- Bourbon whiskey
On 4 May 1964, the U.S. Congress recognized Bourbon Whiskey as a “distinctive product of the United States," creating the Federal Standards of Identity for Bourbon. Federal regulations now stipulate that Bourbon must meet these requirements:
* Bourbon must be made of a grain mixture that is at least 51% corn. [http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=21224b7c634d83e0fa329bfd18bb85dc&rgn=div8&view=text&node=27:126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52&idno=27 27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(1)(i)] ]
* Bourbon must be
distilledto no more than 160 (U.S.) proof (80% alcohol by volume).
* Bourbon must be 100% natural (nothing other than water added to the mixture).
* Bourbon must be aged in new, charred oak barrels.
* Bourbon which meets the above requirements and has been aged for a minimum of two years, may "(but is not required to)" be called Straight Bourbon. [http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=21224b7c634d83e0fa329bfd18bb85dc&rgn=div8&view=text&node=27:184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11&idno=27 27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(1)(iii)] ]
* Bourbon aged for a period less than four years must be labelled with the duration of its aging.
In practice, almost all bourbons marketed today are made from more than two-thirds
corn, have been aged at least four years, and do qualify as "straight bourbon"—with or without the "straight bourbon" label. The exceptions are inexpensive commodity brands of bourbon aged only three years and pre-mixed cocktails made with bourbon aged the minimum two years.
The typical grain mixture for bourbon is 70% corn — with the remainder being
wheatand/or rye, and malted barley. This mixture, called the mash, is fermented through a process called sour mashfermentation in which mash from a previous distillation is added to ensure a consistent pH across batches. The fermented mash is then distilled to produce a clear spirit.
This spirit is placed in charred
oakbarrels for aging, which is what imparts color. Consequently, bourbons that have been aged longer are generally darker in color.
After aging, bourbon is withdrawn from the barrel, diluted with water and bottled. Bottling proof must be at least 80 proof (40% abv) [http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=21224b7c634d83e0fa329bfd18bb85dc&rgn=div8&view=text&node=27:18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124&idno=27 27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)] ] and most whiskey is sold at 80 proof. Other common proofs are 86, 90, 94, 100 and 107, and whiskeys of up to 151 proof have been sold. Some higher proof bottlings are "barrel proof," meaning that they have not been diluted after removal from the barrels.
Bourbon may be produced anywhere in the
United Stateswhere it is legal to distill spirits. Currently most brands are produced in Kentucky, where Bourbon has a strong association. Estimates are that 95% of the world's bourbon is distilled and aged in Kentucky [cite web |url=http://www.kybourbontrail.com/#tour |title=Kentucky Bourbon Trail |accessdate=2008-09-28 |work=Official Web Site |publisher=Kentucky Department of Travel, Kentucky Tourism |date= 2008-09-28] . Other states producing bourbon include Tennessee, Virginia, Ohio, Missouri, Kansas, Indiana, New Jersey, and New York. [cite web |title=Whisky Regions |url=http://www.whiskyportal.com/region_overview.asp |accessdate=2008-04-21] In the past, bourbon has also been made in Illinoisand Pennsylvania. Bardstown, Kentucky, is called the "Bourbon Capital of the World" and is home to the annual Bourbon Festival in the fall.
The Kentucky Bourbon Trail is a patchwork of paths that lead to eight well-known distilleries:
Buffalo Trace(Frankfort, the oldest continually operating distillery in the United States), Four Roses(Lawrenceburg), Heaven Hill(Bardstown), Jim Beam(Clermont), Maker's Mark(Loretto), Tom Moore (Bardstown, producer of the 1792 brand, added to the trail on August 27, 2008), Wild Turkey (Lawrenceburg), and Woodford Reserve(Versailles). [cite news |first= Scott |last= Vogel |author= Scott Vogel |title= Driven to Drink in Kentucky |work=Washington Post |publisher=The Washington Post |location= Travel |pages=2 |page= P1 |date= September 28, 2008 ]
Although the invention of bourbon has often been attributed to a
Baptistminister and distiller named Elijah Craig, there is no evidence supporting this assertion. [http://www.straightbourbon.com/articles/ccname.html "How Bourbon Whiskey Really Got its Famous Name"] As with most innovations, there may have been no single "inventor" of bourbon, which evolved into its present form only in the late 19th century. [Cowdery, Charles K., "Who Invented Bourbon?" "Malt Advocate Magazine" (4th Quarter 2002), pp. 72-75]
Distilling probably came to what became Kentucky when European-American, and particularly Scottish and Ulster Scots, settlement began in earnest in the late 18th century. The spirit they made evolved and gained a name in the early 19th century.
