Ivano-Frankivsk


Ivano-Frankivsk

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Ivano-Frankivs'k
native_name = Івано-Франківськ


imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Ivano-Frankivsk old town


image_shield = Ivano-Frankivsk Coat of Arms.gif
nickname =
motto =



mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Map of Ukraine with Ivano-Frankivsk highlighted.
subdivision_type = Country
Oblast
Raion
subdivision_name =UKR
Ivano-Frankivsk City Municipality
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1662
established_title1 = City rights
established_date1 = 1662
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Viktor Anushkevychus (UPP)
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 83.73
area_land_km2 =
area_water_km2 =
population_as_of = 2004
population_note =
population_total = 204200|population_footnotes=
population_metro =| population_density_km2 = 2752|pushpin_

latd=48 |latm=55 |lats=0 |latNS=N
longd=24 |longm=43 |longs=0 |longEW=E
elevation_m =
|postal_code_type=Postal code
postal_code = 76000
area_code = +380 342
blank_info =
blank1_info = Rzeszów|blank1_name=Sister cities
|blank1_info = Tomaszów|blank1_name=Sister cities| Mazowiecki
website = [http://www.mvk.if.ua/ www.mvk.if.ua]
footnotes =

Ivano-Frankivsk ( _uk. Івано-Франківськ), is a historic city located in western Ukraine.

It is the administrative center of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province), and is designated as its own separate raion (district) within the oblast. Prior to 1962, the city was known as Stanyslaviv ( _uk. Станиславів; _pl. Stanisławów; _ru. Станислав; _de. Stanislau; _yi. סטאַניסלאוו).

The estimated population was 204,200 as of 2004.

Climate and Geography

The city is situated in the Carpathian region, approximately 120 metres above sea level. [ [http://www.populstat.info/Europe/ukraineg.htm UKRAINE : general data ] ] As is the case with most of Ukraine, the climate is moderate continental with warm summers, and fairly cold winters.



History

The city, named "Stanisławów", was erected as a fortress to protect the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Tatar invasions. It was built on the site of the village of Zabolottya, which had been founded in 1437. [ [http://72.14.209.104/search?q=cache:dWqRwkaLXOAJ:pages.prodigy.net/euroscope/ivano_frankivsk.html+Zabolottya&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=4&lr=lang_en EuroScopeUSA] - Ivano-Frankivsk] Its name was coined by a Polish nobleman Andrzej Potocki, who honored his father, Stanisław Rewera Potocki.

The city was first mentioned in 1662 in connection with it being granted the Magdeburg rights. Soon afterwards, when in 1672 the Turks conquered the fortress of Kamieniec Podolski, Stanisławów, together with Halicz, became a strongpoint against Turkish forces. It was attacked and besieged in 1676, but the Turks did not manage to capture and pillage the city. However, Stanisławów was so badly destroyed that in 1677 the Sejm in Warsaw relieved the city of its tax duties.

Jews were permitted to build houses for themselves on the "Street of the Jews" (which was located at that time by the flood bank). [ [http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/pinkas_poland/pol2_00360.html#part1 Jewish Genealogy] - The Jewish Settlement from its Inception until 1772] Later, the fortress also successfully withstood attacks by Turkish and Russian forces. Extensively rebuilt during the Renaissance, it was sometimes called "Little Leopolis". [ [http://72.14.209.104/search?q=cache:LesYIGFB6-0J:www.ukraine.com/cities/ivano-frankovsk/+%27%27Little+Leopolis%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1&lr=lang_en Travel Ivano-Frankivsk] ] The city was also an important center of Armenian culture in Poland, with an Armenian church, in which a painting of Mary was kept. The painting was in 1945 moved to Gdansk.

In 1772, after the Partitions of Poland it became a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and successively of the autonomous Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. During World War One, the frontline was for some time placed in the area of the city, Russians and Austrians fought several battles in Stanisławów and its vicinity, and in 1917 Russian forces burned the central districts, during the Kerensky Offensive.

In October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed, and the Western Ukrainian People's Republic (ZUNR) was proclaimed. [ [http://www.torugg.org/History/history_of_galicia.html Toronto Ukrainian Genealogy Group] - History of Galicia]

In 1919, it was a subject of Polish–Ukrainian skirmishes, and it eventually was annexed by Poland as part of the Second Polish Republic as the capital of the Stanisławów Voivodship. She was also occupied by Romanian army between May 25 - August 21 in 1919.

