List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas


List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas

This is a list of English language words borrowed from indigenous languages of the Americas, either directly or through intermediate European languages such as Spanish or French. † indicates a link to a definition of the word. It does not cover names of ethnic groups or place names derived from indigenous languages.

Most words of Native American/First Nations language origin are the common names for indigenous flora and fauna, or describe items of Native American or First Nations life and culture. Some few are names applied in honor of Native Americans or First Nations peoples or due to a vague similarity to the original object of the word. For instance, sequoias are named in honor of the Cherokee leader Sequoyah, who lived 2,000 miles east of that tree's range while the kinkajou of South America was given a name from an unrelated North American animal 2,000 miles to the north.

Contents

Words from Algonquian languages

Since Native Americans and First Nations peoples speaking a language of the Algonquian group were generally the first to meet English explorers and settlers along the Eastern Seaboard, many words from these languages made their way into English.

In addition, a great number of place names in North America are Algonquian names, for example: Mississippi (cf. Illinois mihsisiipiiwi and Ojibwe misiziibi, "great river," referring to the Mississippi River)[1][2] and Michigan (cf. Illinois meehcakamiwi, Ojibwe Mishigami, "great sea," referring to Lake Michigan).[2][3] Even Canadian provinces and U.S. states, districts, counties and municipalities bear Algonquian names, such as Québec, Nantucket, Massachusetts, Naugatuck, Connecticut, Wyoming, District of Keewatin, Outagamie County, Wisconsin and Chicago, Illinois, or Algonquian-derived names, such as Algoma.

In addition, a number of Indigenous peoples of the Americas groups are known better by their Algonquian exonyms, rather than by their endonym, such as the Eskimo (see below), Winnebago (perhaps from Potawatomi winpyéko, "(people of the) dirty water"),[4] Sioux (ultimately from Ottawa naadowesiwag),[4] Assiniboine (Ojibwe asiniibwaan, "stone Sioux")[2] and Chipewyan (Cree čīpwayān, "(those who have) pointed skins or hides").[5]

