- Santiago del Estero Province
name = Santiago del Estero
symbol_type = Coat of arms
symbol = Escudo COA Santiago del Estero province argentina.gif
coordinates_type = adm1st
lat_d = |lat_m = |lat_NS = S
long_d = |long_m = |long_EW = W
part_type = Divisions
part = 27 departments
capital = Santiago del Estero
area = 136351
population = 804457
population_as_of = 2001
population_density = 5.9
leader_type = Governor
leader1_type = Senators
Emilio Rached, Ada Del Valle Iturrez, Ana María Corradi de Beltrán
free_type = Demonym
free = "Santiagueño"
iso_code = AR
iso_subcode = G
website = http://www.sde.gov.ar
The autochthonous inhabitants of these lands were the
Juríes-Tonocotés, Sanavironesand other tribes. Intriguingly, Santiago del Estero is still home to about 100,000 speakers of the local variety of Quechua, making this the southernmost outpost of the language of the Incas. Quite when the language reached the area, and how, remains unclear, however - it may even have arrived only with the native troops that accompanied the first Spanish expeditions. Diego de Rojasfirst reached this lands in 1542. Francisco de Aguirrefounded the city of Santiago del Esteroin 1553 as the most northerly city founded by Spanish conquistadores coming from the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago then belonged to different governments, passing from the intendency of Tucumán to the "Audiencia de Charcas", then again to Tucumán, of which it was later to be named capital.
However, the bishop moved to Córdoba in 1699 and the government moved to
Saltatwo years later. Furthermore, the silver route between Buenos Airesand the Viceroyalty of Perupassed through Tucumán rather than through Santiago. The combination of these circumstances drastically reduced the importance of the city and the territory. By the beginning of the 19th century the city had barely 5,000 inhabitants.
With the creation of the intendency of Salta, Santiago del Estero was transferred to the new intendency of Tucumán. In the middle of the national conflict, Santiago del Estero separated from Tucumán in 1820. In 1856 the provincial constitution was formulated.
At the beginning of the 20th century Santiago del Estero acquired part of the lands that were the subject of a dispute with
Chaco Province. By then the province had four cities and 35,000 inhabitants, most of whom lived in precarious conditions. The construction of the "Los Quiroga" dam in 1950 enabled the productivity of the otherwise arid land to be increased by irrigation.During the 1890s, national policy makers were made aware of a little-publicized tourist route northwest of the city of Santiago del Estero, whereby, despite the abject lack of transportation or lodging amenities, a steady stream of visitors rode on horseback over craggy terrain for hours for the sake of enjoying a cluster of mineral springs rarely mentioned since Spaniards had first noticed them in 1543. Becoming increasingly well-known, the Argentine Dept. of Agriculture commissioned University of Buenos AiresChemistry Professor to study the springs. Completing his report in 1918, Dr. Corti confirmed that the Rio Hondo Hot Springs were among the most therapeutic on earth and, coming at a time when mineral springs were becoming a leading destination for " health tourism", Rio Hondo quickly began attracting visitors from all over Argentina. [ [http://www.termenses.com.ae/historia.html] ] Set aside as a public resort in 1932, the first formal hotel facilities were opened in the late 1940s and they are, today, the world's second-most visited mineral hot springs, after the ones in Reykjavik, Iceland. [ [http://www.welcomeargentina.com/termasderiohondo Termas de Río Hondo, Santiago del Estero - Turismo y esparcimiento en Termas de Río Hondo ] ] The province, in 1948, elected a young Peronist activist named Governor of the province. Santiago del Estero's central political figure during the late 20th century, Juarez was as energetic as he was ambitious and he soon became indispensable to local politics (mostly by proxy). A true "Caudillo" (strongman), his amiable demeanor belied a profound ruthlessness and, meanwhile, Santiago del Estero remained one of the poorest provinces in Argentina, falling further behind. Juarez, by the 1990s, was readily ordering his opponents' deaths, notably those of former Governor in 1996 and of Bishop in 1998. [ [http://www.argentina.indymedia.org/news/2004/02/176652.php ¿Crímenes de Cesar Eusebio Iturre y Gerardo Sueldo? : Argentina Indymedia (( i )) ] ]
The deaths of two local young ladies, however, exposed Juarez's assassin, and, faced with undeniable links to Musa Azar's litany of past murders and extortions, Juarez resigned in 2003. His wife, , was hand-picked to replace him; but, was herself removed from office by order of President
Nestor Kirchnerin March, 2004. [ [http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-45309-2004-12-28.html Página/12 :: Sociedad :: Con Musa Azar como acusado estrella ] ]
Geography and climate
The province is located almost completely in the flat lands of the
Gran Chaco, with some depressions. In these depressions lagoons have formed, mainly at "Bañado de Figueroa", "Bañado de Añatuya", and those near the basin of the Salado and Dulce Rivers. The Sumampa and Ambargasta sierras are the result of the influence of the Pampasat the southwest.
