Oscar Pistorius


Oscar Pistorius
Oscar Pistorius

Pistorius taking part in the Landsmót ungmennafélags Íslands in Kópavogur, Iceland, the largest sporting event in the country, on 8 July 2007
Personal information
Nickname(s) Blade Runner; the fastest man on no legs; "Oz" Pistorius[1]
Born 22 November 1986 (1986-11-22) (age 25)
Sandton, Johannesburg, Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa
Height 1.86 m (6 ft 1 14 in) in prosthetics[2]
Weight 80.5 kg (177 lb) (2007)[3]
Website www.oscarpistorius.co.za
Sport
Country  South Africa
Sport Running
Event(s) Sprints (100, 200, 400 m)
Achievements and titles
World finals 2005 Paralympic World Cup: 100 m (T44) – Gold; 200 m (T44) – Gold
National finals 2007 South African Senior Athletics Championships: 400 m (T44) – Gold
Paralympic finals

2008 Summer Paralympics: 100 m (T44) – Gold, 200 m (T44) – Gold; 400 m (T44) – Gold

2004 Summer Paralympics: 100 m (T44) – Bronze; 200 m (T44) – Gold
Highest world ranking

100 m: 1st (2008)[4]
200 m: 1st (2008)[5]

400 m: 1st (2008)[6]
Personal best(s)

100 m (T44): 10.91 s (2007, WR)
200 m (T44): 21.41 s (2010, WR)
[7]

400 m (T44): 45.07
Updated on 14 September 2008.

Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius (born 22 November 1986) is a South African sprint runner. Known as the "Blade Runner" and "the fastest man on no legs", Pistorius, who has a double amputation, is the world record holder in the 100, 200 and 400 metres (sport class T44) events and runs with the aid of Cheetah Flex-Foot carbon fibre transtibial artificial limbs by Ossur. In 2007 Pistorius took part in his first international competitions for able-bodied athletes. However, his artificial lower legs, while enabling him to compete, have generated claims that he has an unfair advantage over able-bodied runners. The same year, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) amended its competition rules to ban the use of "any technical device that incorporates springs, wheels or any other element that provides a user with an advantage over another athlete not using such a device". It claimed that the amendment was not specifically aimed at Pistorius. After monitoring his track performances and carrying out tests, scientists took the view that Pistorius enjoyed considerable advantages over athletes without prosthetic limbs. On the strength of these findings, on 14 January 2008 the IAAF ruled him ineligible for competitions conducted under its rules, including the 2008 Summer Olympics. This decision was reversed by the Court of Arbitration for Sport on 16 May 2008, the Court ruling overall there was no evidence that Pistorius had any net advantage over able-bodied athletes.

Although eligible to compete in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, Pistorius did not qualify for the South African team. Despite achieving third place and a personal best time of 46.25 seconds in the 400 metres in Lucerne, Switzerland, on 16 July 2008, this was short of the Olympic qualification time of 45.55 seconds. He was also not selected by the South African Olympic Committee for the 4 x 400 metres relay team as there were four other runners who had achieved better times. At the 2008 Summer Paralympics, he took the gold medals in the 100, 200 and 400 metres (T44) sprints.

With his 400 m time of 45.07 on July 19, 2011, he achieved the "A" qualifying standard for the 2011 World Championships and 2012 Olympics. He participated in the 400m sprint and 4x400m relay, being eliminated in the semi-final of the 400m sprint (finishing last with a time of 46.19secs) and being part of South Africa's silver medal winning relay team, making him the first amputee to win an able-bodied world track medal, although he was not selected for the final.

Contents

Early years and education

Oscar Pistorius was born to Henke and Sheila Pistorius on 22 November 1986 in Sandton, Johannesburg, in what was then Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province) of South Africa,[1] with congenital absence of the fibula in both legs. When he was 11 months old, his legs were amputated halfway between his knees and ankles.[3] He attended Constantia Kloof Primary[8] and Pretoria Boys High School[1][9] where, between the ages of 11 and 13, he played rugby union in the school's third XV team, water polo and tennis. He also played water polo and tennis at provincial level. In addition, Pistorius took part in club Olympic wrestling.[2][10][11] After a serious rugby knee injury in June 2003, he was introduced to running in January 2004 while undergoing rehabilitation, and "never looked back".[10]

Pistorius is studying for a Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.)[12] in business management with sports science at the University of Pretoria;[2][10] in a June 2008 interview for his University's website, he joked: "I won't graduate soon. With all the training I have had to cut down on my subjects. Hopefully I'll finish by the time I'm 30!"[12] His sporting motto is: "You're not disabled by the disabilities you have, you are able by the abilities you have."[10]

Sporting career

Known as the "Blade Runner"[13] and "the fastest man on no legs",[14][15] he took part in the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens and came third overall in the T44 (one leg amputated below the knee)[11] 100-metre event.[16] Despite falling in the preliminary round for the 200 metres, he qualified for the final.[17] He went on to win the final with a world record time of 21.97 seconds, beating American runners with a single amputation Marlon Shirley and Brian Frasure.[16]

In 2005, Pistorius finished sixth in the able-bodied South African Championships over 400 metres with a world-record time of 47.34 seconds,[11] and at the Paralympic World Cup in the same year he won gold in the 100 metres and 200 metres, beating his previous 200-metre world record.[18][19] At the 2006 Paralympic Athletics World Championships, Pistorius won gold in the 100, 200 and 400-metre events, breaking the world record over 200 metres.[20] On 17 March 2007, he set a disability sports world record for the 400 metres (46.56 seconds) at the South African Senior Athletics Championships in Durban,[21] and at the Nedbank Championships for the Physically Disabled held in Johannesburg in April 2007, he became the world record holder of the 100 and 200-metre events with times of 10.91 and 21.58 seconds respectively.[22][23]