Apishamore
From a word in an Algonquian language meaning "something to lie down upon"[6] (c.f. Ojibwe apishimon).[2]
Atamasco lily
Earlier "attamusca", from Powhatan.[7][8]
Babiche
From Míkmaq ápapíj (from ápapi, "cord, thread", Proto-Algonquian *aʔrapa·pyi, from *aʔrapy-, "net" + *-a·by-, "string".[9]
Caribou
From Míkmaq qalipu, "snow-shoveler" (from qalipi, "shovel snow", Proto-Algonquian *maka·ripi-).[10]
Chinkapin
From Powhatan ‹chechinquamins›,[11] reconstituted as */t͡ʃiːht͡ʃiːnkweːmins/, the plural form.[12]
Chipmunk
Originally "chitmunk," from Odawa jidmoonh[13] /t͡ʃɪtmő/ (c.f. Ojibwe ajidamoo(nh)),[2] "red squirrel".
Cisco
Originally "siscowet," from Ojibwe language bemidewiskaawed "greasy-bodied [fish]".[14]
Eskimo
From Old Montagnais <aiachkimeou> (/aːjast͡ʃimeːw/) (modern ayassimēw), meaning "snowshoe-netter" (often incorrectly claimed to be from an Ojibwe word meaning "eaters of raw [meat]"), and originally used to refer to the Mikmaq.[15][16]
Hackmatack
From an Algonquian language akemantak (c.f. Ojibwe aagimaandag), "snowshoe boughs".[citation needed]
Hickory
From Powhatan <pocohiquara>, "milky drink made with hickory nuts".[17][18]
Hominy
From Powhatan <uskatahomen>/<usketchaumun>, literally "that which is treated", in this case "that which is ground/beaten".[19]
Husky
Ultimately from a variant form of the word "Eskimo" (see above).[20]
Kinkajou
From an Algonquian word meaning "wolverine" (c.f. Algonquin kwingwaage, Ojibwe gwiingwa'aage),[2] through French quincajou.[21]
Kinnikinnick
From Unami Delaware /kələkːəˈnikːan/, "mixture" (c.f. Ojibwe giniginige "to mix together something animate with something inanimate"),[2] from Proto-Algonquian *kereken-, "mix (it) with something different by hand".[22]
Mackinaw
From michilmackinac, from Menomini mishilimaqkināhkw, "be large like a snapping turtle",[citation needed] or from Ojibwe mishi-makinaak, "large snapping turtle" with French -ile-, "island".[citation needed]
Moccasin
From an Algonquian language, perhaps Powhatan <mockasin>,[23] reconstituted as */mahkesen/[24](c.f. Ojibwe makizin,[2] Míkmaq mɨkusun,[25] from Proto-Algonquian *maxkeseni).[26]
Moose
From Eastern Abenaki moz, reinforced by cognates from other Algonquian languages[27][28] (e.g. Massachusett/Narragansett moos,[28] Ojibwe moo(n)z,[2] Lenape mus 'elk'[29]), from Proto-Algonquian *mo·swa.[28]
Mugwump
From "mugquomp", a shortening of Massachusett <muggumquomp>, "war chief" (Proto-Algonquian *memekwa·pe·wa, from *memekw-, "swift" + *-a·pe·, "man").[30]
Muskellunge
Ultimately from Ojibwe maashkinoozhe,[2] "ugly pike" (c.f. ginoozhe, "pike").
Muskeg
From Cree maskēk, "swamp"[31] (Proto-Algonquian *maškye·kwi).[32]
Muskrat
A folk-etymologized reshaping of earlier "musquash", from Massachusett (c.f. Western Abenaki mòskwas), apparently from Proto-Algonquian *mo·šk, "bob (at the surface of the water)" + *-exkwe·-, "head" + a derivational ending).[32]
Opossum
From Powhatan <apasum>/<opussum>/<aposoum>, "white dog-like animal",[33] reconstituted as */aːpassem/[34] (c.f. Proto-Algonquian *waːp-aʔθemwa, "white dog").[35][36]
Papoose
From Narragansett <papoòs>[37] or Massachusett <pappouse>, "baby".[38]
Pecan
From Illinois pakani (c.f. Ojibwe bagaan),[2] "nut", from Proto-Algonquian *paka·ni.[39]
Pemmican
From Cree pimihkān, from pimihkēw, "to make grease" (Proto-Algonquian *pemihke·wa, from *pemy-, "grease" + -ehke·, "to make").[40]
Persimmon
From Powhatan <pessemins>/<pushemins>, reconstituted as */pessiːmin/.[41] While the final element reflects Proto-Algonquian *-min, "fruit, berry", the initial is unknown.[42]
Pipsissewa
From Abenaki kpipskwáhsawe, "flower of the woods".[37][43]
