Velar nasal


Velar nasal
Velar nasal
ŋ
IPA number 119
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ŋ
Unicode (hex) U+014B
X-SAMPA N
Kirshenbaum N
Sound

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The velar nasal is the sound of ng in English sing. It is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ŋ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is N.

As a phoneme, the velar nasal does not occur in many of the indigenous languages of the Americas, nor in a large number of European or Middle Eastern languages, though it is extremely common in Australian Aboriginal languages. While almost all languages have /m/ and /n/, /ŋ/ is rarer.[1] Only half of the 469 languages surveyed in Anderson (2008) had a velar nasal phoneme; as a further peculiarity, a large proportion of them disallow it from occurring word-initially.

As with the voiced velar plosive, the relative rarity of the velar nasal is because the small oral cavity used to produce velar consonants makes it more difficult for voicing to be sustained.[citation needed] It also makes it much more difficult to allow air to escape through the nose as is required for a nasal consonant.

In many languages that do not have the velar nasal as a phoneme, it occurs as an allophone of other nasals before velar consonants.

Contents

Features

Features of the velar nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is stop, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter n with a leftward tail protruding from the bottom of the right stem of the letter. Compare ⟨n⟩ and ⟨ŋ⟩. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly called as "eng" or "engma" and sometimes in reference to Greek, "angma". The symbol ⟨ŋ⟩ should not be confused with ⟨ɳ⟩, the symbol for the retroflex nasal, which has a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem or with ⟨ɲ⟩, the symbol for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian ngaqë [ŋɡacə] 'because'
Aleut[2] chaang [tʃɑːŋ] 'five'
Basque hanka [haŋka] 'leg'
Catalan[3] sang [ˈsaŋ(k)] 'blood' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /ngong4 [ŋɔːŋ˩] 'raise' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 北京/Běijīng [peɪ˨˩tɕiŋ˥] 'Beijing' See Mandarin phonology
Wu [ŋ˩˧] 'five'
Chukchi ңыроқ [ŋəɹoq] 'two'
Czech tank [taŋk] 'tank' See Czech phonology
Dinka ŋa [ŋa] 'who'
Danish sang [sɑŋˀ] 'song' See Danish phonology
Dutch[4] angst [ɑŋst] 'fear' See Dutch phonology
English sing [sɪŋ] 'sing' Restricted to the syllable coda. See English phonology
Fijian gone [ˈŋone] 'child'
Filipino ngayon [ˈŋajon] 'now'
Finnish kangas [kɑŋːɑs] 'cloth' Occurs in native vocabulary only intervocally and before /k/. See Finnish phonology
French[5] parking [paʀkiŋ] 'parking lot' Occurs only in words borrowed from English. See French phonology
Galician unha [ˈuŋa] 'one' (f.)
German lang [laŋ] 'long' See German phonology
Greek αποτυγχάνω/apotyncháno [aˌpo̞tiŋˈxano̞] 'I fail' See Modern Greek phonology
Hindi-Urdu रङ्ग/رنگ [rəŋɡ] 'color' See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Hungarian ing [iŋɡ] 'shirt' Allophone of /n/. See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic ng [ˈkøyŋk] 'tunnel' See Icelandic phonology
Indonesian bangun [baŋun] 'wake up'
Inuktitut ᐆᖅ/puunnguuq [puːŋŋuːq] 'dog'
Inuvialuktun qamnguiyuaq [qamŋuijuaq] 'snores'
Irish ceann carrach [caŋ ˈkaɾˠəx] 'a scabbed one' See Irish phonology
Italian[6] anche [ˈaŋke] 'also' See Italian phonology
Itelmen қниң [qniŋ] 'one'
Japanese Standard 南極/nankyoku [naŋkʲokɯ] 'the South Pole' See Japanese phonology
Eastern dialects[7] /kagi [kaŋi] 'key'
Kagayanen[8] ? [manaŋ] 'older sister'
Ket аяң [ajaŋ] 'to damn'
Korean /bang [paŋ] 'room' See Korean phonology
Macedonian aнглиски [ˈaŋɡliski] 'English' Occurs occasionally as an allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /ɡ/. See Macedonian phonology
Malay bangun [baŋun] 'wake up'
Malayalam[2] മാങ്ങ [maːŋŋɐ] 'mango'
Māori[9] ngā [ŋaː] 'the'
Mari еҥ [jeŋ] 'human'
Nganasan ӈаӈ [ŋaŋ] 'mouth'
Nivkh ңамг [ŋamɡ] 'seven'
North Frisian Mooring kåchelng [kɔxəlŋ] 'stove'
Norwegian gang [ɡɑŋ] 'hallway' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[10] bank [baŋk] 'bank' See Polish phonology
Occitan Provençal vin [viŋ] 'wine'
Rapanui hanga [haŋa] 'bay' Sometimes transcribed as <g>
Russian функция [ˈfuŋkt͡sɨjə] 'function' Informal and occurs irregularly, only before /k/ or /ɡ/. See Russian phonology
Seri comcáac [koŋˈkaak] 'Seri people'
Shona nanga [ŋaŋɡa] 'witch-doctor'
Slovene tank [taŋk] 'tank'
Spanish[11] domingo [d̪o̞ˈmĩŋɡo̞] 'Sunday' Allophone of /n/. See Spanish phonology
Swahili ng'ombe [ŋɔmbɛ] 'cow'
Swedish ingenting [ɪŋːɛntʰɪŋ] 'nothing' See Swedish phonology
Thai าน [ŋaːn] 'work'
Tundra Nenets ӈэва [ŋæewa] 'head'
Turkmen birmeňzeş [biɾmeŋðeʃ] 'identical'
Venetian man [maŋ] 'hand'
Vietnamese [12] ngà [ŋaː˨˩] 'ivory' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian kening [kenɪŋ] 'king'
Yi /nga [ŋa˧] 'I'
Yup'ik ungungssiq [uŋuŋssiq] 'animal'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[13] yan [jaŋ] 'neck' Word-final allophone of lenis /n/

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Anderson, Gregory D. S. (2008), "The Velar Nasal", in Haspelmath, Martin; Dryer, Matthew S; Gil, David et al., The World Atlas of Language Structures Online, Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, http://wals.info/feature/9, retrieved 2008-04-30 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages, 1, Wiley-Blackwell 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
  • Reed, A.W., ed. (2001), The Reed Consise Māori Dictionary 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Wells, J.C. (1989), "Computer-Coded Phonemic Notation of Individual Languages of the European Community", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 19 (1): 31–54, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005892 

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