Pistorius was invited by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) to take part in what would have been his first international able-bodied event, the 400-metre race at the IAAF Grand Prix in Helsinki, Finland, in July 2005. He was unable to attend, however, because of school commitments.[24] On 13 July 2007, Pistorius ran in the 400-metre race at Rome's Golden Gala and finished second in run B with a time of 46.90 seconds, behind Stefano Braciola who ran 46.72 seconds.[25] This was a warm-up for his appearance at the 400 metres at the Norwich Union British Grand Prix at the Don Valley Stadium in Sheffield on 15 July 2007.[26] As American Olympic champion Jeremy Wariner stumbled at the start of the race and stopped running, Pistorius took seventh place in a field of eight in wet conditions with a time of 47.65 seconds. However, he was later disqualified for running outside his lane. The race was won by American Angelo Taylor with a time of 45.25 seconds.[27][28] Pistorius has ambitions of competing in other able-bodied events. In particular, he had set his sights on competing at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China,[29] but was ultimately not selected by the South African Olympic Committee (see below).

Pistorius's autobiography, Dream Runner, was published in Italian in 2008 by Gianni Merlo, a journalist with La Gazzetta dello Sport.[30] An English version entitled Blade Runner was released in 2009.[31]

Dispute over prosthetics

The South African newspaper The Citizen announcing the IAAF's decision to bar Pistorius from its competitions – photographed in Johannesburg on 16 January 2008.

Pistorius has been the subject of criticism because of claims that his artificial limbs give him an advantage over runners with natural ankles and feet. He runs with J-shaped carbon-fibre prosthetics called the "Cheetah Flex-Foot" manufactured by Icelandic company Ossur.[11]

On 26 March 2007, the IAAF amended its competition rules to include a ban on the use of "any technical device that incorporates springs, wheels or any other element that provides a user with an advantage over another athlete not using such a device".[32] It claimed that the amendment was not specifically aimed at Pistorius. To decide if he is running with an unfair advantage, the IAAF monitored his track performances using high-definition cameras to film his race against Italian club runners in Rome on 13 July, and his 400 metres in Sheffield on 15 July 2007,[14][33] at which he placed last.[28]

In November 2007, Oscar was invited to take part in a series of scientific tests at the Cologne Sports University under the guidance of Professor of Biomechanics Dr Peter Brüggemann in conjunction with Mr Elio Locatelli, who was responsible with the IAAF of all technical issues. After two days of tests Brüggemann reported on his findings on behalf of the IAAF. The report claimed that Pistorius's limbs used 25% less energy than runners with complete natural legs to run at the same speed, and that they led to less vertical motion combined with 30% less mechanical work for lifting the body.[34] In December, Brüggemann told Die Welt newspaper that Pistorius "has considerable advantages over athletes without prosthetic limbs who were tested by us. It was more than just a few percentage points. I did not expect it to be so clear."[35] Based on these findings, on 14 January 2008 the IAAF ruled Pistorius's prostheses ineligible for use in competitions conducted under the IAAF rules, including the 2008 Summer Olympics.[36] Pistorius called the decision "premature and highly subjective" and pledged to continue fighting for his dream. His manager Peet van Zyl said his appeal would be based on advice from United States experts who had said that the report "did not take enough variables into consideration".[37]

In February 2008, Pistorius employed the services of law firm Dewey & LeBoeuf to challenge the ruling via an appeal and later that month, travelled to America to take part in a series of further tests carried out at Rice University in Houston by a team of scientists including Hugh Herr, Ph.D. and Rodger Kram, Ph.D.

Pistorius subsequently appealed against the adverse decision to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) in Lausanne, Switzerland, and appeared before the tribunal at the end of April 2008.[38]

After a two day hearing, on 16 May 2008 the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld Oscar’s appeal and the IAAF council decision was revoked with immediate effect. The CAS panel unanimously determined that Dr. Brüggemann only tested Oscar’s biomechanics at full-speed when he was running in a straight line (unlike a real 400m race), that the report did not consider the disadvantages that Oscar suffers at the start and acceleration phases of the race, that Dr. Brüggemann did not consider disadvantages that Oscar suffers, and that overall there was no evidence that Oscar had any net advantage over able-bodied athletes.[39] In response to the announcement, Pistorius said: "My focus throughout this appeal has been to ensure that disabled athletes be given the chance to compete and compete fairly with able-bodied athletes. I look forward to continuing my quest to qualify for the Olympics."[40]

Attempts to qualify for 2008 Summer Olympics

To have a chance of representing South Africa at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing in the individual 400-metre race, Pistorius had to attain the Olympic "A" standard time of 45.55 seconds; the "B" qualifying time of 45.95 seconds if no other athlete from his country achieved the faster time did not apply. Each national athletics federation is permitted to enter three athletes in an event if the "A" standard is met, and only one athlete if the "B" standard is met.[41] However, he was eligible for selection as a member of the relay squad without qualifying.[42] His best chance was to try for a time of close to 46 seconds to make the 4 x 400-metre relay team. However, he said: "If I make the team I don't want to be the reserve for the relay, I want to be in the top four. I want to bring something to the race and make the relay stronger." To give him a chance of making the South African Olympic team, selectors delayed naming the team till 17 July.[43]