Pokeweed
Probably from "puccoon" (see below) + "weed".[37]
Pone
From Powhatan <poan>/<appoans>, "something roasted" (reconstituted as */apoːn/)[44] (c.f. Ojibwe abwaan),[2] from Proto-Algonquian *apwa·n.[45]
Powwow
From Narragansett powwaw, "shaman" (Proto-Algonquian *pawe·wa, "to dream, to have a vision").[46]
Puccoon
From Powhatan <poughkone>,[37] reconstituted as */pakkan/[47] (c.f. Unami Delaware [peːkɔːn]).[48]
Pung
A low box-like sleigh designed for one horse. Shortened form of "tom-pung" (from the same etymon as "toboggan") from an Algonquian language of Southern New England.[49]
Punkie
Via Dutch, from Munsee [ponkwəs] (Proto-Algonquian *penkwehsa, from *penkw-, "dust, ashes" + *-ehs, a diminutive suffix).[50]
Quahog
From Narragansett <poquaûhock>.[51]
Quonset hut
From an Algonquian language of southern New England, possibly meaning "small long place" (with <qunni->, "long" + <-s->, diminutive + <-et>, locative).[52]
Raccoon
From Powhatan <arahkun>/<aroughcun>,[53] tentatively reconstituted as */aːreːhkan/.[54]
Sachem
From an Algonquian language of southern New England,[55] c.f. Narragansett <sâchim> (Proto-Eastern Algonquian *sākimāw, "chief").[56]
Sagamore
From Eastern Abenaki sakəma (c.f. Narragansett <sâchim>), "chief", from Proto-Eastern Algonquian *sākimāw.[56]
Shoepac
From Unami Delaware [t͡ʃipahkɔ] "shoes" (singular [t͡ʃiːpːakw]), altered on analogy with English "shoe".[57]
Skunk
From Massachusett <squnck>[citation needed] (Proto-Algonquian *šeka·kwa, from *šek-, "to urinate" + *-a·kw, "fox").[58]
Squash (fruit)
From Narragansett <askútasquash>.[59]
Squaw
From Massachusett <squa> (c.f. Cree iskwē, Ojibwe ikwe),[2] "woman", from Proto-Algonquian *eθkwe·wa.[59]
Succotash
From Narragansett <msíckquatash>, "boiled whole kernels of corn" (Proto-Algonquian *mesi·nkwete·wari, singular *mesi·nkwete·, from *mes-, "whole" + *-i·nkw-, "eye [=kernel]" + -ete·, "to cook").[60]
Terrapin
Originally "torope," from an Eastern Algonquian language, perhaps Powhatan (reconstituted as */toːrepeːw/)[61] (c.f. Munsee Delaware /toːlpeːw/),[62] from Proto-Eastern Algonquian *tōrəpēw.[63]
Toboggan
From Míkmaq topaqan[64] or Maliseet-Passamaquoddy /tʰaˈpakən/[65] (Proto-Algonquian *weta·pye·kani, from *wet-, "to drag" + *-a·pye·-, "cordlike object" + *-kan, "instrument for").[64]
Tomahawk
From Powhatan <tamahaac> (Proto-Algonquian *temaha·kani, from *temah-, "to cut" + *-a·kan, "instrument for").[66]
Totem
From Ojibwe nindoodem, "my totem" or odoodeman, "his totem," referring to a kin group.[67]
Tuckahoe
From Powhatan <tockawhoughe>/<tockwhough>/<taccaho>, "root used for bread", reconstituted as */takwahahk/[68] (perhaps from Proto-Algonquian *takwah-, "pound (it)/reduce (it) to flour").[69]
Tullibee
From Old Ojibwe */otoːlipiː/[70] (modern odoonibii).[2]
Wampum
Earlier "wampumpeag", from Massachusett, and meaning "white strings [of beads]" (c.f. Maliseet: wapapiyik,[71] Eastern Abenaki wápapəyak, Ojibwe waabaabiinyag),[2] from Proto-Algonquian *wa·p-, "white" + *-a·py-, "string-like object" + *-aki, plural.[72][73]
Wanigan
from Ojibwa waanikaan, "storage pit"[74]
Wapiti (elk)
From Shawnee waapiti, "white rump" (c.f. Ojibwe waabidiy),[2] from Proto-Algonquian *wa·petwiya, from *wa·p-, "white" + *-etwiy, "rump".[75]
Wickiup
From Fox wiikiyaapi, from the same Proto-Algonquian etymon as "wigwam" (see below).[76]
Wigwam
From Eastern Abenaki wìkəwam (c.f. Ojibwe wiigiwaam),[2] from Proto-Algonquian *wi·kiwa·Hmi.[77]
Woodchuck
Reshaped on analogy with "wood" and "chuck", from an Algonquian language of southern New England (c.f. Narragansett <ockqutchaun>, "woodchuck").[78]

