture Albert II 14 Mar 1958 53 y. 6 Apr 2005 heiress presumptive: Caroline, Princess of Hanover (elder sister)[I]
 Netherlands kingdom absolute primogeniture Beatrix 31 Jan 1938 73 y. 30 Apr 1980 heir apparent: Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange (eldest child)
 Norway kingdom absolute primogeniture Harald V 21 Feb 1937 74 y. 17 Jan 1991 heir apparent: Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway (only son)
 Spain kingdom male-preferance cognatic primogeniture Juan Carlos I 5 Jan 1938 73 y. 22 Nov 1975 heir apparent: Felipe, Prince of Asturias (only son)
 Sweden kingdom absolute primogeniture Carl XVI Gustaf 30 Apr 1946 65 y. 15 Sep 1973 heiress apparent: Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden (eldest child)
 United Kingdom kingdom[II] male-preferance cognatic primogeniture
(absolute primogeniture planned)
Elizabeth II 21 Apr 1926 85 y. 6 Feb 1952 heir apparent: Charles, Prince of Wales (eldest son)
 Vatican City theocracy elective monarchy Benedictus XVI 16 Apr 1927 84 y. 19 Apr 2005 None; elected in papal conclave
I^ Caroline is, as the ruling prince's eldest sister, the current heiress presumptive.

II^ The monarch of the United Kingdom is also the sovereign of the fifteen other Commonwealth realms:  Antigua and Barbuda,  Bahamas,  Barbados,  Grenada,  Jamaica,  Saint Kitts and Nevis,  Saint Lucia and  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean;  Belize in Central America;  Canada in North America; and  Australia,  New Zealand,  Papua New Guinea,  Solomon Islands and  Tuvalu in Oceania.