On 2 July 2008, Pistorius competed in the 400 metres in the B race of the Notturna International in Milan but was "disappointed"[43][44] when he failed to achieve the minimum Olympic qualification time, completing the race in fourth place in 47.78 seconds.[43][45] His performance on 11 July 2008 at the Rome Golden Gala was an improvement of more than a second, though his sixth-place time of 46.62 seconds in the B race was still short of the Olympic qualification time. Nonetheless, he was pleased with his performance, commenting that he felt he could improve on it.[46]

On 15 July 2008, IAAF general secretary Pierre Weiss commented that the world athletics body preferred that the South African Olympic Committee did not select Pistorius for its 4 x 400 metres relay team "for reasons of safety", saying that Pistorius could cause "serious damage" and risk the physical safety of himself and other athletes if he ran in the main pack of the relay.[47] Pistorius branded this as the IAAF's "last desperate attempt" to get him not to qualify,[48] and threatened legal action if the Federation did not confirm that it had no objections to his participation in the relay.[49] The IAAF responded by issuing a statement saying that Pistorius was welcome to seek qualification for the Olympics and future competitions under IAAF rules: "The IAAF fully respects the recent CAS decision regarding the eligibility of Oscar Pistorius to compete in IAAF competitions, and certainly has no wish to influence the South African Olympic Committee, who has full authority to select a men's 4x400m relay team for the Beijing Olympics."[50][51]

Despite coming third and running a personal best time of 46.25 seconds at the Spitzen Leichtathletik meeting in Lucerne on 16 July 2008, Pistorius failed in his final opportunity to qualify for the 400 metres at the 2008 Summer Olympics by 0.70 seconds. Athletics South Africa later announced that he would also not be selected for the 4 x 400 metres relay team as four other runners had better times.[50][52] If Pistorius had been picked, he would have become the first runner with a leg amputation to participate in the Olympic Games.[53] Asked about the possibility of the IAAF offering him a wild card to take part in the Olympics, Pistorius responded, "I do not believe that I would accept. If I have to take part in the Beijing Games I should do it because I qualified." Instead, he expressed a preference for focusing on getting into the 2012 Summer Olympics in London,[44] noting that it was a more realistic target as "[s]printers usually reach their peak between 26 and 29. I will be 25 in London and I'll also have two, three years' preparation."[45]

2008 Summer Paralympics

Pistorius participated in the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing in the 100, 200 and 400 metres (T44). On 9 September, in the heats of the 100 metres, he set a Paralympic record with his time of 11.16 seconds.[54] Later, following a slow start, he rallied to snatch gold from the United States' Jerome Singleton in the 100 metres in a time of 11.17 seconds, 0.03 seconds ahead of the silver medallist.[55] Four days later, on 13 September, the defending Paralympic champion in the 200 metres sprint[56] won his second gold in the event in a time of 21.67 seconds,[57] setting another Paralympic record.[54] He completed a hat-trick by winning gold in the 400 metres in a world-record time of 47.49 seconds on 16 September,[58] calling it "a memory that will stay with me for the rest of my life".[59]

2011 and qualification for 2012 Summer Olympics

Pistorius during the 2011 World Athletics Championships in Daegu.

In January 2011, a slimmer, trimmer Pistorius won three IPC Athletics World titles in New Zealand but was beaten for the first time in seven years in the 100m by American Jerome Singleton. [60] He subsequently won the T44 400m in 47.28s and the 100m in 11.04s at the BT Paralympic World Cup in May to reassert himself as the world’s leading Paralympic sprinter.[61]

Pistorius competed across a number of able-bodied races in the summer of 2011 and posted three times under 46 seconds but it was in Lignano, Italy, on 19 July that he set a personal best of 45.07s in the 400m, attaining the World Championships and Olympic Games ‘A’ standard qualification mark.[62]

On 8 August 2011 it was announced that he had been included in the South African team for the World Championships in Daegu and had been selected for the 400m and the 4 x 400 metre relay squad.

To be selected for the South African team to compete at the Olympic Games in London, Oscar must again run inside the 400m ‘A’ standard of 45.25 seconds between January and June 2012.

In the heats of the 400 metre in the 2011 World Championships in Daegu, Oscar Pistorius ran a 45.39 and qualified for the semi-final. However, in the semi-final, Pistorius ran 46.19 and was eliminated.[63] Had he run the 45.39 in the semi-final, that time would have qualified him for the final.[64] In the heats of the 4 x 400m relay, Oscar ran the opening leg as South Africa advanced to the finals with a national record time of 2 minutes, 59.21 seconds. However, Pistorius was excluded from the finals. He still won the silver medal because he ran in the heats. Reflecting on his World Championship debut, Pistorius said: "I really enjoyed the whole experience. I ran my second fastest time ever in the heats and was really pleased to have reached the semi-finals. In the relay I was unbelievably chuffed to have broken the South African record, and hopefully my name will stay on that for a long time to come."[65]

