Naval weaponry of the People's Liberation Army Navy


Naval weaponry of the People's Liberation Army Navy

The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is the naval branch of the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the armed forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLAN force consists of approx. 250,000 men and over a hundred major combat vessels, organized into 3 fleets: the North Sea Fleet, the East Sea Fleet, and the South Sea Fleet.

Most of the naval weapon systems used by the PLAN were developed prior to 1990. The naval weaponry of the PLAN is based on three tiers: artillery, torpedoes, and missiles, each geared to a specific threat range and type.

Contents

History

Throughout its early history from 1949 to the early 1980s, the PLAN had principally relied upon artillery and torpedoes as its main weapons. This resulted in the development of many types and calibers of anti-aircraft and anti-ship guns. Torpedoes were secondary weapons, playing an important role in PLAN's coastal defense doctrines. Many destroyers, frigates and torpedo craft all carry an array of anti-ship torpedoes to this day.

The adoption of the missile, like in most navies, has completely revolutionized Chinese naval capabilities and tactics. Also, there has been growing attention given to ASW, electronic, and airborne weaponry.

The Cultural Revolution was a major disruption to many weapons development programs of the PLAN. Advanced weaponry concepts were always in the minds of PLAN thinkers since the 1950s, even if they were unable to be implemented at the time. Therefore, a lot of modern weapon systems such as SAMs, modernized torpedoes and missile/sensor systems were not introduced into service until the early 80s. Furthermore, economic and technical sophistication to produce the fire control, targeting systems, and tracking capabilities were not in place until the mid-1980s.

Artillery Systems

In the PLAN, artillery takes the form of anti-ship guns and anti-aircraft guns. Anti-ship guns are typically found on destroyers and cruisers, with smaller versions on frigates. Smaller ships utilize torpedoes for anti-ship weaponry. The increasing use of missiles means less attention is paid to pure anti-ship weapons. The PLAN never possessed battleships or battlecruisers, and the use of a ship's main guns is mostly in standoff capacity, as they have never engaged in close-shore support from cruisers or destroyers.

Anti-aircraft guns vary in size and power from swivel-mount 25 mm machine guns to advanced Close-In Weapon Systems (CIWS) and radar-assisted 57 mm rapid-fire anti-aircraft weapons. Almost all classes of PLAN vessels maintain at least some anti-aircraft capability. Most destroyers and cruisers augment this with surface-to-air missiles.

Older and Legacy Artillery Systems currently in use

  • Soviet ZIF-32 twin 57 mm open gun mount (Type 66)
  • Type 76 automatic twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Soviet Bu-11 (Type 63) manual twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 61 twin 25 mm open gun mount
  • Soviet 2M-8 (Type 61) manual twin 25 mm open gun mount
  • Type 69 single or twin 14.5 mm heavy machine gun (open mount)
  • Single or twin 12.7 mm heavy machine gun (open mount)

The most commonly carried artillery system in most indigenous ships is the 37 mm anti-aircraft artillery (Type-61/76)[1]. This is a manually operated gun, with a gun crew on an open mount. The Type 61 is carried by most Chinese surface combatants, ranging from the small Shanghai and Hainan coastal combat vessels to the largest combatants of the Luda and Jianghu class. These guns are highly limited--they can be operated only in clear weather conditions and are effective only in daylight conditions since they lack radar coordination or any form of automatic or autonomous targeting. They are, however, economical and highly reliable. Their firepower has been effectively utilized not only against aircraft but also against surface and land targets.

The old manually operated Type-61 37 mm weapon is gradually being phased out in favor of automatic weaponry, but it nonetheless remains on board many littoral and major combatant vessels. In addition to the manual 37 mm, there is the Type-66 57 mm (120 rounds per minute at 12,000 meters) and Type-61 25 mm cannon systems (800 rounds per minute at 2,500 meters). These are also manually mounted. The 57 mm is prominent on board the Hainan class and several LSTs. This system like the 37 mm is almost totally ineffective [2] against modern jet aircraft and incoming missiles. However it has been combat proven to be effective against enemy shipping, particularly in the Sino-Vietnamese naval battle near the Spratley Islands on several occasions.

