- Velar nasal
Velar nasal ŋ Image IPA number 119 Encoding Entity (decimal)
Unicode (hex) U+014B X-SAMPA
The velar nasal is the sound of ng in English sing. It is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ŋ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is N.
As a phoneme, the velar nasal does not occur in many of the indigenous languages of the Americas, nor in a large number of European or Middle Eastern languages, though it is extremely common in Australian Aboriginal languages. While almost all languages have /m/ and /n/, /ŋ/ is rarer. Only half of the 469 languages surveyed in Anderson (2008) had a velar nasal phoneme; as a further peculiarity, a large proportion of them disallow it from occurring word-initially.
As with the voiced velar plosive, the relative rarity of the velar nasal is because the small oral cavity used to produce velar consonants makes it more difficult for voicing to be sustained. It also makes it much more difficult to allow air to escape through the nose as is required for a nasal consonant.
In many languages that do not have the velar nasal as a phoneme, it occurs as an allophone of other nasals before velar consonants.
Features of the velar nasal:
- Its manner of articulation is stop, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
- Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter n with a leftward tail protruding from the bottom of the right stem of the letter. Compare ⟨n⟩ and ⟨ŋ⟩. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly called as "eng" or "engma" and sometimes in reference to Greek, "angma". The symbol ⟨ŋ⟩ should not be confused with ⟨ɳ⟩, the symbol for the retroflex nasal, which has a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem or with ⟨ɲ⟩, the symbol for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem.
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes Albanian ngaqë [ŋɡacə] 'because' Aleut chaang [tʃɑːŋ] 'five' Basque hanka [haŋka] 'leg' Catalan sang [ˈsaŋ(k)] 'blood' See Catalan phonology Chinese Cantonese 昂/ngong4 [ŋɔːŋ˩] 'raise' See Cantonese phonology Mandarin 北京/Běijīng [peɪ˨˩tɕiŋ˥] 'Beijing' See Mandarin phonology Wu 五 [ŋ˩˧] 'five' Chukchi ңыроқ [ŋəɹoq] 'two' Czech tank [taŋk] 'tank' See Czech phonology Dinka ŋa [ŋa] 'who' Danish sang [sɑŋˀ] 'song' See Danish phonology Dutch angst [ɑŋst] 'fear' See Dutch phonology English sing [sɪŋ] 'sing' Restricted to the syllable coda. See English phonology Fijian gone [ˈŋone] 'child' Filipino ngayon [ˈŋajon] 'now' Finnish kangas [kɑŋːɑs] 'cloth' Occurs in native vocabulary only intervocally and before /k/. See Finnish phonology French parking [paʀkiŋ] 'parking lot' Occurs only in words borrowed from English. See French phonology Galician unha [ˈuŋa] 'one' (f.) German lang [laŋ] 'long' See German phonology Greek αποτυγχάνω/apotyncháno [aˌpo̞tiŋˈxano̞] 'I fail' See Modern Greek phonology Hindi-Urdu रङ्ग/رنگ [rəŋɡ] 'color' See Hindi–Urdu phonology Hungarian ing [iŋɡ] 'shirt' Allophone of /n/. See Hungarian phonology Icelandic göng [ˈkøyŋk] 'tunnel' See Icelandic phonology Indonesian bangun [baŋun] 'wake up' Inuktitut ᐴᙳᐆᖅ/puunnguuq [puːŋŋuːq] 'dog' Inuvialuktun qamnguiyuaq [qamŋuijuaq] 'snores' Irish ceann carrach [caŋ ˈkaɾˠəx] 'a scabbed one' See Irish phonology Italian anche [ˈaŋke] 'also' See Italian phonology Itelmen қниң [qniŋ] 'one' Japanese Standard 南極/nankyoku [naŋkʲokɯ] 'the South Pole' See Japanese phonology Eastern dialects 鍵/kagi [kaŋi] 'key' Kagayanen ? [manaŋ] 'older sister' Ket аяң [ajaŋ] 'to damn' Korean 방/bang [paŋ] 'room' See Korean phonology Macedonian aнглиски [ˈaŋɡliski] 'English' Occurs occasionally as an allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /ɡ/. See Macedonian phonology Malay bangun [baŋun] 'wake up' Malayalam