- The Cat and the Canary (1927 film)
Infobox Film | name = The Cat and the Canary
caption = Original 1927 quad poster
writer = John Willard (play)
Walter Anthony(titles) Alfred A. Cohn(adaptation) Robert F. Hill(adaptation)
Laura La Plante Forrest Stanley Creighton Hale
Martin G. Cohn
released = September 9, 1927 (U.S.)
country = USA
runtime = 82 min
Silent film(English intertitles)
amg_id = 1:8584
imdb_id = 0017739
"The Cat and the Canary" (1927) is a American silent
horror filmadaptation of John Willard's 1922 black comedyplay of the same name. Directed by German Expressionist filmmaker Paul Leni, the film stars Laura La Planteas Annabelle West, Forrest Stanleyas Charles "Charlie" Wilder, and Creighton Haleas Paul Jones. The plot revolves around the death of Cyrus West, who is Annabelle, Charlie, and Paul's uncle, and the reading of his will 20 years later. Annabelle inherits her uncle's fortune, but when she and her family spend the night in his haunted mansion they are stalked by a mysterious figure. Meanwhile, a lunaticknown as "the Cat" escapes from an asylum and hides in the mansion.
"The Cat and the Canary" is part of a genre of comedy horror films inspired by 1920s Broadway stage plays. Paul Leni's adaptation of Willard's play blended expressionism with humor, a style Leni was notable for and critics recognized as unique. Leni's style of directing made "The Cat and the Canary" influential in the "
old dark house" genre of films popular from the 1930s through the 1950s. The film was one of Universal's early horror productions and is considered "the cornerstone of Universal's school of horror."Carlos Clarens, "An Illustrated History of Horror and Science-Fiction Films: The Classic Era, 1895–1967" (New York: Da Capo Press, 1997), p. 56, ISBN 0306808005.] It has been remade five times, with the most notable starring comedic actor Bob Hope.
In a mansion overlooking the
Hudson River, millionaire Cyrus West approaches death. His greedy family descends upon him like "cats around a canary", causing him to become insane. West orders that his last will and testament remain locked in a safe and go unread until the 20th anniversary of his death. As the appointed time arrives, West's lawyer, Roger Crosby ( Tully Marshall), discovers that a second will mysteriously appeared in the safe. The second will may only be opened if the terms of the first will are not fulfilled. The caretaker of the West mansion, Mammy Pleasant ( Martha Mattox), blames the manifestation of the second will on the ghost of Cyrus West, a notion that the astonished Crosby quickly rejects."The Cat and the Canary" (1927; DVD, Image Entertainment, 2007).]
As midnight approaches, West's relatives arrive at the mansion: nephews Harry Blythe (
Arthur Edmund Carewe), Charles "Charlie" Wilder, Paul Jones, his sister Susan Sillsby ( Flora Finch) and her daughter Cecily Young ( Gertrude Astor), and niece Annabelle West. Cyrus West's fortune is bequeathed to the most distant relative bearing the name "West": Annabelle. The will, however, stipulates that to inherit the fortune, she must be judged sane by a doctor, Ira Lazar ( Lucien Littlefield). If she is deemed insane, the fortune is passed to the person named in the second will. The fortune includes the West diamonds which her uncle hid years ago. Annabelle realizes that she is now like her uncle, "in a cage surrounded by cats."
While the family prepares for dinner, a guard (
George Siegmann) barges in and announces that an escaped lunaticcalled the Cat is either in the house or on the grounds. The guard tells Cecily, "He's a maniac who thinks he's a cat, and tears his victims like they were canaries!" Meanwhile, Crosby suspects someone in the family might try to harm Annabelle and decides to inform her of her successor. Before he speaks the person's name, a hairy hand with long nails emerges from a secret passage in a bookshelf and pulls him in, terrifying Annabelle. When she explains what happened to Crosby, the family immediately concludes that she is insane.
While Annabelle sleeps, the same mysterious hand emerges from the wall behind her bed and snatches the diamonds from her neck. Once again, her sanity is questioned, but as Harry and Annabelle search the room, they discover a hidden passage in the wall and in it the corpse of Roger Crosby. Mammy Pleasant leaves to call the police, while Harry searches for the guard; Susan runs away in hysterics and hitches a ride with a milkman (Joe Murphy). Paul and Annabelle return to her room to search for the missing envelope, and discover that Crosby's body is missing. Paul vanishes as the secret passage closes behind him. Wandering in the hidden passages, Paul is attacked by the Cat and left for dead. He regains consciousness in time to rescue Annabelle. The police arrive and arrest the Cat, who is Charlie Wilder in disguise; the guard is his accomplice. Wilder is the person named in the second will; he hoped to drive Annabelle insane so that he could receive the inheritance.