The 25 mm is a one-man operated weapon that complements the larger caliber artillery systems. It remains as a popular gun mount on smaller vessels, particularly landing ships and mine warfare designs. Machine guns such as the 12.7 mm and 14.5 mm are also classified as automatic weapons; being widely operated as short range self defense weapons on most amphibious craft. It is interesting to note that the majority of Chinese naval auxiliary ships possess manually operated anti-aircraft artillery, in contrast to the majority of Western navies, which have few or no armaments on board their auxiliaries.

Current Ship Artillery Systems

Anti-Aircraft

  • AK-630
  • Type 730 CIWS
  • H/PJ76A automatic twin 37 mm enclosed gun mount
  • Type 76A automatic twin 37 mm enclosed gun mount
  • Type 76F automatic twin 37 mm enclosed gun mount
  • Type 76 automatic twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 69 automatic twin 25 mm enclosed gun mount
  • Type 66 automatic twin 57 mm open gun mount
  • Type 65 semi-automatic water-cooled twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 63 automatic twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 61 semi-automatic air-cooled twin 37 mm open gun mount
  • Type 61 automatic twin 25 mm enclosed gun mount
  • Type 76 automatic twin 57 mm open gun mount [3]
  • Type 66 automatic twin 57 mm open gun mount [4]
  • Type 59 automatic twin 57 mm open gun mount [5]
  • AK-230 (Type 69)

Anti-aircraft artillery remains important to PLAN combatants, but its concept has been radically changed recently. All new combatants and those that have been upgraded now possess a fully automatic variant of the 37 mm cannon. This system is known as the Type 76A dual anti-aircraft artillery system (180 rounds per minute engaging at 4,500 meters)[6]. The Type 76A is a direct descendant of the Type 76 twin 37 mm gun, which in turn, is a the successor of Type 61 manual twin 37 mm gun. Although the Type 76 twin 37 mm gun is fully automatic, it has an open turret and thus is subject to harsh environment, which causes reliability problems. Another shortcoming of the Type 76 twin 37 mm gun is that like its manually operated predecessor, it lacks fire control systems.

Type 76A twin 37 mm gun was thus developed to solve these problems by introducing an enclosed turret and fire control systems. A fire control radar guides these weapons, and can engage targets in most conditions. There is also an optronic device that enables manual and optical aiming. The Type 76F is a Type 76A system with simplified fire control system, which has the electrooptic system but not the radar. Also, there is a console for one human operator inside the gun mount for local manual control, though the gun can be fully automated. Unlike the old manual mounts that require a full crew of men to steer, aim, load, and fire the weapon, the Type 76F requires only one operator to aim the system. In addition to the 37 mm guns, a number of Russian AK-230 were also purchased and reverse engineered (as Type 69) for small boats.

Anti-ship

Most PLAN surface combatants in the class of destroyer and frigate operate a main gun (mostly a forward turret, and many ships have an aft turret as well). Anti-surface artillery has been primarily based on Soviet designs of 76 mm to 130 mm designs. The Type-76 130 mm twin mount is the main artillery mount on the Luda class destroyers. A more indigenized ship artillery gun system was the Type 79 dual 100 mm gun (as well as single versions). The gun can be operated with one operator or completely automatically guided by radar or optronic aiming. These guns can achieve accurate fire at roughly 25 rounds a minute. A new indigenous 100 mm mount is available on the latest combatants; this is a single rapid fire weapon similar to the French Creusot-Loire weapon. Newer indigenous 130 mm gun systems are also under development.

Close-In Weapons Systems

  • New CIWS
  • Type 1030
  • Type 730
  • Kashtan CIWS

Many navies in the world operate a variety of Close In Weapons Systems (CIWS). These systems are designed to engage high speed, low altitude targets at close range. One particular target for the CIWS is incoming anti-ship missiles. A CIWS with its rapid fire and radar control could hopefully defeat incoming missiles. China until very recently has mostly lacked a CIWS system. The Russian built Sovremenny class destroyers that were purchased in a 1996 deal gave China its first CIWS capability. These used a CIWS called the AK630, with mounts that [7] were exclusive to the Russian ships. China, however, has more recently been either able to reverse engineer the AK630 or buy the cannon turrets. These have been fitted on board the Type 054 Ma'anshan class frigates and the new Type 220X missile attack craft.[8]

A Chinese system, the Type 730, is China's first entirely indigenous CIWS. Though externally similar to the Dutch Goalkeeper, it is thought to operate indigenous radar and optical systems. It has seven barrels, and fires 30 mm caliber shells in rapid succession (4,500-5,800 rounds per minute)[8]. This system has been fitted on board the 052B, 052C and 051C destroyers so far, and is expected to replace some Type 76 mounts on older combatants, as well as being standard for all new surface combatants. The purchase of two additional Sovremenny class destroyers will give PLAN the Kashtan CIWS system (gun and SAM combination).