Medals

Disability sports events

Time
(s)
Medal Date Event
100 m (sport class T44)
10.91[22]
(world record;
personal best)
Gold 4 April 2007 Nedbank Championships for the Physically Disabled
Germiston, Gauteng, South Africa
11.16[66] Bronze 17–28 September 2004 2004 Summer Paralympics
Athens, Greece
11.17[55] Gold 9 September 2008 2008 Summer Paralympics
Beijing, People's Republic of China
11.23[18] Gold 15 May 2005 2005 Visa Paralympic World Cup
Manchester, England, UK
11.32[67] Gold 5 September 2006 IPC World Championships
Assen, Netherlands
11.42[4] Gold 6 June 2008 Sportfest
Duisburg, Germany
11.48[68] Gold 1 June 2008 Dutch Open National Championships
Emmeloord, Netherlands
11.62[67] Gold 2004 USA Endeavor Games
200 m (sport class T44)
21.58[23]
(world record;
personal best)
Gold 5 April 2007 Nedbank Championships for the Physically Disabled
Germiston, Gauteng, South Africa
21.67[57]
(Paralympic record)[54]
Gold 13 September 2008 2008 Summer Paralympics
Beijing, People's Republic of China
21.77[5] Gold 15 June 2008 German Open National Championships
Berlin, Germany
21.80
(21.66 in semifinal –
world record)[67]
Gold 8 September 2006 IPC World Championships
Assen, Netherlands
21.97[66] Gold 17–28 September 2004 2004 Summer Paralympics
Athens, Greece
22.01[19]
(world record)
Gold 15 May 2005 2005 Visa Paralympic World Cup
Manchester, England, UK
22.04[69] Gold 31 May 2008 Dutch Open National Championships
Emmeloord, Netherlands
22.71[67] Gold 2004 USA Endeavor Games
400 m (sport class T44)
47.49[58]
(world record)
Gold 16 September 2008 2008 Summer Paralympics
Beijing, People's Republic of China
47.92[68] Gold 1 June 2008 Dutch Open National Championships
Emmeloord, Netherlands
49.42[67] Gold 4 September 2006 IPC World Championships
Assen, Netherlands

Able-bodied sports events

Time
(s)
Medal Date Event
400 m
45.07[70]
(personal best)
Gold 19 July 2011 Lignano, Italy

Time comparisons

The following tables show comparisons between Pistorius's best times at official events and the Olympic and World record winning times as at 20 August 2009 over the same distance:

100 m

Time
(s)
Athlete Date Event
9.58[71]
(World record)
Usain Bolt (Jamaica) 16 August 2009 2009 World Athletics Championships
Berlin, Germany
9.69[72]
(Olympic record)
Usain Bolt (Jamaica) 16 August 2008 2008 Summer Olympics
Beijing, People's Republic of China
10.91[22]
(disability sports world record)
Oscar Pistorius (South Africa) 4 April 2007 Nedbank Championships for the Physically Disabled
Germiston, Gauteng, South Africa

200 m

Time
(s)
Athlete Date Event
19.19[73]
(World record)
Usain Bolt (Jamaica) 20 August 2009 2009 World Athletics Championships
Berlin, Germany
19.30[74]
(Olympic record)
Usain Bolt (Jamaica) 20 August 2008 2008 Summer Olympics
Beijing, People's Republic of China
21.58[23]
(disability sports world record)
Oscar Pistorius (South Africa) 5 April 2007 Nedbank Championships for the Physically Disabled
Germiston, Gauteng, South Africa

400 m

Time
(s)
Athlete Date Event
43.18[75]
(World record)
Michael Johnson (USA) 26 August 1999 Seville, Spain
43.49[76]
(Olympic record)
Michael Johnson (USA) 29 July 1996 1996 Summer Olympics
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
45.07[70]
(Personal best)
Oscar Pistorius (South Africa) 19 July 2011 Lignano, Italy

Other awards and accolades

In 2006, Pistorius was conferred the Order of Ikhamanga in Bronze (OIB) by the President of South Africa for outstanding achievement in sports.[1] On 9 December 2007, Pistorius was awarded the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Helen Rollason Award, which is conferred for outstanding courage and achievement in the face of adversity.[77]

In May 2008, Pistorius made the "2008 TIME 100" – Time magazine's annual list of the world's most influential people – appearing third in the "Heroes & Pioneers" section. Erik Weihenmayer, the first blind person to climb Mount Everest, wrote in an essay that Pistorius was "on the cusp of a paradigm shift in which disability becomes ability, disadvantage becomes advantage. Yet we mustn't lose sight of what makes an athlete great. It's too easy to credit Pistorius' success to technology. Through birth or circumstance, some are given certain gifts, but it's what one does with those gifts, the hours devoted to training, the desire to be the best, that is at the true heart of a champion."[78]

Personal life

Pistorius has distant Italian ancestry – his mother's grandfather was an Italian emigrant to Kenya.[79][80] He has an elder brother, Carl, and a younger sister, Aimée.[12][81]

Pistorius is a dedicated supporter of Italian Serie A club Lazio. This is because his best friend is Italian and also a fan of the club.[80]