See also

References

  1. ^ european navigator (20 June 2006). "Full list of the results of the referendum on the issue of the monarchy (13 March 1950)". Historical events – 1945–1949 The pioneering phase. http://www.ena.lu/europe/19451949-pioneering-phase/full-list-results-referendum-issue-monarchy-1950.htm. Retrieved 28 June 2006. 
  2. ^ Staff writer (12 May 2004). "Republicans plan to cut Mary's reign". The Age (Australia). http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/05/12/1084289732842.html. Retrieved 27 June 2006. 
  3. ^ (French) Fayot, Ben (October 2005). "Les quartres référendums du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg" (PDF). Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party. http://www.lsap.lu/files/doc_center/Les_quatre_referendums_du_Grand-Duche_de_Luxembourg.pdf. Retrieved 3 August 2007. 
  4. ^ Netty Nynke Leistra (29 February 2004). "Royal News: March 2003". http://www.nettyroyal.nl/newsmar03.html. Retrieved 27 June 2006. 
  5. ^ Angus Reid (14 May 2008). "Most Dutch Content with Monarchy". Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/30698/most_dutch_content_with_monarchy. Retrieved 14 May 2008. 
  6. ^ Berglund, Nina (5 November 2005). "Monarchy losing support". Aftenposten. http://www.aftenposten.no/english/local/article1157205.ece. Retrieved 4 April 2007. 
  7. ^ Staff writer (1 December 2003). "Spain wants to be a Republic, again". Pravda. http://english.pravda.ru/world/europe/01-12-2003/4206-spain-0. Retrieved 28 June 2006. 
  8. ^ Angus Reid (14 October 2006). "Spaniards Content with Monarchy". Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/index.cfm/fuseaction/viewItem/itemID/13464. Retrieved 14 October 2006. 
  9. ^ Swaerdenheim, Carl-Johan (5 September 2004). "A Swedish monarchy beyond 2020?". Monarchist Alliance. Archived from the original on 13 May 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060513063322/http://geocities.com/monarchistalliance/sweden.html. Retrieved 27 June 2006. 
  10. ^ Ipsos MORI (22 April 2006). "Monarchy Trends". http://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/poll.aspx?oItemId=378. Retrieved 27 June 2006. 
  11. ^ Angus Reid (2 January 2008). "Britons Confident on Monarchy’s Endurance". Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/29520/britons_confident_on_monarchys_endurance. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  12. ^ Staff writer (7 November 1999). "Where the queen still rules". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/australia/story/0,,736103,00.html. Retrieved 30 June 2006. 
  13. ^ United States Department of StateUnder Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public AffairsBureau of Public Affairs. "Background Note: Andorra". http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3164.htm. Retrieved 12 September 2009. 
  14. ^ United States Department of StateUnder Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public AffairsBureau of Public Affairs. "Background Note: Liechtenstein". http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/9403.htm. Retrieved 12 September 2009. 
  15. ^ Foreign and Commonwealth Office. "Country Profile: Liechtenstein". http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/europe/lichtenstein?profile=politics&pg=7. Retrieved 25 November 2009. 
  16. ^ United States Department of StateUnder Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public AffairsBureau of Public Affairs. "Background Note: Monaco". http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3397.htm. Retrieved 12 September 2009. 
  17. ^ United States Department of StateUnder Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public AffairsBureau of Public Affairs. "Background Note: Holy See". http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3819.htm. Retrieved 12 September 2009. 
  18. ^ Fordham, Alive (8 November 2005). "War of Spanish succession looms while baby sleeps". The Times (UK). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,13509-1862015,00.html. Retrieved 29 June 2006. 
  19. ^ Tarvainen, Sinikka (26 September 2006). "Royal pregnancy poses political dilemma for Spain". Monsters and Critics. http://www.monstersandcritics.com/people/royalwatch/features/article_1205115.php/Royal_pregnancy_poses_political_dilemma_for_Spain. Retrieved 27 September 2006. 
  20. ^ Angus Reid (21 October 2006). "Spaniards Support Monarchy Amendment". Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/index.cfm/fuseaction/viewItem/itemID/13530. Retrieved 21 October 2006. 
  21. ^ Staff writer (23 February 2005). "Succession to the Crown (1) Bill". BBC Parliament. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/bbc_parliament/4247077.stm. Retrieved 29 June 2006. 
  22. ^ Staff writer (23 February 2005). "Succession to the Crown (2) Bill". BBC Parliament. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/bbc_parliament/4247101.stm. Retrieved 29 June 2006. 
  23. ^ Staff writer (14 January 2005). "Peers debate Crown succession law". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/4173725.stm. Retrieved 29 June 2006. 
  24. ^ Staff writer (14 January 2005). "No to Royal succession shake-up". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/4175509.stm. Retrieved 29 June 2006. 
  25. ^ Staff writer (25 January 2005). "Monarchy should reform, MP says". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/beds/bucks/herts/4206531.stm. Retrieved 29 June 2006. 
  26. ^ Vallely, Joanna and MacLeod, Murdo (20 April 2008). "Law favouring male monarchs to be abolished". Scotland on Sunday. http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/politics/Law-favouring-male-monarchs-to.4001055.jp. Retrieved 22 April 2008. 
  27. ^ Staff writer (30 April 2008). "British ministers rule out change to succession law". Stuff (New Zealand). http://www.stuff.co.nz/4502369a12.html. Retrieved 30 April 2008. 
  28. ^ Prince, Rosa (15 April 2011). "Royal Wedding: Prince William and Kate Middleton's daughter could become Queen". The Daily Telegraph (UK). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/royal-wedding/8453956/Royal-Wedding-Prince-William-and-Kate-Middletons-daughter-could-become-Queen.html. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  29. ^ Staff writer (28 October 2011). "Commonwealth agrees first-born girls can be queen". CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2011/10/28/commonwealth-royal-succession.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  30. ^ Pancevski, Bojan (19 November 2007). "No princesses: it's men only on this throne". The Times (UK). http://women.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/women/article2893993.ece. Retrieved 23 November 2007. 
  31. ^ Staff writer (21 June 2011). "New Ducal succession rights for Grand Duchy". Luxemburger Wort. http://www.wort.lu/wort/web/en/luxembourg/articles/2011/06/153564/index.php. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 

Other references

Further reading

  • Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1991). Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe. Macmillan. ISBN 9780028972558. 



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Monarchies in Asia — refer to all present monarchies on the continent of Asia. Asia has more absolute monarchs than any other continent in the world. Contents 1 Monarchies 2 Constituent monarchies 2.1 United Arab Emirates …   Wikipedia

  • Monarchies in the Americas —   American monarchies …   Wikipedia

  • Monarchies in Oceania — Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II is shown here as the Queen of New Zealand, wearing various State Orders. There are presently six monarchies in Oceania; that is: self governing sovereign states in Oceania where supreme power resides with an… …   Wikipedia

  • Europe (continent) — Europe Pour les articles homonymes, voir Europe (homonymie) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Europe des peuples — Europe Pour les articles homonymes, voir Europe (homonymie) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Europe — • The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and Africa, had its origin in ancient times Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Europe     Europe    …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Europe, history of — Introduction       history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates.… …   Universalium

  • Europe — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Europe (homonymie).  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Union européenne. Europe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Monarchies in Africa — There are presently as many as 165 monarchies in Africa; that is: self governing states, territories, or nations on the continent of Africa where supreme power resides with an individual, who is recognised as the head of state. All are similar in …   Wikipedia

  • Monarchies of God — The Monarchies of God is an epic fantasy series written by Irish author Paul Kearney. This series was published between 1995 and 2002 in five volumes. The series is noteworthy for its ruthlessness in dispatching major characters, its large number …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.