Torpedoes, Mines and ASW Weaponry

The torpedo is no longer an important anti-ship weapon in the PLAN. However it was very dominant among the coastal attack craft. With the success of torpedo boats in World War I and World War II, the PLAN sought the use of torpedoes in its defense as well. The agility of small coastal craft coupled with fast torpedoes was a grave threat for larger combat vessels. The 1950s, 60s and 70s saw a large number of torpedo craft built (as many as 200 operated at one stage). In later years, however, with the increasing inability to even detect Russian or American submarines, the PLAN shifted emphasis from torpedoes to ASW applications and submarines. While most surface combat vessels have some torpedo capability, it is secondary and some ships do not feature torpedo tubes at all.

History and Older Torpedoes In Use

The torpedo programs of the People's Republic of China was set up under the guidance of former-Soviet Union in the 1950s. In the 1950s, China built two torpedo factories under Soviet direction, and begun its license assembly of unguided straight-running torpedoes. On April, 1958, Naval Arms Ministry of PLAN established torpedoe research institute indigenously. Four months later, the deputy chief-of-staff of PLA Zhang Aiping and the deputy commander-in-chief of PLAN Luo Shunchu (罗舜初) led a military delegation to visit former-Soviet Union signed a deal with Soviets to produce three types of Soviet torpedoes in China. In comparison with other military programs, each with dozens or even hundreds of Soviet advisors, however, former-Soviet Union did not put that much emphasis on the torpedo capability: the total number of Soviet advisors initially sent to China for its all of its torpedo programs was only five.

Soviet Union quickly delivered the samples and technical information of the three types of torpedoes to China with the five advisors to China as promised. Two Soviet advisors were assigned to assist China to produce the RAT-52 rocket-powered torpedo, while others were assigned to teach China about compressed oxygen and SAET-60 passive homing acoustic homing torpedoes. In July 1960, the first two samples of Chinese-built rocket propelled torpedoes were completed. The propulsion system and electronics of the electrically powered passive acoustic homing torpedo had also been completed, while the basic technologies of compressed oxygen torpedoes was also mastered by China. Everything appeared to be great but the subsequent Sino-Soviet split ended the promising future: from July 28 – September 1, 1960, former-Soviet Union had quickly withdrew all of its advisors from China.

To compund the problem, other domestic political turmoils such as Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution had further seriously hindered the indigenous Chinese torpedo developments. As a result, the most numerous torpedoes in Chinese inventory were unguided straight-running torpedoes. In 1978 the PLAN gained significant torpedo capability when a single US Mk 46 Mod.1 block 2 torpedo, thought to be recovered by fishermen, was reverse engineered and became the Yu-7 ASW torpedo. It is thought that during the 1980s, the Yu-7 design also benefited from subsequent batches of Mk 46 Mod. 2 torpedoes purchased for PLAN from USA for a total US$ 8 million in 1985. The Yu-7 is thought to be not as capable as the latest Western or Russian designs, but has become the cornerstone of PLAN anti-submarine warfare. Yu-7 is mostly seen carried by the Z-9C and Z-8 helicopters, and shipboard variants can be launched from destroyers and frigates.

From October to November 1983, Chinese Northwestern Polytechnical University completed upgrade of the acoustic test facilities under the direction of California Institute of Technology, and this facility played an important role in Chinese torpedo development ever since. In 1993, China ordered three types of Soviet torpedoes along with its purchase of Kilo class submarines: TEST-71, which was replaced by its successor TEST-96 in the 2nd order, and Type 53-65. It is also reported that China had ordered the latest Russian APR-3E light ASW torpedo for its Ka-28 and Be-200 ASW aircraft.

Current Torpedoes

  • Shkval

Chinese submarines have operated a variety of indigenously designed torpedoes. These range from the basic unguided Yu-1 to the much more long ranged and highly advanced Yu-6. Little has been documented on PLAN torpedo designs. It was thought that PLAN torpedoes were old and lacked the advanced capabilities to home in against agile or quiet targets.