In 2008, Pistorius collaborated in the release of a music CD called Olympic Dream. Produced in Italy, it consists of disco remixes of music pieces that Pistorius finds inspirational, and two tracks written for him, "Olympic Dream" and "Run Boy Run", which he provided voiceovers for. Part of the CD's proceeds of sale will go to charity.[82]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Mr. Oscar "Oz" PISTORIUS, Who's Who of Southern Africa, 24.com, http://www.whoswhosa.co.za/Pages/profilefull.aspx?IndID=5404, retrieved 18 May 2007 .
  2. ^ a b c Jeré Longman (2007-05-15), "An amputee sprinter: Is he disabled or too-abled?", The New York Times: A1 & A21, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/sports/othersports/15runner.html?_r=1&oref=slogin .
  3. ^ a b Josh McHugh (March 2007), "Blade Runner", Wired (15.03), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/15.03/blade.html .
  4. ^ a b World wide ranking: T44 male 100 2008, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation, http://athletics.iwasf.com, retrieved 19 July 2008 .
  5. ^ a b World wide ranking: T44 male 200 2008, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation, http://athletics.iwasf.com, retrieved 19 July 2008 .
  6. ^ World wide ranking: T44 male 400 2008, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation, http://athletics.iwasf.com, retrieved 19 July 2008 .
  7. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/athletes/biographies/country=RSA/athcode=233200/index.html
  8. ^ Oscar Pistorius; Rebecca Servadio-Kenan, transl. (2009), Blade Runner, London: Virgin Books, p. 33, ISBN 9780753519394 .
  9. ^ Gareth A. Davies (6 October 2004), "Olympics within amputee's reach", The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2004/10/07/soscho07.xml .
  10. ^ a b c d Gareth A. Davies [interviewer] (23 May 2007), "My sport: Oscar Pistorius", The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/05/09/somysp09.xml .
  11. ^ a b c d Oscar Pistorius, Ossur, http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=3364, retrieved 22 March 2008 .
  12. ^ a b c De Jong Borchardt (18 June 2008), 30 minutes with Oscar Pistorius, University of Pretoria, http://web.up.ac.za/default.asp?ipkCategoryID=5573&articleID=709, retrieved 20 July 2008 .
  13. ^ After the 1982 Ridley Scott film Blade Runner.
  14. ^ a b Tom Knight (11 July 2007), "Pistorius is no novelty sprinter", The Daily Telegraph (Sport): S12, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/07/11/soaths111.xml .
  15. ^ Pistorius is also occasionally referred to as "the fastest thing on no legs". See, for instance, the following: Amputee sprinter second in Rome, BBC News, 14 July 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6898504.stm ; Blow to Oscar's Olympics dream, News24, 19 December 2007, http://www.news24.com/News24/Sport/More_Sport/0,,2-9-32_2241219,00.html ; Oscar Pistorius, Ossur, http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=3364, retrieved 22 March 2008 .
  16. ^ a b Oscar Pistorius's profile on paralympic.org.
  17. ^ From Paralympics to Olympics?, Disability Sport South Africa, 9 November 2006, http://www.dissa.co.za/default.asp?AID=196376, retrieved 26 March 2008 .
  18. ^ a b Athletics results: Event 6: T44 100m (Men), Paralympic World Cup, http://www.paralympicworldcup.com/results_2005/athletics/athletics_results_06.htm, retrieved 6 March 2008 .
  19. ^ a b Athletics results: Event 16: T44 200m (Men), Paralympic World Cup, http://www.paralympicworldcup.com/results_2005/athletics/athletics_results_16.htm, retrieved 6 March 2008 .
  20. ^ Crates leads superb day for GB, BBC Sport, 9 September 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/5331430.stm .
  21. ^ De Jongh Borchardt (19 March 2007), Oscar reaches for his dream, News24, http://www.news24.com/News24/Sport/More_Sport/0,9294,2-9-32_2086153,00.html .
  22. ^ a b c Oscar sets 100m world record, News24, 4 April 2007, http://www.news24.com/News24/Sport/More_Sport/0,9294,2-9-32_2094122,00.html .
  23. ^ a b c "Oscar Pistorius shatters 100m, 200m Records", Mail & Guardian, 5 May 2007, http://www.mg.co.za/articlePage.aspx?articleid=304012&area=/breaking_news/breaking_news__sport .
  24. ^ Mike Burnett (5 May 2005), Olympic dreams of a blade runner, BBC Sport, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/4487443.stm ; Matthew Pryor (24 April 2006), "Pistorius willing and able to compete with the best", The Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/more_sport/athletics/article708725.ece .
  25. ^ Andrew Dampf (13 July 2007), "Paralympian Pistorius 2nd in able-bodied 'B' race", USA Today, http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/summer/track/2007-07-13-pistorius_N.htm?csp=34 ; Oscar: Nice to be out on track, News24, 14 July 2007, http://www.news24.com/News24v2/BidOrBuy/n24BidOrBuy_ArticleDisplay/0,,2-9-32_2146993,00.html .
  26. ^ An article dated 11 July 2007 in the Daily Telegraph claimed that Pistorius's participation in the British Grand Prix was the first time that an athlete with a disability had competed against the world's best runners in a top international meeting: see Tom Knight (11 July 2007), "Pistorius is no novelty sprinter", The Daily Telegraph (Sport): S12, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/07/11/soaths111.xml . However, this does not seem to be correct – for instance, American runner Marla Runyan, who is legally blind, won the 1,500-metre race at the Pan American Games in 1999. At the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, she became the first athlete who is legally blind to compete in the Olympics when she was placed eighth in the 1,500 metres.
  27. ^ "Angelo Taylor wins on Oscar Pistorius's debut", The Daily Telegraph, 15 July 2007, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/07/15/uathsheff115.xml ; Taylor profits from Wariner slip, BBC Sport, 15 July 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/athletics/6897840.stm .
  28. ^ a b Angry Pistorius calls for talks, BBC Sport, 15 July 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/6294110.stm .
  29. ^ Elizabeth Hudson (5 June 2006), Amputee eyes Olympics, BBC Sport, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/4973052.stm .
  30. ^ Gareth A. Davies (4 July 2008), "Olympics: Oscar Pistorius accused of terrorism", The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2008/07/04/sbpist104.xml .
  31. ^ Oscar Pistorius (2009), Blade Runner, London: Virgin Books, ISBN 9780753519394 .
  32. ^ IAAF Council introduces rule regarding "technical aids", International Association of Athletics Federations, 26 March 2007, http://www.iaaf.org/news/Kind=512/newsId=38127.html, retrieved 28 May 2008 ; Competition Rules 2008, Monaco: International Association of Athletics Federations, 2008, p. rule 144.2(e), http://www.iaaf.org/mm/Document/imported/42192.pdf . See "IAAF proposes rule which would keep South African amputee sprinter out of Beijing Games", International Herald Tribune, 31 May 2007, http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/05/31/sports/EU-SPT-ATH-IAAF-Amputee-Sprinter.php ; Charles Carrick (1 June 2007), "IAAF to halt Blade Runner", The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/06/01/soaths01.xml .