മാങ്ങ [maːŋŋɐ] 'mango' Māori ngā [ŋaː] 'the' Mari еҥ [jeŋ] 'human' Nganasan ӈаӈ [ŋaŋ] 'mouth' Nivkh ңамг [ŋamɡ] 'seven' North Frisian Mooring kåchelng [kɔxəlŋ] 'stove' Norwegian gang [ɡɑŋ] 'hallway' See Norwegian phonology Polish bank [baŋk] 'bank' See Polish phonology Occitan Provençal vin [viŋ] 'wine' Rapanui hanga [haŋa] 'bay' Sometimes transcribed as <g> Russian функция [ˈfuŋkt͡sɨjə] 'function' Informal and occurs irregularly, only before /k/ or /ɡ/. See Russian phonology Seri comcáac [koŋˈkaak] 'Seri people' Shona nanga [ŋaŋɡa] 'witch-doctor' Slovene tank [taŋk] 'tank' Spanish domingo [d̪o̞ˈmĩŋɡo̞] 'Sunday' Allophone of /n/. See Spanish phonology Swahili ng'ombe [ŋɔmbɛ] 'cow' Swedish ingenting [ɪŋːɛntʰɪŋ] 'nothing' See Swedish phonology Thai งาน [ŋaːn] 'work' Tundra Nenets ӈэва [ŋæewa] 'head' Turkmen birmeňzeş [biɾmeŋðeʃ] 'identical' Venetian man [maŋ] 'hand' Vietnamese  ngà [ŋaː˨˩] 'ivory' See Vietnamese phonology West Frisian kening [kenɪŋ] 'king' Yi ꉢ/nga [ŋa˧] 'I' Yup'ik ungungssiq [uŋuŋssiq] 'animal' Zapotec Tilquiapan yan [jaŋ] 'neck' Word-final allophone of lenis /n/
- ^ Ladefoged (2005:164) The oral counterparts, /p t k/ are all also found in almost all languages.
- ^ a b Ladefoged (2005:165)
- ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
- ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
- ^ Wells (1989:44)
- ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:118)
- ^ Okada (1991:95)
- ^ Olson et al. (2010:206–207)
- ^ Reed & Kāretu (2001)
- ^ Jassem (2003:103)
- ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258)
- ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
- ^ Merrill (2008:109)
- Anderson, Gregory D. S. (2008), "The Velar Nasal", in Haspelmath, Martin; Dryer, Matthew S; Gil, David et al., The World Atlas of Language Structures Online, Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, http://wals.info/feature/9, retrieved 2008-04-30
- Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages, 1, Wiley-Blackwell
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
- Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114
- Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97
- Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
- Reed, A.W., ed. (2001), The Reed Consise Māori Dictionary
- Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
- Wells, J.C. (1989), "Computer-Coded Phonemic Notation of Individual Languages of the European Community", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 19 (1): 31–54, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005892
International Phonetic Alphabet IPA topics IPA Phonetics Special topics Encodings Consonants IPA pulmonic consonants chartchart image • audio Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal ↓ Manner Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal Nasal m ɱ n̪ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Plosive p b p̪ b̪ t̪ d̪ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ я * Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ⱱ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯ Lateral Fric. ɬ ɮ ɭ˔̊ ʎ̥˔ ʟ̝̊ Lateral Appr. l ɭ ʎ ʟ Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̠ ʎ̯ Non-pulmonic consonants Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ᶑ ɠ ʛ Ejectives pʼ tʼ cʼ ʈʼ kʼ qʼ fʼ θʼ sʼ ɬʼ xʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ Affricates p̪f ts dz tʃ dʒ tɕ dʑ ʈʂ ɖʐ tɬ dɮ cç ɟʝ Co-articulated consonants Fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ Approximants ʍ w ɥ ɫ Stops k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help] Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible. * Symbol not defined in IPA. Chart image Vowels
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