However, with the delivery of Russian Kilos, China also obtained some highly advanced Russian torpedo designs. One such weapon is the Wake homing torpedo, which homes on a surface ship's wake rather than just sonar readings. It is believed such technology has been applied to new Chinese torpedoes such as the Yu-5. In addition, Jane's Information Group reported, in the late 1990s, that China had already purchased numerous 200-knot Russian Shkval torpedoes from Kazakhstan and was negotiating in purchasing the Soviet torpedo factory there.

Anti-Submarine Warfare

  • CJ-1
  • S3V

ASW warfare apart from torpedoes remains a limited area in the PLAN. PLAN vessels have traditionally utilized depth charges and A/S Mortars. PLAN ships also are commonly armed with multi-barreled ASW rocket launchers. These are based on Russian designs, and are capable of firing rocket bombs at short ranges. It is believed[11] to be effective against shallow targets as well as a possible shield of stopping incoming torpedoes. Most PLAN combatants have traditionally two to four multi-barreled launchers in front of the main gun.

There has been evidence that PLAN had embarked on developing a modern ASW rocket system similar to the ASROC. This was a medium ranged rocket that carried a torpedo as its warhead. The system is known to be CY-1[12] (and perhaps a new model the CY-3). CY-1 never entered production however, and its status as an active project is in doubt. PLAN forces have had their ASW capabilities somewhat improved with the introduction of Variable Depth Sonar (VDS), which is mounted on some frigates and destroyers. In addition, PLAN helicopters operate dipping sonar and sonobuoys to enhance their detection capabilities. When targets are found, they can drop depth charges, depth bombs or torpedoes.

Mine Warfare

Mine warfare has also been another traditional component of PLAN weaponry. Mines remain to be seen as a very useful power amplifying tool by the PLAN. Strategic minefields could be laid around the Taiwan Strait to deny access or delay deployment of US Navy forces, particularly aircraft carrier battle groups and submarines. Chinese mines have continually been addressed by many analysts and scholars as a very dangerous weapon that could be employed against the US Navy.

Most PLAN destroyers, frigates, littoral craft and submarines can lay mines. Chinese mines vary in type, from basic contact/magnetic mines to more modern and complex systems.[11] China first decided to establish dedicated factories for naval mines in 1954, and in 1958, several programs of naval mines were launched simultaneously by Fengxi Machinery Factory. The first of these, Moored-1 (Mao-1), a large sized moored mine entered mass production in 1962 after being tested multiple times and evaluated by the navy. Most early Chinese mines are either Soviet origin, or direct copies of Soviet mines, with the exception of remotely controlled mine.

The first three types of naval mines entered the Chinese service are all moored mines equipped with contact fuses, and all of them are developed by the Fengxi Machinery Factory. Moored-1 is a large sized mine and Moored-2 (Mao-2) is a medium sized mine, a copy of Soviet KSM mine, and both types require target to strike the mine for detonation. Moored-3 (Mao-3) is a mine with contact wires so that targets would not have to strike the mine itself for detonation, and the mine can be detonated some distance away, still causing enough damage if the target is within range and comes in contact with the contact wire. Moored-1 and Moored-2 entered mass production in 1964 and 1965 respectively.

In the 1970s, China had successfully developed non-contact fuses such as the acoustic fuse, and earlier contact fuse equipped mines were upgraded with non-contact fuses. Also in 1970, Fengxi Machinery Factory and Engineering Technology Equipment Research Institute begun to jointly develop a riverine moored mine that can be remotely controlled fuse. The project was completed in 1974, and the ultrasonic remote control can be either used to arm or disarm the mines, or alternatively, directly detonate the mine.

Since the 1990s, all of mines in the Chinese inventory are upgraded with computerized controls and a new series of Chinese mines were actively marketed for the export, including derivatives from existing mines as well as a brand-new design such as the one similar to American CAPTOR mine.

Chinese naval mines with known designations:

Missiles

The PLAN has three main categories of missiles: anti-ship, anti-air and land-attack.