"The Cat and the Canary" is the product of early 20th century German expressionism. According to art historian Joan Weinstein, expressionism is a loosely defined term that includes the art styles of
Die Brückeand Der Blaue Reiter, cubism, futurism, and abstraction. The key element that connects these styles is the concern for the expression of inner feelings over verisimilitudeto nature. [Joan Weinstein, "The End of Expressionism: Art and the November Revolution in Germany, 1918–1919" (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), p. 3, ISBN 0226890597.] Film historian Richard Peterson notes that "German cinema became famous for stories of psychological horror and for uncanny moods generated through lighting, set design and camera angles." Such filmmaking techniques drew on expressionist themes. Influential examples of German expressionist film include Robert Wiene's "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" (1920) about a deranged doctor and Paul Leni's "Waxworks" (1925) about a wax figure display at a fair.Richard Peterson, liner notes, "The Cat and the Canary" (DVD, Image Entertainment, 2005).]
Carl Laemmle, the German-born president of Universal Pictures. Laemmle was struck by Leni's departure from expressionism by the inclusion of humor and playfulness during grotesque scenes. Meanwhile, in the United States, D. W. Griffith's " One Exciting Night" (1922) began a Gothic horror film trend that Laemmle wanted to capitalize on; subsequent films in the genre like Frank Tuttle's " Puritan Passions" (1923), Roland West's "The Monster" (1925) and "The Bat" (1926), and Alfred Santell's "The Gorilla" (1927)—all comedy horror film adaptations of Broadway stage plays—proved successful.Steve Neale, "Genre and Hollywood" (London: Routledge, 2000), p. 95, ISBN 0415026067.] [Ian Conrich, "Before Sound: Universal, Silent Cinema, and the Last of the Horror Spectaculars," in "The Horror Film", ed. Stephen Price, (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2004), p. 47, ISBN 0813533635.]
Laemmle turned to John Willard's popular play "The Cat and the Canary", which centered on an heiress whose family tries to drive her insane to steal her inheritance. Willard hesitated in permitting Laemmle to film his play because, as historian Douglas Brode explains, "that would have exposed to virtually everyone the trick ending, ... destroying the play's potential as an ongoing moneymaker." Nevertheless, Willard was convinced and the play was adapted into a screenplay by
Alfred A. Cohnand Robert F. Hill.Douglas Brode, "Edge of Your Seat: The 100 Greatest Movie Thrillers" (New York: Citadel Press, 2003), p. 32, ISBN 0806523824.]
"The Cat and the Canary" features veteran silent film stars
Laura La Plante, Creighton Hale, and Forrest Stanley. La Plante played roles in more than 50 films before starring in "The Cat and the Canary".Laura La Plante at the [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0478851/ Internet Movie Database] ; last accessed January 4, 2007.] According to film historian Gary Don Rhodes, her part in "The Cat and the Canary" was typical for women in horror and mystery films: "The female in the horror film ... becomes the hunted, the quarry. She has little to do, and so the question becomes 'What will be done "with" her?'" Rhodes adds, "The heroines are young and beautiful, but represent more a prize to be possessed—whether 'stolen' by a villain or 'owned' by a young hero at the film's conclusion." [Gary Don Rhodes, "White Zombie: Anatomy of a Horror Film" (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2001), p. 19, ISBN 0786409886.] Following "The Cat and the Canary", La Plante maintained a career with Universal, but she is described as a "victim of talkies." [Hans J. Wollstein, Laura La Plante biography at [http://www.allmovie.com/cg/avg.dll?p=avg&sql=2:39772 Allmovie] ; last accessed January 12, 2007.] She received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Famebefore her death in 1996 from Alzheimer’s disease. [Robert McG. Thomas Jr., "Laura La Plante Dies at 92; Archetypal Damsel in Distress," "New York Times", October 17, 1996, p. B14.]