  33. ^ Simon Hart (15 July 2007), "Blade Runner Oscar Pistorius furious at IAAF", The Sunday Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/07/15/sofron115.xml .
  34. ^ 'Blade Runner' handed Olympic ban, BBC Sport, 14 January 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/athletics/7141302.stm .
  35. ^ "Report: Artificial limbs give paralympic champion competitive edge", International Herald Tribune, 20 December 2007, http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/12/20/sports/athletics20.php .
  36. ^ Oscar Pistorius – independent scientific study concludes that Cheetah prosthetics offer clear mechanical advantages, International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), 14 January 2008, http://www.iaaf.org/news/kind=101/newsid=42896.html, retrieved 18 May 2008 ; Federation expected to rule Pistorius ineligible for Beijing Games, ESPN, 10 January 2008, http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/trackandfield/news/story?id=3189950 ; Tom Knight (10 January 2008), "IAAF call time on Oscar Pistorius' dream", The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2008/01/10/soaths110.xml ; IAAF announcement – Oscar Pistorius banned based on test results, The Science of Sport, 14 January 2008, http://scienceofsport.blogspot.com/2008/01/oscar-pistorius-announcement-banned_14.html, retrieved 15 January 2008 .
  37. ^ Jonathan Clayton (15 January 2008), "Oscar Pistorius vows to fight Olympics ban", The Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/more_sport/athletics/article3186862.ece .
  38. ^ 'Blade Runner' fights Olympic ban, CNN, 14 February 2008, http://edition.cnn.com/2008/SPORT/02/13/pistorius.appeal.ap/index.html [dead link]; Michael Phillips (28 April 2008), "Pistorius to begin appeal to CAS", The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/apr/28/athletics ; Pistorius waits on Olympic news, BBC Sport, 30 April 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/athletics/7243481.stm .
  39. ^ Arbitral award delivered by the Court of Arbitration for Sport ... in the arbitration between Mr Oscar Pistorius ... v/ International Association of Athletics Federations (CAS 2008/A/1480 Pistorius v/ IAAF), Court of Arbitration for Sport, 16 May 2008, archived from the original on May 29, 2008, http://web.archive.org/web/20080529024602/http://www.tas-cas.org/d2wfiles/document/1085/5048/0/Pistorius+award+(scanned+published+on+CAS+website).pdf, retrieved 16 May 2008 ; Pistorius is eligible for IAAF competition, International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), 16 May 2008, http://www.iaaf.org/aboutiaaf/news/newsid=44917.html, retrieved 18 May 2008 . See also Duncan Mackay (18 May 2008), "Diack relaxed over Pistorius's victory", The Observer, http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/may/18/olympicgames2008.athletics .
  40. ^ Pistorius eligible for Olympics, BBC Sport, 16 May 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/athletics/7243481.stm .
  41. ^ Athletics: Qualification standards, Beijing 2008: The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, 2008, http://en.beijing2008.cn/cptvenues/sports/athletics/index.shtml, retrieved 16 May 2008 .
  42. ^ "Pistorius primed for Beijing after overturning ban: 'I look forward to continuing my quest to qualify'", The Guardian, 16 May 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/may/16/southafrica.olympicgames ; Graham Dunbar (16 May 2008), "Double-amputee wins appeal to aim for Olympics", The Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/general/athletics/doubleamputee-wins-appeal-to-aim-for-olympics-829647.html ; Vicki Hodges (16 May 2008), "Pistorius cleared to compete for Olympic place", The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2008/05/16/uopistorius116.xml ; Nico Hines (16 May 2008), "Amputee sprinter Oscar Pistorius allowed to compete in Beijing", The Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article3946860.ece .
  43. ^ a b c Race return disappoints Pistorius, BBC Sport, 2008-07-04, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/athletics/7484035.stm .
  44. ^ a b (– Scholar search) Pistorius: "I won't accept wild card for Olympics", Agenzia Giornalistica Italia (AGI), 3 July 2008, archived from the original on August 2, 2008, http://web.archive.org/web/20080802161906/http://www.agi.it/engsport/news/200807031751-spr-ren0073-art.html, retrieved 5 July 2008 .
  45. ^ a b Michael Phillips (4 July 2008), "Pistorius trails home fourth and a long way short of Beijing", The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/jul/03/olympicgames.athletics . See also Oscar Pistorius looks to one last chance in Lucerne to earn Olympics place, The Canadian Press, 4 July 2008, http://canadianpress.google.com/article/ALeqM5jAQmD73YO2OUvj_ZqhGXa6ows6wA, retrieved 5 July 2008 .
  46. ^ Ron Lewis (12 July 2008), "Oscar Pistorius left with one more shot at Beijing", The Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4319656.ece .
  47. ^ Relay safety fears over Pistorius, BBC Sport, 15 July 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/athletics/7508399.stm .
  48. ^ Mark Ledsom (16 July 2008), Pistorius says IAAF desperate to stop his Olympic bid, Reuters UK, http://uk.reuters.com/article/sportsNews/idUKL1630172720080716 .
  49. ^ Joshua Robinson (16 July 2008), "Pistorius threatens action after official recommends his exclusion [UPDATED]", The New York Times, http://olympics.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/16/pistorius-threatens-action-after-official-recommends-his-exclusion/?ref=sports .
  50. ^ a b Pistorius fails to make Olympics, BBC Sport, 18 July 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/athletics/7510774.stm ; Pistorius misses out on SA Olympic squad, CNN, 18 July 2008, http://edition.cnn.com/2008/SPORT/07/18/athletics.pistorius.ap/ [dead link].
  51. ^ John Mehaffey (17 July 2008), IAAF rejects Pistorius accusations, Reuters, http://www.reuters.com/article/reutersComService_2_MOLT/idUSL175626320080717 .
  52. ^ See also Mark Ledsom (16 July 2008), Amputee Pistorius fails in Olympic 400m bid: Pistorius was 0.70 seconds short of the qualifying standard, ABC News, http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/wireStory?id=5388661 ; Joshua Robinson (19 July 2008), "Amputee sprinter's Beijing quest is over", The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/19/sports/olympics/19track.html ; "Pistorius won't run For S. Africa", The Washington Post: E2, 19 July 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/18/AR2008071802768.html .
  53. ^ Pistorius's compatriot Natalie du Toit, a swimmer whose left leg was amputated above the knee after a traffic accident, is the first athlete with an amputation to qualify in any event for the 2008 Summer Olympics: Simon Hart (4 May 2008), "Dreams carry Natalie du Toit to Beijing", The Daily Telegraph (Sport), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2008/05/04/sbswim104.xml ; Matthew Pryor (5 May 2008), "Oscar Pistorius left in the shade after Natalie Du Toit claims Olympic first", The Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article3872750.ece .