Words from Nahuatl

Unless otherwise specified, Dictionnaire de la langue nahuatl classique is among the sources used for each etymology

Words of Nahuatl origin have entered many European languages. Mainly they have done so via Spanish. Most words of Nahuatl origin end in a form of the Nahuatl "absolutive suffix" (-tl, -tli, or -li, or the Spanish adaptation -te), which marked unpossessed nouns.

Achiote
from achiotl
Atlatl
from ahtlatl
Avocado
from āhuacatl, "avocado" or "testicle"
Axolotl
āxōlōtl, from ā-, "water" + xōlōtl, "male servant"[79]
Cacao and cocoa
from cacahuatl
Chayote
from chayohtli
Chia
from chiyan
Chicle
from tzictli
Chili
from chīlli
Chocolate
Often said to be from Nahuatl xocolātl[37] or chocolātl,[80] which would be derived from xococ "bitter" and ātl "water" (with an irregular change of x > ch).[81] However, the form xocolātl is not directly attested, and chocolatl does not appear in Nahuatl until the mid-18th century. Some researchers have recently proposed that the chocol- element was originally chicol-, and referred to special wooden stick used to prepare chocolate.[82]
Copal
from copalli[83]
Coyote
from coyōtl
Epazote
from epazōtl
Guacamole
from āhuacamōlli, from āhuaca-, "avocado", and mōlli, "sauce"
Hoatzin
from huāctzin[84]
Jicama
from xicamatl
Mesquite
from mizquitl
Mezcal
from mexcalli
Mole
from mōlli, "sauce"
Nopal
from nohpalli, "prickly pear cactus"
Ocelot
from ocēlōtl
Peyote
from peyōtl. Nahuatl probably borrowed the root peyō- from another language, but the source is not known.[85]
Quetzal
from quetzalli, "quetzal feather".[86]
Sapodilla
from tzapocuahuitl
Sapota
from tzapotl
Shack
possibly from xacalli, "grass hut", by way of Mexican Spanish.[37][87]
Sotol
from tzotolli[88]
Tamale
from tamalli
Tule
from tōllin, "reed, bulrush"
Tomato
from tomatl

Words from Quechua

Unless otherwise specified, Words in English from Amerindian Languages is among the sources used for each etymology

A number of words from Quechua have entered English, mostly via Spanish

Ayahuasca
from aya "soul" or "spirit" and huasca "vine" , via Spanish ayahuasca
Coca
from kuka, via Spanish coca
Cocaine
from kuka (see above), probably via French cocaïne
Condor
from kuntur, via Spanish cóndor
Guanaco
from wanaku
Guano
from wanu/huanu via Spanish guano
Inca
from Inka "lord, king"
Jerky
from ch'arki, via Spanish charquí
Lagniappe
from yapay, "add, addition", via Spanish la ñapa (with the definite article la).
Lima
from rimay, "speak" (from the name of the city, named for the Rimaq river ("Speaking River"))
Llama
from llama, via Spanish
Pampa
from pampa, "flat", via Spanish
Pisco
from pisqu, "little bird" (not from [1])
Puma
from puma, via Spanish
Quinine
from kinakina, via Spanish quina
Quinoa
from kinwa
Soroche
from suruqch'i, "mountain sickness"[89][90] (not from [2])
Vicuña
from wik'uña, via Spanish vicuña

Words from Eskimo–Aleut languages

Anorak
from Greenlandic Inuit annoraaq[91]
Chimo
from Inuktitut, a word of greeting, farewell, and toast before drinking.[92] Used as a greeting and cheer by the Canadian Military Engineers, and more widely in some parts of Southern Ontario and Western Canada, particularly in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan[citation needed]
Igloo
from Inuktitut iglu ([iɣlu])[93]
Ilanaaq
Inuktitut ilanaaq, "friend". Name of the logo for the 2010 Winter Olympics
Inuksuk
from Inuktitut inuksuk[93]
Kayak
from Inuktitut qajaq[93]
Malamute
from Inupiaq Malimiut, the name of an Inupiaq subgroup[94]
Mukluk
from Yupik maklak ([makɬak]), "Bearded Seal"[93]
Nanook
from Inuktitut Nanuq,[95] "polar bear", made famous in English due to a 1922 documentary Nanook of the North, featuring a man with this name.
Nunatak
from Greenlandic Inuit nunataq[96]
Umiaq