Universal chose Irish actor Creighton Hale to play hero Paul Jones, Annabelle's cousin. Hale had appeared in 64 silent films before "The Cat and the Canary", notably the 1914 serial "
The Exploits of Elaine" and D. W. Griffith's " Way Down East" (1920) and " Orphans of the Storm" (1921). [Hal Erickson, Creighton Hale biography at [http://www.allmovie.com/cg/avg.dll?p=avg&sql=2:29669~T1 Allmovie] ; last accessed January 12, 2007.] Hale's role in "The Cat and the Canary" was to provide comedic relief. According to critic John Howard Reid, "He is forever backing into furniture or finding himself in a risqué position under a bed or wrestling with stray objects like falling books or enormous bed-springs."John Howard Reid, "These Movies Won No Hollywood Awards" (Lulu Press, 2005), p. 39, ISBN 1411658469.] Hale had trouble finding a solid career in sound film. Many of his parts were minor and uncredited. [Joseph M. Curran, "Hibernian Green on the Silver Screen: The Irish and American Movies" (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1989), p. 27, ISBN 0313264910.]
The villain Charles Wilder was played by Forrest Stanley, an actor who had been cast in films such as "
Bavu" (1923), " Through the Dark" (1924) and " Shadow of the Law" (1926). After his performance in "The Cat and the Canary", Stanley played lesser roles in films such as "Show Boat" (1936) and " Curse of the Undead" (1959) and the television series " Alfred Hitchcock Presents", " Studio 57", and " Gunsmoke". [Hans J. Wollstein, Forrest Stanley biography at [http://www.allmovie.com/cg/avg.dll?p=avg&sql=2:67592 Allmovie] ; last accessed January 12, 2004.]
The film contained a supporting cast referred to by one film historian as "
second-rate" [Thomas Schatz, "The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era" (New York: Owl Books, 1996), p. 89, ISBN 0805046666.] and "excellent" by another. Tully Marshallplayed the suspicious lawyer Roger Crosby, Martha Mattoxwas cast as the sinister and superstitious housekeeper Mammy Pleasant, and Gertrude Astorand Flora Finchplayed greedy relatives Cecily Young and Aunt Susan Sillsby, respectively. Lucien Littlefieldwas cast as deranged psychiatrist Dr. Ira Lazar who bore an eerie resemblance to Werner Krauss's title character in "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari". [Clarens, "Illustrated History of Horror", p. 57.]
As Universal anticipated, director Paul Leni turned Willard's play into an expressionist film suited to an American audience. Historian Bernard F. Dick observes that "Leni reduced German expressionism, with its weird
chiaroscuro, asymmetric sets, and excessive stylization, to a format compatible with American film practice." Jenn Dlugos argues that "many stage play movie adaptations [of the 1920s] fall into the trap of looking like 'a stage play taped for the big screen' with minimal emphasis on the environment and plenty of stage play overacting." [Jenn Dlugos, review of "The Cat and the Canary" DVD, at [http://classic-horror.com/reviews/catcanary27.shtml Classic-Horror] ; last accessed January 4, 2007.] This, however, was not the case for Leni's film. Richard Scheib notes that "Leni's style is something that lifts "The Cat and the Canary" up and away from being merely a filmed stage play and gives it an amazing visual dynamism." [Richard Scheib, review of "The Cat and the Canary", at [http://www.moria.co.nz/horror/cat&canary27.htm The SF, Horror and Fantasy Film Review] ; last accessed January 4, 2007.]
Leni used similar camera effects found in German expressionist films such as the "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" to set the atmosphere of "The Cat and the Canary". The film opens with a hand wiping cobwebs away to reveal the title credits. Other effects include "dramatic shadows, portentous
superimpositions and moody sequences in which the camera glides through corridors with billowing curtains." Film historian Jan-Christopher Horak explains that a "matched dissolve from an image of the mansion and its oddly shaped towers to the oversized bottles of medicine that the dearly departed has been forced to consume functions as a double image of a prison, dwarfing the old man who sits alive with his will in a corner of the frame."Jan-Christopher Horak, "Sauerkraut and Sausages with a Little Goulash: Germans in Hollywood, 1927." "Film History" 17 (2005): pp. 241.] Leni worked with the cast to add to the mood created by lighting and camera angles. Cinematographer Gilbert Warrentonrecalled that Leni used a gongto startle the actors. Warrenton mused, "He beat that thing worse than the Salvation Armybeat a drum." [Gilbert Warrenton, quoted in Kevin Brownlow, "Annus Mirabilis: The Film in 1927," "Film History" 17 (2005): p. 173.]