History and Use

HY-1 Missile

Imported Missiles

The missile had been an ever evolving component of PLAN weaponry since the late 1960s. The Soviet Union's assistance to Chinese military developments included the SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missile technology. Since the 60s, China has manufactured its own models of anti-ship missile based on the SS-N-2 Styx, in the form of HY-1, SY-1, SY-2, and other airborne and ground-launched systems. The oldest designs have since been phased out, but late variants remain in service. The fundamental shortcoming of missiles based on the SS-N-2 Styx are being short ranged (only 40-100 km), slow, in agile and rather large and easily detectable targets for modern SAM and CIWS. Later Chinese variants have vastly superior electronics, radar guidance and performance to the older Soviet models.[11] As China has normalized its relationship with the former Soviet Union and then Russia, the importation of Russian missiles resumed, and a new generation of Russian anti-ship missiles have been imported, including the supersonic SS-N-22 and Kh-31, Klub-S, (the Russian equivalent of the anti-shipping version of American BGM-109 Tomahawk), and AS-20 Uran (the Russian equivalent of the air-launched American AGM-84 anti-shipping Harpoon missile).

Indigenous Missiles

China's first completely indigenous anti-ship missile program was the YJ8 series. This missile externally appears similar to the French Exocet and American Harpoon, but is essentially a Chinese designed weapon system. The basic YJ8 appeared in the early 1980s, with a short range of 22 miles (40 or so kilometers). It was successful in its test launches however, hitting and sinking targets of up to 10,000 tons with a high hit probability. Unlike older designs, the YJ8 could attack targets at low altitudes to reduce its vulnerability to CIWS, and has greater Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) to prevent enemy jamming. The YJ8 entered widespread service, becoming the standard anti-ship missile on most second and third generation Chinese built warships, ranging from destroyers and frigates, to missile craft and submarines. The missile can also be launched from shore platforms and aircraft.[13]

Several models of the YJ8 have since emerged. The YJ82 was significantly a better missile with a significantly improved range of 120 km and far more advanced ECM. The latest variant is the YJ-83, with a range exceeding 250 km, and capable of making its final approach at Mach 1.5 to penetrate ship defenses. In addition, a variant revealed at 2006 Zhuhai Airshow designated as C-802KD/YJ-82KD has ground attack capabilities similar to the AGM-84 SLAM. All YJ8 models can be launched from a common boxed launcher. Most littoral combatants carry four to six missiles, while larger surface ships can carry eight. PLAN destroyers have mounted sixteen missiles. Though the YJ8 series does not have the advance 'pop up' approach or checkpoint flight characteristics of the Harpoon, it is respected as one of the most potent anti-ship missiles ever developed. The YJ83's performance in some areas is superior to even the latest variants of Harpoon and Exocet, though it’s ECM and agility is slightly inferior.

Current Missiles

The PLAN inventory includeds a mixture of foreign and domestic missiles, and Russia was the largest foreign provider.

Anti-ship Missiles

Supersonic anti-ship missiles have been a key development in China. The Russian ramjet SS-N-22 Sunburn is operated by China on board its Sovremenny class destroyers. These missiles are highly potent as they are capable of penetrating ship defenses (even in AEGIS simulations). Its high velocity hypersonic approach and its large warhead make the SS-N-22 a valuable weapon for the PLAN. China has long sought to produce its own supersonic and eventually hypersonic anti-ship system since the 1980s. High speed missiles are seen as the most effective means of attacking modern warships. Only Russia, China, and India (Brahmos, which was co-developed with Russia) have so far successfully developed and deployed such weapons.

Earlier Chinese missiles of such capability from before 1990s include the C-301 (also known as HY-3). With its four ramjet engines, it has a range of 130 km and a speed greater than Mach 2.5. Though a success, the missile is far from being as potent as the SS-N-22, mainly because it can fly only at a higher cruise altitude of 50 m, rather than cruising at wave tops (such as the 20 m cruise altitude of SS-N-22), so it is easier to intercept in comparison to SS-N-22. the PLAN's air force has also purchased both the KH31 ramjet supersonic missile and the AS-20 turbojet subsonic anti-ship missile from Russia to arm its fighters.

Apart from ramjet technology, China has successfully developed some supersonic anti-ship missiles that can fly above Mach 1.0 (as most anti-ship missiles currently fly at Mach 0.9). The C-101, also known as FL-2 features a smaller and thinner body of the original SS-N-2 Styx, but it can fly at speeds around Mach 1.7. It can attack targets at 40 km. However, like the much larger C-301, its cruise altitude is also at 50 meters and thus prone to interception in comparison to faster SS-N-22 with lower cruise altitude. As a result, both C-101 and C-301 saw very little service. The YJ83 also possesses some supersonic attack capabilities.