Words from Arawakan languages

Anole
from an Arawakan language, or possibly Cariban, by way of French anolis.[97][98][99]
Barbecue
from an Arawakan language of Haiti barbakoa, "framework of sticks",[100] via Spanish barbacoa.[101]
Cacique or cassique
from Taino cacike or Arawak kassequa "chieftain" [102]
Caiman
from a Ta-Maipurean language, "water spirit" (c.f. Garifuna [aɡaiumã]),[103][104] though possibly ultimately of African origin.[105]
Canoe
from Taino via Spanish canoa.[106]
Cassava
from Taino caçabi, "manioc meal", via Spanish or Portuguese.[107]
Cay
from Taino, by way of Spanish cayo.[108]
Guava
from an Arawakan language, by way of Spanish guayaba.[109]
Hammock
from Taino, via Spanish hamaca.[110]
Hurricane
from Taino hurakán, via Spanish.[111]
Iguana
from an Arawakan language iwana.[112][113]
Maize
from Taino mahís, by way of Spanish.[114][115]
Mangrove
from Taino, via Spanish mangle or Portuguese mangue.[116]
Papaya
from Taino.[117]
Potato
from the Taino word for "sweet potato", via Spanish batata.[118]
Savanna
from Taino zabana, via Spanish.[119]
Tobacco
probably from an Arawakan language, via Spanish: tabaco.[64]
Yuca
from Taino, via Spanish.[120]

Words from Tupi–Guaraní languages

Agouti
from Tupi–Guaraní akutí, via French and Spanish.[121][122][123]
Cashew
from Tupí acaîu, via Portuguese caju.[124]
Capybara
from Guaraní kapibári.
Cayenne
from Tupí kyinha.[125]
Cougar
ultimately corrupted from Guaraní guaçu ara.[126]
Jaguar
from Tupinambá /jaˈwar-/,[127] via Portuguese.[128]
Jaguarundi
from Guaraní.
Maraca
from Tupí maraka
Macaw
via Portuguese Macau from Tupi macavuana, which may be the name of a type of palm tree the fruit of which the birds eat.[129]
Manioc
from Tupinambá /maniˈʔok-/.[127]
Petunia
from Tupí petun 'smoke'
Piranha
from Tupí.[130]
Tapioca
from Tupinambá /tɨpɨˈʔok-a/,[127] "juice squeezed out".[131]
Tapir
from Tupinambá /tapiˈʔir-/.[127]
Toucan
from Tupinambá /tuˈkan-/,[127] via Portuguese and French.[132]

