- Analog high-definition television system
Historically the term high-definition television was first used to refer to television standards developed in the 1930s to replace early experimental systems with as few as 12 lines. Not so long afterwards
John Logie Baird, Philo T. Farnsworthand Vladimir Zworykinhad each developed competing TV systems but resolution was not the issue that separated their substantially different technologies. It was patent interference lawsuits and deployment issues given the tumultuous financial climate of the late '20s and '30s.
405-linesystem was the first to advertise itself as high definition and see widespread use. Most patents were expiring by the end of World War II leaving the market wide open and no worldwide standard for television agreed upon. The standards introduced in the early 1950s stayed for over half a century.
French-Italian 819-line (737i) system
Europeresumed TV transmissions after WWII, i.e. in the late 1940s and early 1950s, most countries standardized on a 625-line television system. The two exceptions were the British 405-linesystem, which had already been introduced in 1936, and the French-Italian 819-line system developed by René Barthélemy. During the 1940's Barthélemy reached 1015 and even 1042 lines. On 1948-11-20, Mitterranddecreed a broadcast standard of 819 lines; broadcasting began at the end of 1949 in this definition.
The French TV system was arguably the world's first
HDTVsystem, and, by today's standards, it could be called 737i (with a maximum theoretical resolution of ~800x737 pixels with a 4:3 aspect ratio). It was used only in France by TF1, and in Italy by Rai Uno, along with broadcasters in Belgium, Luxembourgand Monaco. However, the theoretical picture quality far exceeded the capabilities of the equipment of its time, and each 819-line channel occupied a wide 14 MHzof VHFbandwidth.
Channels were arranged as follows:
System E implementation provided very good (near HDTV) picture quality but with an uneconomical use of bandwidth. It was discontinued after in 1983 (Italy), 1984 (France) and 1985 (Monaco).
System F was used only in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. It allowed French 819-line programming to be broadcast on the 7 MHz VHF channels used in those countries, with a substantial cost in horizontal resolution. It was discontinued in 1969.
Despite some attempts to create a color
SECAMversion of the 819-line system, France abandoned it in favor of the Europe-wide standard of 625 lines ( 576i50), with the final 819-line transmissions from Paris in 1986.
Multiple sub-nyquist sampling Encoding system (MUSE)
Japan had the earliest working HDTV system, with design efforts going back to 1979. The country began broadcasting analog HDTV signals in the late 1980s using an interlaced resolution of 1035 or 1080 active lines ("1035i") or 1125 total lines.
The Japanese system, developed by
NHK"Science and Technical Research Laboratories" ( STRL) in the 1980s, employed filtering tricks to reduce the original source signal to decrease bandwidth utilization. MUSE was marketed as "Hi-Vision" by NHK.
* Japanese broadcast engineers immediately rejected conventional vestigial sideband broadcasting for well-founded technical reasons.
* It was decided early on that MUSE would be a satellite broadcast format as Japan economically supports satellite broadcasting.
In the typical setup, three picture elements on a line were actually derived from three separate scans. Stationary images were transmitted at full resolution.However, as MUSE lowers the horizontal and vertical resolution of material that varies greatly from frame to frame, moving images were blurred in a manner similar to using 16 mm movie film for HDTV projection. In fact, whole-camera pans would result in a loss of 50% of horizontal resolution.
MUSE's "1125 lines" are an analog measurement, which includes non-video "scan lines" during which a CRT's electron beam returns to the top of the screen to begin scanning the next field. Only 1035 lines have picture information. Digital signals count only the lines (rows of pixels) that have actual detail, so NTSC's 525 lines become 480i, and MUSE would be 1035i.
Shadows and multipath still plague this analog frequency modulated transmission mode.
Considering the technological limitations of the time, MUSE was a very cleverly-designed analog system.Though Japan has since switched to a digital HDTV system based on ISDB, the original MUSE-based BS Satellite channel 9 (NHK BS Hi-vision) was still being broadcast
as of 2007. It broadcast the same programs as BS-digital channel 103, but transmission ended on November 30 2007[ [http://www.soumu.go.jp/joho_tsusin/eng/Releases/Telecommunications/news060208_3.html MIC(Press Release-Telecom) ] ] .
HD-MAC was a proposed
television standardby the European Commissionin 1986 (MAC standard) . It was an early attempt by the EEC to provide HDTV in Europe. It was a complex mix of analog signal( Multiplexed Analog Components) multiplexed with digital sound. The video signal (1250 (1152 visible) lines/50 frames in 16:9aspect ratio) was encoded with a modified D2-MACencoder.
1992 Summer Olympicsexperimental HD-MAC broadcasting took place. 100 HD-MAC receivers (in that time, retroprojectors) in Europe were used to test the capabilities of the standard. This project was financed by the European Union(EU). The PAL-converted signal was used by mainstream broadcasters such as SWR, BRand 3Sat.
The HD-MAC standard was abandoned in 1993, and since then all
EUand EBU efforts have focused on the DVBsystem ("Digital Video Broadcasting"), which allows both SDTV and HDTV.
The analog TV systems these systems were meant to replace
NICAM-like audio coding is used in the HD-MAC system.
Chroma subsamplingin TV indicated as 4:2:2, 4:1:1 etc...
* [http://www.ebu.ch/trev_254-romero.pdf HDTV coverage of the Barcelona Olympic Games] by M. Romero and E. Gavilan (
* [http://www.ebu.ch/trev_254-tejerino.pdf The HDTV demonstrations at the Expo 92] by J.L. Tejerina and F. Visintin (
* [http://www.ebu.ch European Broadcasting Union]
* [http://www.agcom.it/eng/92_38_EEC.htm COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92/38/EEC] of
11 May 1992.
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