More modern missiles today are the YJ-12 and YJ-91 (KH-31), the most advanced supersonic missiles China has in service. They entered service around 1999 and have a range of 400 km at a speed of Mach 2.5 and can be launched from both ship and air. They can even attack land.

Anti-air missiles

  • HQ-2 (port defense)
  • HQ-9 long range SAM (vertical launched)
  • SA-N-6 long range SAM (vertical launched)
  • SA-N-7
  • SA-N-12 medium range SAM
  • TOR-M1 short-medium range SAM (projected) (vertical launched)
  • HQ-17
  • HQ-16
  • HQ-7 short range SAM
  • HQ-61 short range SAM
  • LY-60N (port defense & export frigates)
  • KS-2
  • KS-1 (port defense)
  • FL-3000N CIWS

China's navy had long lacked an air defense missile system, hence why it has been a major area of weakness. China's SAM development had been seriously jeopardized by the Cultural Revolution, and the break away from the Soviet Union meant that no Soviet assistance in air defense missiles was given. The first naval SAM system was not developed until the late 1960s. This was in the form of the HQ-61 SAM, originally a short range land based system. The first PLAN ship to be armed with SAM was the Type 053K frigate Jiangdong, launched in 1970. However it took many years for the design to mature and the obsolete system was never ideal for naval operations. The Jiandong had two twin launchers of the HQ61 SAM. The missile was capable of engaging enemy air targets out to 10 km. The HQ-61 was applied to only a limited degree. The Jiangwei I class of four units, were armed with a sextuple launcher. The weakness however was lack of automatic reload systems, so the crew had to manually reload.


When China opened up in the late 1970s, it had greater access to Westernized technologies. One vital asset imported was the French Crotale short ranged SAM. Two systems were initially imported and mounted aboard two Luda class destroyers. The design was subsequently indigenized into the HQ-7. The improved-Luda, Luhu, Luhai, Jiangwei II, and 054 class warships. The launcher is an eight celled system, with a reload hatch, which has additional missiles below deck. Its engagement range is 10-12 km and is claimed to be capable of engaging low flying missiles and aircraft.

Although the HQ-7 was a significant step towards PLAN air defense capabilities, the PLAN still fell short of possessing a medium to long range missile system that could provide true fleet defense coverage. The purchase of Russian Sovremenny class destroyers meant China obtained the medium range SA-N-7 SAM and its subsequent improved models. This missile was far more advanced than any Chinese indigenous design. The missile was soon adapted for service on board the PLAN's 052B class destroyer. China sought to import the Russian SA-N-6 long range SAM system. This was based on the land based S-300 missile, which China had already been operating.

The SA-N-6 is a vertical launched system (VLS) with a range of 100 km and performance similar to the US Patriot. Two such systems were negotiated for and not ready for installation until late 2005 (on board the new 051C destroyers). Meanwhile China had developed the HQ-9 system, believed to have partially borrowed some of the features on both Russian S-300 and US Patriot technology(fire control). This was China's first indigenous long range high performance air defense missile. This was installed on the 052C class warships.

With VLS missiles finally in service with the PLAN, there has been high optimism to see a short range VLS weapon that could replace the HQ-7. Contenders for the future short range SAM of the PLAN include a vertical launched variant of the HQ-7, Russian TOR-M1, Russian SA-N-12, VLS variant of the Chinese LY60N or HQ-61, or a completely new design.[11]

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles and Land Attack Rockets

JL-1 and JL-2 submarine launched ballistic missiles. The JL-1 was first test fired in 1982 and first successfully launched from the Xia class SSBN in 1987. The JL-1 is currently carried on board China's sole SSBN, the Xia 092. It has 12 launch tubes. Each JL-1 has a range 2,150 km and a single 250-500 kt nuclear warhead. An improved model is in service with a 2,800 km range and possibly higher accuracy. The JL-2 will be the next generation of Chinese SLBM, similar to early variants of the Trident. With a range of 8000 km and multiple warheads (MIRV), this missile is essentially based on the land based DF-31 ICBM design. This means that the future 094 class SSBN can patrol near Chinese waters and launch missiles that could hit the American mainland.