In 1920, the Red Army took over the city for a brief period. In the few days between the retreat of the Red Army and the entry of the Polish army, the private army of Symon Petlura roamed around wildly for a few days, two Jews were killed, there was a great deal of property damage, and several Jewish women were raped.. [ [http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/pinkas_poland/pol2_00364.html#part3 Jewish Genealogy] - Between the Two World Wars]

According to the 1931 Polish census there were 198,400 residents in the Stanisławów county (159 per square kilometer, the area of the county was 1249 sq.km.). Among them there were 120,214 Poles, 49,032 Ukrainians, and 26,996 Jews. [ [http://www.kresy.co.uk/1931_gus.html 1931 gus Census ] ] Population of the city itself was as follows: 27 000 in 1900, 28 2000 in 1921 and 60 000 in 1931 (70 000 together with the suburb of Knihinin, which was in the 1930s a separate commune). During the interbellum period, Stanisławów was a large military base of the Polish Army, with two major units stationed there - 11th Infantry Division and Podolska Cavalry Brigade.

In the 1939 invasion of Poland by German and Soviet forces, the territory was captured by the Soviets in September 1939 and included into the Ukrainian SSR. Between fall of 1939 and June 1941, Soviet regime ordered thousands of inhabitants of the city (most of them Poles) to leave their houses and move to Siberia] , where most of them perished (see: Population transfer in the Soviet Union)

Nazi occupation

There were more than 40,000 Jews in Stanisławów when it was occupied by the Germans on July 26, 1941.

During the Nazi occupation (1941-44), more than 600 educated Poles and most of the city's Jewish population was murdered. [http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%202292.pdf yadvashem.org] ]

On August 1, 1941, Galicia became the fifth district of the General Government. On October 12, 1941, later called "Blutsonntag" ("Bloody Sunday"), thousands of Jews were gathered on the market square; then the German forces escorted them to the Jewish cemetery, where mass graves had already been prepared. On the way the German and Ukrainian escorts beat and tortured the Jews. At the cemetery the Jews were compelled to give away their valuables and show their papers. The men of the Security Police (Sicherheitspolizei; Sipo) then started mass shootings, assisted by members of the German Order Police (Ordnungspolizei) and the railroad police. The Germans ordered the Jews to undress in groups and then proceed to the graves where they were shot. They fell into the grave or were ordered to jump in before being shot. The German forces shot between 8,000 and 12,000 Jews on that day. [ [http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/index.php?ModuleId=10007236 Holocaust Encyclopedia] - Stanisławów]

Up to July 1942 most killings were carried out in Rudolf's Mill, and from August onward, in the courtyard of the Sipo headquarters. On August 22, 1942, the Germans held a "reprisal Aktion" for the murder of a Ukrainian, which they blamed on a Jew. More than 1,000 Jews were shot. German policemen raped Jewish girls and women before taking them to the courtyard of the Sipo headquarters.

About 11,000 Jews were still living in Stanisławów when the next Aktion took place. On February 22 or 23, 1943, Brandt, who had succeeded Hans Krüger as SS-Hauptsturmführer, ordered the police forces to surround the ghetto -- initiating the final liquidation. Four days after the beginning of the Aktion, the Germans put up posters announcing that Stanisławów was "free of Jews."

When the Soviet army reached Stanisławów on July 27, 1944, there were about 100 Jews in the city who had survived in hiding. In total about 1,500 Jews from Stanisławów survived the war.

A formal indictment against Hans Krüger was issued in October 1965, after six years of investigations by the Dortmund State Prosecutor's Office. On May 6, 1968, the Münster State Court sentenced him to life imprisonment. He was released in 1986.

In Vienna and Salzburg there were other trial proceedings against members of the Schupo and the Gestapo in Stanisławów in 1966. [http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%202292.pdf yadvashem.org] ]

Recent history

From 1944, it was a part of the Soviet Union until Ukraine gained its independence in August 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union. The Soviets forced most of the Polish population to leave the city, most of them settled in the Recovered Territories.

In 1962 the name changed to honor Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. [ [http://72.14.209.104/search?q=cache:mHnOXHsdAMwJ:www.sbedif.if.ua/src/history.en.htm+changed+franko+name+city+ivano&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=4&lr=lang_en From the History of Ivano-Frankivsk] ] Five years later, Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas was established.

In the early 1990s the city was a strong center of the Ukrainian independence movement.

ports

Ivano-Frankivsk is home to a number of sports teams, most notably football club FC Spartak Ivano-Frankivsk. The club is currently disbanded. Its former president reorganized the local university (University of Nafty i Hazu) team into new "FSK Prykarpattia". That team does currently plays in the Ukrainian First League. Also, in the interbellum period it was home to soccer team Rewera Stanisławów.