Words from other indigenous languages of the Americas

Abalone
from Rumsen awlun and Ohlone aluan, via Spanish abulón.[133]
Alpaca
from Aymara allpaka, via Spanish.[134]
Appaloosa
Either named for the Palouse River, whose name comes from Sahaptin palú:s, "what is standing up in the water"; or for Opelousas, Louisiana, which may come from Choctaw api losa, "black body".[135]
Bayou
from early Choctaw bayuk, "creek, river", via French.[136]
Camas
from Nez Perce qémʼes.[137]
Cannibal
via Spanish Caníbalis, from a Cariban language, meaning "person, Indian",[138] (Proto-Cariban *karípona),[139] based on the Spaniards' belief that the Caribs ate human flesh.[140]
Catalpa
from Creek katałpa "head-wing", with (i)ká, "head" + (i)táłpa, "wing".[141]
Cenote
from Yucatec Maya dzonot or ts'onot[142] meaning "well"[143]
Cheechako
from Chinook Jargon chee + chako, "new come". Chee comes from Lower Chinook čxi, "straightaway", and for chako c.f. Nuuchahnulth čokwaa, "come!"[144]
Chicha
via Spanish from Kuna chichab, "maize" or from Nahuatl chichiatl, "fermented water."
Chinook
from Lower Chehalis tsʼinúk, the name of a village,[145][146] via Chinook Trade Jargon.
Chuckwalla
from Cahuilla čáxwal.[147]
Coho
from Halkomelem k̉ʷə́xʷəθ ([kʷʼəxʷəθ]).[37][148][149]
Coontie
from Creek conti hetaka.
Coypu
from Mapudungun kóypu.
Divi-divi
from Cumanagoto.
Dory
from Miskito dóri, dúri.
Eulachon
from a Cree adaptation of Chinook Trade Jargon ulâkân,[150] itself a borrowing of Clatsap u-tlalxwə(n), "brook trout".[151]
Geoduck
from Lushootseed (Nisqually) gʷídəq.[152][153]
Guan
from Kuna.
High muckamuck
from Chinook Jargon [ˈmʌkəmʌk], "eat, food, drink", of unknown origin.[154]
Hogan
from Navajo hooghan.[155]
Hooch
a shortening of "Hoochinoo", the name of a Tlingit village, from Tlingit xutsnuuwú, "brown bear fort".[156][157]
Kachina
from Hopi katsína, "spirit being".[158]
Kiva
from Hopi kíva (containing ki-, "house").[159]
Kokanee
perhaps from Twana kəknǽxw.[160]
Manatee
via Spanish manatí, from a word in a Cariban language meaning "(woman's) breast".[161][162][163]
Ohunka
from Lakota "false", "untrue".[164]
Piki
from Hopi.
Pogonip
from Shoshone /pakɨnappɨ/ ([paˈɣɨnappɨ̥]), "fog".[165]
Poncho
via Spanish from Mapudungun pontho,[166] "woolen fabric".[167]
Potato
via Spanish patata from Haitian Carib batata="sweet potato"[168]
Potlatch
from Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) p̉aƛp̉ač ([pʼatɬpʼat͡ʃ], reduplication of p̉a, "to make ceremonial gifts in potlatch", with the iterative suffix ) via Chinook Jargon.[169]
Salal
from Chinook Trade Jargon [səˈlæl], from Lower Chinook salál.[170]
Saguaro
via Spanish, from some indigenous language, possibly Opata.[171]
Sasquatch
From Halkomelem [ˈsæsqʼəts].[172]
Sego
from Ute-Southern Paiute /siˈkuʔa/ ([siˈɣuʔa]).[173]
sequoia
from a Cherokee personal name, <Sikwayi>, with no further known etymology.[174]
Sockeye
from Halkomelem /ˈsθəqəʔj/.[175]
Skookum
from Chinook Jargon [ˈskukəm], "powerful, supernaturally dangerous", from Lower Chehalis skʷəkʷə́m, "devil, anything evil, spirit monster".[176][177]
Tamarin
from a Cariban language, via French.[178]
Tipi
from Lakota thípi, "house".[62]
Tupelo
Perhaps from Creek ’topilwa, "swamp-tree", from íto, "tree" + opílwa, "swamp".[179]
Wapatoo
from Chinook Jargon [ˈwapato], "arrowroot, wild potato", from Upper Chinook [wa]-, a noun prefix + [pato], which comes from Kalapuyan [pdóʔ], "wild potato".[180]
Yaupon
from Catawba yąpą, from , "wood/tree" + , "leaf".[181]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Nichols, John, and Earl Nyholm. 1995. A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
  3. ^ Some Illinois Words: Places
  4. ^ a b Campbell (1997:399)
  5. ^ Campbell (1997:395)
  6. ^ Chamberlain, Alexander F. (1902). "Algonkian Words in American English: A Study in the Contact of the White Man and the Indian". The Journal of American Folklore (The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 15, No. 59) 15 (59): 240–267. doi:10.2307/533199. JSTOR 533199. 
  7. ^ RHD (1987:129)
  8. ^ "Atamasco lily". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927013401/http://www.yourdictionary.com/ahd/a/a0492200.html. Retrieved 2007-03-30. 
  9. ^ "Babiche". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=babiche. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  10. ^ RHD (1987:315-16)
  11. ^ RHD (1987:361)
  12. ^ Siebert (1975:323)
  13. ^ Rhodes, Richard A. 1985. Eastern Ojibwa–Chippewa–Ottawa Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
  14. ^ "Cisco". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Archived from the original on 2007-07-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070714061230/http://www.yourdictionary.com/ahd/c/c0369900.html. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  15. ^ Campbell (1997:394)
  16. ^ Goddard, Ives (1984). "Synonymy". In "Arctic", ed. David Damas. Vol. 5 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 5:5–6
  17. ^ RHD (1987:900)
  18. ^ "Hickory". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Archived from the original on 2007-06-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20070611182631/http://www.yourdictionary.com/ahd/h/h0186800.html. Retrieved 2007-03-30. 
  19. ^ RHD (1987:915)