The JL-2 project remains under secret and the status of the 094 is largely unknown. One vessel was reported launched very recently, while the JL-2 missile's development is believed to be in its mature stages.[17]

A single Jianghu I (hull 516) was modified very recently. It has its anti-ship missiles replaced with several multiple-rocket launchers. The rockets are of 122 mm caliber, and are based on the Type 89 system, which is itself quite similar to the Soviet BM-21 rocket system. The 122 mm rockets are launched from a stabilized launcher, meaning that even if the ship is affected by wave motion, the launcher itself will be stabilized. The rockets have a range of up to 40 km, and can achieve reasonable accuracy in fire. This installation may be seen as an experiment by the PLAN to make use of older warship designs, by turning them into shore bombardment platforms. Though only one ship is being tested for now, this is a very possible concept for future PLAN conversions of their large number of old Luda's and Jianghu's. Fire support from ships is seen as very important by the PLAN when conducting amphibious operations.

Cruise missiles

The YJ-62 naval cruise missile made its first public appearance during the military parade on the 60th Anniversary of the People's Republic of China; the YJ-62 represents the next generation in naval weapons technology in the PLA.

Future Weapons Systems

The current quality and capability of PLAN weaponry has improved significantly, closing the gaps between PLAN obsolescence and Western standards. Future PLAN weapon systems could include land attack cruise missiles, stealthy hypersonic missiles, armed ship launched UAVs, anti radiation missiles, and land based anti-ship ballistic missiles, EMP bombs, long range artillery systems, super-speed torpedoes and improved mines.

References

  1. ^ Chinese Defence Today - Type 61 Dual-37mm Shipboard Antiaircraft Artillery Gun
  2. ^ Chinese Defence Today - Type 69 Dual-30mm Automatic Antiaircraft Artillery Gun
  3. ^ http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNRussian_57mm-81_zif-71.htm
  4. ^ http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNRussian_57mm-81_zif-71.htm
  5. ^ http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNRussian_57mm-81_zif-71.htm
  6. ^ Chinese Defence Today - Type 76A Dual-37mm Shipboard Antiaircraft Artillery Gun
  7. ^ Chinese Defence Today - AK-630 Close-In Weapon System (CIWS)
  8. ^ a b Chinese Defence Today - Type 730 Close-In Weapon System (CIWS)
  9. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?id=l-DzknmTgDUC&pg=PA670&lpg=PA670&dq=c43+torpedo&source=bl&ots=2rgMAVrbLh&sig=JGabNTKJE9-F2agYQvQ7Dr6hu_w&hl=en&ei=xxlIS6qXBI_mswOLltHOAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=c43%20torpedo&f=false
  10. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?id=O99t5l91_fEC&pg=PA153&lpg=PA153&dq=c43+torpedo&source=bl&ots=fgnajDlrNn&sig=lDd4rAdoq9CzYw1jd8mYpnmaAtw&hl=en&ei=xxlIS6qXBI_mswOLltHOAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=c43%20torpedo&f=false
  11. ^ a b c d China's Navy Today
  12. ^ Chinese Defence Today - CY-1 Anti-Submarine Rocket
  13. ^ YJ-8 (C-801) Anti-Ship Missile - SinoDefence.com
  14. ^ http://project2049.net/documents/assassin_under_radar_china_cruise_missile.pdf
  15. ^ http://project2049.net/documents/assassin_under_radar_china_cruise_missile.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.global-military.com/sword-20-cruise-missiles-loaded-on-to-h-6m-bombers.html
  17. ^ JL-1 (CSS-N-3) Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile | Strategic | SinoDefence.com

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  • Modernization of the People's Liberation Army — Main article: History of the People s Liberation Army The military modernization program of the People s Liberation Army which began in the late 1970s had three major focuses. First, under the political leadership of Deng Xiaoping, the military… …   Wikipedia

  • People's Liberation Army —   中国人民解放军   Emblem of the People s Liberation Army Founded August 1, 1927 Service branches …   Wikipedia

  • People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force — The People s Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF) (simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军海军航空兵; traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍海軍航空兵; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmǐn Jiěfàng Jūn Hǎijūn Hángkōngbīng) is the naval aviation branch of the People s Liberation Army Navy …   Wikipedia

  • People's Liberation Army Air Force — 中国人民解放军空军 People s Liberation Army Air Force Founded November 11, 1949 …   Wikipedia

  • People's Republic of China–United States relations — U.S. China relations refers to international relations between the United States of America and the People s Republic of China. Most analysts have characterized present Sino American relations as complex and multi faceted, with the United States… …   Wikipedia

  • People's Republic of China–Pakistan relations — PR China Pakistan relations Pakistan …   Wikipedia