While the film contains elements of horror, according to film historian Dennis L. White it "is structured with an end other than horror in mind. Some scenes may achieve horror, and some characters dramatically experience horror, but for these films conventional clues and a logical explanation, at least an explanation plausible in hindsight, are usually crucial, and are of necessity their makers' first concern." [Dennis L. White, "The Poetics of Horror: More than Meets the Eye," "Cinema Journal" 10 (No. 2, Spring 1971): p. 5.]
Besides directing, Leni was a painter and set designer. The sets of the film were designed by Leni and fabricated by
Charles D. Hall, who later designed the sets of "Dracula" (1931) and "Frankenstein" (1931). [John T. Soister, "Up from the Vault: Rare Thrillers of the 1920s and 1930s" (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2004), p. 69, ISBN 0786417455.] Leni hoped to eschew realism for visual designs that reflected the emotions of characters. He wrote, "It is not extreme reality that the camera perceives, but the reality of the inner event, which is more profound, effective and moving than what we see through everyday eyes ...." Leni went on to direct the Charlie Chanfilm "The Chinese Parrot" (1927), "The Man Who Laughs" (1928), and " The Last Warning" (1929) before his death in 1929 from blood poisoning. [Graham Petrie, "Hollywood Destinies: European Directors in America, 1922–1931" (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2002), pp. 186–189 ISBN 0814329586.]
Reception and influence
"The Cat and the Canary" debuted in
New York City's Colony Theatre on September 9, 1927, ["Projection Jottings," "New York Times", May 15, 1927, p. X5.] and was a "box office success". "Variety" opined, "What distinguishes Universal's film version of the ... play is Paul Leni's intelligent handling of a weird theme, introducing some of his novel settings and ideas with which he became identified .... The film runs a bit overlong .... Otherwise it's a more than average satisfying feature ...." ["Variety" review of "The Cat and the Canary", quoted in Roy Kinnard, "Horror In Silent Films: A Filmography, 1896–1929" (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1995), p. 200, ISBN 0786407514.] A " New York Times" review expounded, "This is a film which ought to be exhibited before many other directors to show them how a story should be told, for in all that he does Mr. Leni does not seem to strain at a point. He does it as naturally as a man twisting the ends of his mustache in thought." [Mourdant Hall, "Mr. Leni's Clever Film; 'Cat and Canary' an Exception to the Rule in Mystery Pictures," "New York Times", September 18, 1927, p. X5.] Nonetheless, as film historian Bernard F. Dick points out, " [e] xponents of "Caligarisme", expressionism in the extreme ... naturally thought Leni had vulgarized the conventions [of expressionism] ". Dick, however, notes that Leni had only "lighten [ed] [expressionist themes] so they could enter American cinema without the baggage of a movement that had spiraled out of control."Bernard F. Dick, "City of Dreams: The Making and Remaking of Universal Pictures" (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997), p. 56, ISBN 0813120160.]
Modern critics address the film's impact and influence. Michael Atkinson of "
The Village Voice" remarks, " [Leni's] adroitly atmospheric film is virtually an ideogram of narrative suspension and impact"; [Michael Atkinson, review of "The Cat and the Canary" DVD, "The Village Voice" (New York), March 3, 2005, available [http://www.villagevoice.com/screens/0510,dvd2,61786,28.html here] .] Chris Dashiell states that " [e] verything is so exaggerated, so lacking in subtlety, that we soon stop caring what happens, despite a few mildly scary effects", although he admits that the film "had a great effect on the horror genre, and even Hitchcock cited it as an influence." [Chris Dashiell, review of "The Cat and the Canary", at [http://www.cinescene.com/dash/flicks.html CineScene.com] ; last accessed January 4, 2007.] Tony Raynshas called the film "the definitive 'haunted house' movie .... Leni wisely plays it mainly for laughs, but his prowling, Murnau-like camera work generates a frisson or two along the way. It is, in fact, hugely entertaining ...." [Tony Rayns, "The Time OutFilm Guide", Second Edition, Edited by Tom Milne (London: Penguin Books, 1991), p. 106, ISBN 0140145923.] John Calhoun feels that what makes the film both "important and influential" was "Leni's uncanny ability to bring out the period's slapstickelements in the story's hackneyed conventions: the sliding panels and disappearing acts are so fast paced and expertly timed that the picture looks like a first-rate door-slamming farce .... At the same time, Leni didn't short-circuit the horrific aspects ...." [John Calhoun, " The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural", edited by Jack Sullivan (New York: Viking, 1986), p. 73, ISBN 0670809020.]