  54. ^ a b c Records: As of Sep 17 2008, Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games, Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, 17 September 2008, http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/REC/index.shtml, retrieved 17 September 2008 .
  55. ^ a b Oscar wins gold, Independent Online, 9 September 2008, http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?click_id=4&art_id=iol1220955045481O260&set_id=, retrieved 10 September 2008 ; "Pistorius wins 100 meters at Paralympic Games in Beijing", International Herald Tribune, 9 September 2008, http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/09/09/sports/PARA.php ; "Oscar Pistorius grabs gold", The Times (South Africa), 9 September 2008, http://www.thetimes.co.za/Sport/Article.aspx?id=839628 ; Matthew Pryor (10 September 2008), "Oscar Pistorius wins Paralympic 100 metres title", The Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4719123.ece .
  56. ^ Andrew McGarry (29 August 2008), Oscar Pistorius: Speed demon by any name, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/08/29/2349850.htm?site=paralympics/2008/athletes, retrieved 7 September 2008 ; "Pistorius targets treble to forget troubles", China Daily, 7 September 2008, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/paralympics/2008-09/07/content_7005689.htm .
  57. ^ a b Jeff Z. Klein (13 September 2008), "Day 7: Second gold for Pistorius; Iran forfeits before potential game vs. Israel", The New York Times, http://olympics.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/09/13/day-7-second-gold-for-pistorius-iran-forfeits-before-potential-game-vs-israel/?hp ; "Oscar Pistorius's blades of glory in Beijing", The Times (South Africa), 13 September 2008, http://www.thetimes.co.za/Sport/Article.aspx?id=842887 ; 'Blade Runner' keeps triple-gold dream alive at Beijing Paralympics, Xinhua News Agency, 13 September 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/13/content_9981361.htm .
  58. ^ a b Day 10: 'Blade Runner' completes gold treble, China hits 200-medal mark, Xinhua News Agency, 16 September 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/16/content_10043476.htm, retrieved 17 September 2008 .
  59. ^ Matt McGeehan (17 September 2008), "Weir powers down home straight to win second gold: ... Oscar Pistorious takes his third gold of the Games", The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/sep/17/paralympics20081 . See also Weir storms to second Games gold, BBC Sport, 17 September 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7618070.stm .
  60. ^ [1]
  61. ^ BT Paralympic World Cup - Oscar Pistorius and Dan Greaves in record breaking form at BT Paralympic World Cup
  62. ^ > Around the Rings
  63. ^ "World Athletics 2011: Oscar Pistorius misses out on 400m final". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/athletics/14708456.stm. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  64. ^ http://daegu2011.iaaf.org/ResultsByDate.aspx?racedate=08-29-2011/sex=M/discCode=400/combCode=hash/roundCode=sf/results.html#detM_400_hash_sf
  65. ^ "Team Össur - Colin Jackson interviews Oscar Pistorius". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsEQqWYaSls. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  66. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named 2004_Paralympics; see Help:Cite errors/Cite error references no text
  67. ^ a b c d e Oscar Pistorius competitive highlights, Ossur, http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=3364#Highlights, retrieved 8 March 2008 ; Pistorius sprints to new record, BBC Sport, 7 April 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/6533645.stm .
  68. ^ a b Pistorius wins at Dutch meet, ESPN, 1 June 2008, http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/wire?section=oly&id=3421045 .
  69. ^ Raf Casert (31 May 2008), Pistorius starts tough bid for Beijing, ESPN, http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/wire?section=oly&id=3421045 .
  70. ^ a b BBC Sport - Oscar Pistorius closer to fulfilling Olympic dream
  71. ^ Owen Gibson (17 August 2009), "From man to superman ... Usain Bolt raises the pace of change", The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2009/aug/17/usain-bolt-100m-record-berlin, retrieved 18 August 2009 ; Ian Chadband (17 August 2009), "World Athletics Championships: To Usain Bolt, all things are now possible: The man could not help being a tease. "Anything is possible," Usain Bolt shrugged, leaving it to our already boggled minds to ponder what treasure he might have in store next", The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/athletics/6043869/World-Athletics-Championships-To-Usain-Bolt-all-things-are-now-possible.html, retrieved 18 August 2009 .
  72. ^ World record: Athletics – 100 m – progression, International Olympic Committee, August 2008, http://www.olympic.org/uk/sports/records/results_uk.asp?DIS_S_CODE=AT&GET_C_ID=M&GET_C_OL=&GET_C_WO=1&EVT_S_CODE=001&RESULT=TRUE, retrieved 18 August 2008 .
  73. ^ Jon Mulkeen (20 August 2009), Bolt again, and again! 19.19 World record in Berlin, International Association of Athletics Federations, http://berlin.iaaf.org/news/kind=100/newsid=53678.html, retrieved 21 August 2009 .
  74. ^ Results: Men's 200m final, Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, 20 August 2008, http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRM/ENG/INF/AT/C73A/ATM002101.shtml#ATM002101, retrieved 2008-08-21 .
  75. ^ (PDF) Athletics: Current world records: Men, International Olympic Committee, 18 September 2007, archived from the original on 23 February 2009, http://web.archive.org/web/20070816040001/http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_819.pdf, retrieved 6 March 2008 .
  76. ^ (PDF) Athletics: Current Olympic records: Men, International Olympic Committee, 27 August 2004, archived from the original on 23 February 2009, http://web.archive.org/web/20070926232601/http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_32.pdf, retrieved 6 March 2008 .
  77. ^ Calzaghe wins Sports Personality, BBC Sport, 9 December 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/front_page/7135700.stm .
  78. ^ Erik Weihenmayer ([May 2008]), "Oscar Pistorius", Time ; TIME Magazine ranks Oscar Pistorius one of the 100 most influential people of 2008, Ossur, 2 May 2008, http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=631&NewsID=2253 .
  79. ^ Gennaro Bozza (11 July 2007), "Pistorius bionico? 'No, solo un uomo' [Pistorius bionic? 'No, just a man']", La Gazzetta dello Sport [Sports Gazette], http://www.gazzetta.it/Sport_Vari/Atletica/Primo_Piano/2007/07_Luglio/11/pistorius.shtml, retrieved 7 February 2008  (Italian).
  80. ^ a b Gennaro Bozza (11 July 2007), Oscar Pistorius: "Tifo per la Lazio" ["Fan of Lazio"], Lazio.net, http://magazine.lazio.net/2007/07/11/oscar-pistorius-tifo-per-la-lazio/, retrieved 8 January 2009 .
  81. ^ Robert Philip (27 April 2005), "Pistorius masters quick step", The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2005/04/27/sophil27.xml .
  82. ^ Olympic Dream tracks, Do It Yourself Music Group Srl Italy, 2008, http://www.olympicdreamalbum.com/website/tracks.html, retrieved 14 September 2008 ; Oscar Pistorius (in English translate by Google) [sic], Do It Yourself Music Group Srl Italy, 2008, http://www.olympicdreamalbum.com/website/english-by-google.html, retrieved 14 September 2008 .