Football Clubs

* Spartak Ivano-Frankivsk
* Fakel Ivano-Frankivsk

Basketball Clubs

* Hoverla Ivano-Frankivsk

People


* Eliezer Adler Founder of Gateshead Community
* Manfred H. Lachs (1914–1993), jurist [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9112420?tocId=9112420 Encyclopædia Britannica] - Lachs, Manfred]
* Arthur F. Burns
* Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski (1881 - 1942) Polish general, politician and diplomat
* Zbigniew Cybulski
* Mikhail Prusak
* Feliks Falk
* Anna Seniuk
* Daniel Passent
* Alfred Johann Theophil Jansa von Tannenau
* Stanisław Sosabowski
* Albin Cardinal Dunajewski
* Svetlana Alexievich
* Tina Karol- Ukrainian pop singer
* Vasyl Virastyuk - strongman athlete 2004 World's Strongest Man
* GreenJolly - Ukrainian rap band.

ister cities

*flagicon|ROM Baia Mare, Romania
*flagicon|Belarus Brest, Belarus
*flagicon|RUS Serpukhov ,Russia

ee also

* Dem'ianiv Laz

References

Further reading


* "Endure, Defy and Remember", by Joachim Nachbar, 1977
* "False papers: deception and survival in the Holocaust", by Robert Melson, Univ. of Illinois Press, 2000. Dr. Melson is a professor of political science at Purdue, whose grandfather owned the Mendelsohn factory in Stanislawow.
* "I'm not even a grown up, the diary of Jerzy Feliks Urman", translated by Anthony Rudolf and Joanna Voit, ed. by Anthony Rudolf. London: Menard Press, 1991. 11-yr old in Stanislaw commits suicide to avoid capture by Nazis.
* "Living Longer than Hate", by C.S. Ragsdale

External links


* [http://www.mvk.if.ua/ mvk.if.ua] - Official site of Ivano-Frankivsk
* [http://sunsite.berkeley.edu:8085/x-ussr/100k/M-35-110.jpgSoviet topographic map 1:100,000]
* [http://archive.spaceimaging.com/ikonos/2/kpms/2005/03//browse.271332.crss_sat.0.0.jpg2005 Ivano-Frankivsk] - Satellite image
* [http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/Stanislawow/map1905crop.html Area map of Stanislawow, with the general shape of the major streets, showing enlarged town detail from a 1905 Austrian military map]
* [http://editors.dmoz.org/Regional/Europe/Ukraine/Provinces/Ivano-Frankivsk_Oblast/Ivano-Frankivsk/ Ivano-Frankivsk entry at dmoz.org open directory]
* [http://www.signandsight.com/features/574.html "The Stanislau Phenomenon"] - How the Western Ukrainian provincial nest of Ivano-Frankivsk turned into a thriving literary metropolis and multicultural frontier between East and West. By Holger Gemba at signandsight.com
* [http://72.14.209.104/search?q=cache:BtYVfqD3K7gJ:www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/stanislawow-lists/stanislawow.html+Ivano-Frankivsk+nazis&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=4&lr=lang_en Stanislau] - Transliteration of Unpublished List of Citizens Murdered by the Nazis, from documents of the Russian Commission to Investigate Nazi Crimes
* [http://stanislawow.net Polish historical website on Stanislawow]
* [http://community.webshots.com/album/549997204TRqtou Photos of modern Ivano-Frankivsk (from 2004)]

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  • Ivano-Frankivsk — Івано Франківськ …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ivano-frankivsk — Івано Франківськ …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Ivano-Frankivsk — noun a) A city in the Galicia region of Ukraine, administrative centre of Ivano Frankivsk province. b) Ivano Frankivsk province (oblast), in western Ukraine. Syn: Stanyslaviv, Stanislav, Stanisławów, Ivano Frankivsk Oblast, Stanislav Oblast …   Wiktionary

  • Ivano-Frankivsk — Iwano Frankiwsk (Івано Франківськ) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ivano-Frankivsk — ▪ Ukraine Russian  Ivano Frankovsk , formerly  Stanisławów,  Stanyslaviv , or  Stanislav        city, western Ukraine. It lies along the Bystritsa River just above its confluence with the Dniester River. Founded in 1662 as the Polish town of… …   Universalium

  • Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas — ( ua. Івано Франківський національний технічний університет нафти і газу) is an institution of higher education in Ivano Frankivsk, Ukraine. Since its establishment in 1967, the university s focus remains on preparing qualified and experienced… …   Wikipedia

  • Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast — Infobox Ukrainian oblast Name = Ivano Frankivsk Oblast UkrainianName = Івано Франківська область TransliteratedName = Ivano Frankivs’ka oblast’ Nickname = Івано Франківщинаspaces|2(Ukrainian) Ivano Frankivshchyna spaces|2(transliteration) Ukraine …   Wikipedia

  • Ivano-Frankivsk International Airport — Infobox Airport name = Ivano Frankivsk International Airport nativename = nativename a = Міжнародний аеропорт Івано Франківськ nativename r = image width = caption = IATA = IFO ICAO = UKLI type = Public owner = operator = city served = location …   Wikipedia

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