A refinement variously credited to either Dr. James C. Crow or Dr. Jason S. Amburgey [ [http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-sour-mash.htm What is Sour Mash?] ] was the
sour mashprocess, by which each new fermentation is conditioned with some amount of spent mash (previously fermented mash that has been separated from its alcohol). (Spent mash is also known as distillers' spent grain, stillage, and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed.) The acidintroduced by using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pHbalance for the yeast to work.
As of 2005, all straight bourbons use a sour mash process. Dr. Crow or Dr. Amburgey developed this refinement while working at the Old Oscar Pepper Distillery (now the
Woodford ReserveDistillery) in Woodford County, Kentucky.As of today, there are no running distilleries within the current boundaries of Bourbon County due to new counties being formed from Bourbon County over time.
A resolution of the
U.S. Congressin 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States."78 Stat. 1208 (1964).] [Defining “Bourbon.” The State (Columbia, SC), 5-1-02, p. D1.] That resolution asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government . . . [to] take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as 'Bourbon Whiskey.'" Federal regulation now defines "bourbon whiskey" to only include "bourbon" produced in the United States. [http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=21224b7c634d83e0fa329bfd18bb85dc&rgn=div8&view=text&node=27:126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52&idno=27 27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(2)] ]
National Bourbon Heritage Month
On August 2, 2007, the
U.S. Senatepassed a resolution sponsored by Senator Jim Bunning(R-KY) officially declaring September 2007 “ National Bourbon Heritage Month,” marking the history of bourbon whiskey.S. Res. No. 110-294 (2007).] Notably, the resolution claims that Congress declared bourbon to be "America's Native Spirit" in its 1964 resolution. The 1964 resolution, however, does not contain such a statement per se; it only declares that bourbon is a distinctive product identifiable with the United States in the same way that Scotch is identifiable with Scotland.
Since 2003, high-end bourbons have seen revenue grow from $450 million to over $500 million (£231 million to over £257 million or €308 million to over €343 million), some 2.2 million cases, in the United States. High-end bourbon sales accounted for eight percent of total spirits growth in 2006. Most high-end bourbons are aged for six years or longer. [cite web|url=http://www.discus.org/media/press/article.asp?NEWS_ID=450|title=Celebrate "National Bourbon Heritage Month" With the Classic Bourbon Cocktails|publisher=Distilled Spirits Council of the United States|date=2007-08-31|accessdate=2008-01-12]
In 2007, United States spirits exports, virtually all of which are American whiskey, exceeded $1 billion for the first time. This represents a 15 percent increase over 2006. American whiskey is now sold in more than 100 different countries. The leading markets are the
United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, and Japan. Key emerging markets for American whiskey are China, Vietnam, Brazil, Chile, Romania, and Bulgaria. [Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, January, 2008.]
List of bourbon brands
* List of cocktails with bourbon
List of whisky brands
American Whiskey Trail
Bottled in bond
Single barrel bourbon
* Cowdery, Charles K. "Bourbon, Straight: The Uncut and Unfiltered Story of American Whiskey" (Chicago: Made and Bottled in Kentucky), 2004. ISBN 0-9758-7030-0
* Crowgey, Henry G. "Kentucky Bourbon: The Early Years of Whiskeymaking" (Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky), 1971. ISBN 0-8131-1225-7
* Regan, Gary and Mardee Haidin Regan. "The Bourbon Companion: A Connisseur's Guide" (Philadelphia, PA: Running Press), 1998. ISBN 0-7624-0013-7
* [http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2003740931_whiskeybarrels09.html?syndication=rss Building a better barrel] - "AP" - 09-June-2007
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