Although not the first film set in a supposed
haunted house, "The Cat and the Canary" started the pattern for the "old dark house" genre. [Schatz, "Genius of the System", p. 88.] The term is derived from English director James Whale's " The Old Dark House" (1932), which was heavily influenced by Leni's film,Clarens, "Illustrated History of Horror", p. 57.] and refers to "films in which murders are committed by masked killers in old mansions." [Jeffrey S. Miller, "Horror Spoofs of Abbott and Costello: A Critical Assessment of the Comedy Team's Monster Films" (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2004), p. 2, ISBN 0786419229.] Supernatural events in the film are all explained at the film's conclusion as the work of a criminal. Other films in this genre influenced by "The Cat and the Canary" include "The Last Warning", " House on Haunted Hill" (1959), and the monster films of Abbott and Costelloand Laurel and Hardy. [Miller, "Horror Spoofs", pp. 2–3.] [Joseph Maddrey, "Nightmares in Red, White, and Blue: The Evolution of the American Horror Film" (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2004), p. 40, ISBN 0786418605.]
A tinted version was released on both
VHSand DVDin 1997 and 2005 by Image Entertainment. The original black and white version airs infrequently on the cable televisionnetwork Turner Classic Movies.
"The Cat and the Canary" has been remade five times.
Rupert Julian's " The Cat Creeps" (1930) and the Spanish language" La Voluntad del muerto" ("The Will of the Dead Man") directed by George Melfordand Enrique Tovar Ávaloswere the first talkie remakes of the film; they were produced and distributed by Universal Pictures in 1930. Although the first sound films produced by Universal, neither was as influential on the genre as the original and "The Cat Creeps" is lost. [Soister, "Up from the Vault", p. 74.]
The plot had become too familiar, as film historian Douglas Brode notes, and it "seemed likely the play would be put away in a drawer [indefinitely] ." Yet
Elliott Nugent's remake, "The Cat and the Canary" (1939), proved successful. [Douglas W. McCaffrey, "The Road to Comedy: The Films of Bob Hope", (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005), pp. 28–29, ISBN 0275982572.] [Alan Jones, "The Rough Guide to Horror Movies" (New York: Rough Guides, 2005), p. 77, ISBN 1843535211.] Nugent "had the inspired idea to openly play the piece for laughs." The film was produced by Paramount and starred comedic actor Bob Hope. Hope played Wally Campbell, a character based on Creighton Hale's performance as Paul Jones. One critic suggests that Hope developed the character better than Hale and was funnier and more engaging.
Other remakes include "Katten och kanariefågeln" ("The Cat and the Canary"), a 1961 Swedish
television filmdirected by Jan Molander, ["Katten och kanariefågeln" at the [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0239521/ Internet Movie Database] ; last accessed January 4, 2007.] and "The Cat and the Canary" (1979), a British film directed by Radley Metzger. The 1979 version was produced by Richard Gordon, who explains why he and Metzger remade the film: "Well, it hadn't been done since the Bob Hope version, it had never been done in color, it was a well-known title, had a certain reputation, and it was something that logically could or in fact "should" be made in England." [Interview with Richard Gordon, in Tom Weaver, "Return of the B Science Fiction and Horror Heroes: The Mutant Melding of Two Volumes of Classic Interviews" (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000), p. 192, ISBN 0786407557.]
* Everson, William K. "American Silent Film". New York: Da Capo Press, 1998. ISBN 0306808765.
* Hogan, David. "Dark Romance: Sexuality in the Horror Film". Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1997. ISBN 0786404744.
* MacCaffrey, Donald W., and Christopher P. Jacobs. "Guide to the Silent Years of American Cinema". Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999. ISBN 0313303452.
* Prawer, S. S. "Caligari's Children: The Film as Tale of Terror." New York: Da Capo Press, 1989. ISBN 030680347X.
* Worland, Rick. "The Horror Film: A Brief Introduction". Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1405139021.
*imdb title|id=0017739|title=The Cat and the Canary
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