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  21. ^ "Kinkajou". Oxford English Dictionary. http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50126844. Retrieved 2007-03-30. 
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  50. ^ RHD (1987:1568)
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  66. ^ RHD (1987:1993)
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  73. ^ RHD (1987:2140)
  74. ^ Wanigan American Heritage Dictionary of English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000
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  81. ^ Karttunen, Frances (1983). An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl. Austin: University of Texas Press, p. 54.
  82. ^ Dakin, Karen and Wichmann, Søren (2000). "Cacao and Chocolate: An Uto-Aztec perspective." Ancient Mesoamerica, vol. 11, pp.55–75.
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  87. ^ shack
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  96. ^ Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
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  98. ^ Campbell (1997:11)
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  107. ^ "Cassava". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cassava. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  108. ^ "Key". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=key. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  109. ^ "Guava". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/guava. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  110. ^ "Hammock". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/hammock. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  111. ^ "Hurricane". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/hurricane. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
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  118. ^ Bright (2004:395)
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  123. ^ "Agouti". Merriam Webster's Online Dictionary. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/agouti. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  124. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cashew
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  129. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=macaw
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  132. ^ RHD (1987:2001)
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  141. ^ Bright (2004:83)
  142. ^ or tz'onot in some secondary sources, such as Sharer & Traxler 2006: 52.
  143. ^ Tim Scoones (producer), Jeff Goodman (photography), Dominique Rissolo (scientific adviser), Tom Iliffe (sci adv), Patricia Beddows (sci adv), Jill Yager (sci adv) (2005). Secrets of the Maya Underworld (Television production). BBC/Discovery Channel. Event occurs at 3:07. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z7xyYiLxaSk&feature=related. Retrieved July 22, 2009. 
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  149. ^ Coho salmon
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  155. ^ Bright (2004:169)
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  157. ^ "Hooch". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929111129/http://www.yourdictionary.com/ahd/h/h0266100.html. Retrieved 2007-05-10. 
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  159. ^ "Kiva". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/kiva. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  160. ^ Bright (2004:232)
  161. ^ Simpson, George Gaylord (1941). "Vernacular Names of South American Mammals". Journal of Mammalogy 22.1:14
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  164. ^ "Lakota Words Index". Lakota Writings. http://www.lakotawritings.com/lakota_words_Index.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  165. ^ Bright (2004:389)
  166. ^ Harper, Douglas. "poncho". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=poncho. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  167. ^ "Poncho". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/poncho. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  168. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=potato
  169. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: Potlatch
  170. ^ Bright (2004:416)
  171. ^ RHD (1987:1691)
  172. ^ Bright (2004:422)
  173. ^ Bright (2004:429)
  174. ^ Bright (2004:432)
  175. ^ Bright (2004:455)
  176. ^ Bright (2004:452)
  177. ^ "Skookum". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/skookum. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  178. ^ RHD (1987:1939)
  179. ^ RHD (1987:2036)
  180. ^ Bright (2004:547)
  181. ^ RHD (1987:2200)

Bibliography

  • Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press
  • Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Flexner, Stuart Berg and Leonore Crary Hauck, eds. (1987). The Random House Dictionary of the English Language [RHD], 2nd ed. (unabridged). New York: Random House.
  • Siebert, Frank T. (1975). "Resurrecting Virginia Algonquian from the Dead: The Reconstituted and Historical Phonology of Powhatan". In Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages, ed. James M. Crawford, pp. 285–453. Athens: University of Georgia Press

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