The soil, rich in lime and salt, is arid and characterised by semi-deserts and
steppes. The predominant weather is sub-tropical with a dry season and high temperatures during the entire year; the annual average is 21.5°C,incrased to 24° in the latest years, with maxima of up to 50°C, with visible increases in temperature since 1970. Surprisingly, the maximum was of 38°C before 1910; and minima of -5°C, which has increased to -2°C. The dry season, during the winter, receives an average of 120 mm of precipitation, but the annual average is 700 mm.
The province's economy, like most in northern Argentina, is relatively underproductive and, still, totalled an estimated US$2.9 billion in 2006; its per capita output, US$3,560, was the nation's lowest and a full 60% below the average. [ [http://www.iader.org.ar I.A.D.E.R ] ] Santiago del Estero had long been very rural and fairly agricultural (known for its excellent cotton and tobacco, as well as leather) and nearly lacking in manufacturing; despite this, it should be noted that the humble province has grown just as quickly as many of its better-positioned fellow provinces, in the recovery that Argentina has enjoyed since 2002.
The economy of the province still leans toward primary production, specially in agriculture, about 12% of the province's output. Centred on the basins of the Salado and Dulce Rivers, the main crops include
cotton(20% of the national production), soybean, maizeand onion.Cattle farming is also important, mainly in the east, where weather conditions make it possible, but goats, with 15% of the national production, adapt better to the rest of the province.
The wood industry of
quebrachoand algarrobohas also added implanted species totaling an annual average of over 300 thousand tons, of which around 100 thousand tons are used for timber and the rest for firewood and vegetal coal.
There is little mining but in the salt flats in the southwest. Manufacturing (less than 10% of output) consisits of small industrial enterprises centred mainly on food, textiles and leather.
Tourism is somewhat developed, but only around the main tourist attractions. Tourists visit
Santiago del Estero(the oldest city in Argentina) and its historical buildings and museums, Termas de Río Hondoand the Río Hondo hot springs with its 200 hotels, and the "Frontal" dam where water sports are practiced.
The province is home to the
Copo National Park, and four protected areas: "Bañados de Figueroa", "Sierras de Ambargasta", "Sierra de Guasayan" and "Sierras de Sumampa".
, who from 1945 led the Abalos Brothers group, among the best-known folk musicians in South America.] Important figures connected to the history of Santiago del Estero include colonel Juan Francisco Borges, leader of the Independence War (and ancestor of writer
Jorge Luis Borges), as well as the revolutionary leaders Mario Roberto and Francisco René Santucho, founders of the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores and the Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo.
In the field of the arts we can name the 19th century painter
Felipe Taboada, Ramon Gómez Cornet, Carlos Sánchez Gramajo, Alfredo Gogna, Ricardo and Rafael Touriño in plastic arts, and Jorge Washington Ábalos, Bernardo Canal Feijóo, Clementina Rosa Quenel and Julio Carreras (h)in Literature.
Santiago's musical heritage is one of the most important cultural aspects of the city, with typical folklore
chacareraand zamba. Renowned artists and groups include the Manseros Santiagueños, Alfredo Ábalos, Leo Dan, Jacinto Piedra and Raly Barrionuevo. The province's best-known folk music ensemble is probably the Ábalos Brothers, active in the genre since 1945 and recording since 1952. Though in their eighties and nineties, all five still perform and have become, over the decades, among the best-known folk musicians in Argentina. [http://www.users.erols.com/abalos/english.html]
The province is divided into 27 departments (Spanish: "departamentos").Department (Capital)
# Aguirre (
Villa General Mitre)
# Alberdi (
# Atamisqui (
# Avellaneda (Herrera)
# Banda (
# Belgrano (Bandera)
# Capital (
Santiago del Estero)
# Choya (
# Copo (
# Figueroa (La Cañada)
# General Taboada (
# Guasayán (
San Pedro de Guasayán)
# Jiménez (
# Juan Felipe Ibarra (
# Loreto (Loreto)
# Mitre (
# Moreno (
# Ojo de Agua (
Villa Ojo de Agua)
# Pellegrini (
# Quebrachos (
# Río Hondo (
Termas de Río Hondo)
# Rivadavia (Selva)
# Robles (Fernández)
# Salavina (
# San Martín (Brea Pozo)
# Sarmiento (Garza)
# Silípica (
1817 Santiago del Estero earthquake
* [http://historiadesantiago.blogspot.com/ Historia de Santiago del Estero]
* [http://www.sde.gov.ar/ Official site: Santiago del Estero Province] (in Spanish)
* [http://www.santiagocultura.com.ar Santiago del Estero] Culture, art, myths: in Spanish.
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