References

Further reading

Articles

News reports

Books

  • Pistorius, Oscar; Servadio-Kenan, Rebecca, transl. (2009), Blade Runner, London: Virgin Books, ISBN 9780753519394 .
  • Pistorius, Oscar; Merlo, Gianni (2008), Dream Runner: In Corsa per un Sogno [In the Race for a Dream], [S.l.]: Rizzoli  (in Italian).
  • Pistorius, Oscar; Lochner, Tossie, trans. (2009), Oscar: Die verhaal van Oscar Pistorius, Roggebaai: Umuzi, ISBN 9781415200681  (in Afrikaans).

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Oscar Pistorius — Oscar Pistorius …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Oscar Pistorius — (2007) Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius (* 22. November 1986 in Sandton,[1] Johannesburg, Südafrika), auch bekannt als Fastest man on no legs …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Oscar Pistorius — corriendo en Kópavogur, Islandia, el 8 de julio de 2007. Oscar Pistorius (n. 22 de noviembre de 1986) es un corredor paralímpico y olimpico sudafricano. Pistorius posee las marcas mundiales en las pruebas de 100, 200 y 400 metros lisos para… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Oscar Pistorius Walace — Oscar Pistorius (n. 22 de noviembre de 1986) es un corredor deforme sudafricano. Pistorius posee las marcas mundiales en las pruebas de 100, 200 y 400 metros lisos para atletas deformes. Para correr utiliza prótesis transtibiales (patas de palo)… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Pistorius — (lat. pistor „Müller, Bäcker“) ist der Name folgender Personen: Anna Dorothea von Pistorius (17. Jahrhundert) aus dem Hause Marschwitz Charlotte Pistorius (1777–1850), deutsche Dichterin Christian Pistorius, geborene Pritzbuer, (1765–1823),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pistorius — is a genus of isopods in the family Sphaeromatidae.Pistorius is also a last name which may be used in reference to:*Calie Pistorius, Vice Chancellor and Principal of the University of Pretoria *Oscar Pistorius, a South Africa double amputee… …   Wikipedia

  • Oscar (given name) — For other uses, see Oscar. Oscar Gender Masculine Language(s) Irish, English Origin Language(s) Irish Derivation os …   Wikipedia

  • Liste der Biografien/Pi — Biografien: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sommer-Paralympics 2008/Leichtathletik — Ergebnisse der Leichtathletik Wettkämpfe der Sommer Paralympics 2008 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Писториус, Оскар — Оскар Писториус …   Википедия