- Megalopolis (city type)
A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis or megaregion) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. The term was used by Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book, The Decline of the West, and Lewis Mumford in his 1938 book, The Culture of Cities, which described it as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and social decline. Later, it was used by Jean Gottmann in 1957, to describe the huge metropolitan area along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, Massachusetts through New York City; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland and ending in Washington, D.C..
- 1 Definition
- 2 North America
- 3 South America
- 4 Europe
- 5 Asia
- 6 Africa
- 7 Australia
- 8 Largest megalopolises
- 9 See also
- 10 References
A megalopolis, also known as a megaregion, is a clustered network of cities with a population of about 10 million or more. America 2050, an organization sponsored by the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, lists 11 megaregions in the United States and Canada. Megapolitan areas were explored in a July 2005 report by Robert E. Lang and Dawn Dhavale of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech. A later 2007 article by Lang and Nelson uses 20 megapolitan areas grouped into 10 megaregions. The concept is based on the original Megalopolis model.
Modern interlinked ground transportation corridors, such as rail and highway, often aid in the development of megalopolises. Using these commuter passageways to travel throughout the megalopolis is informally called megaloping. This term was coined by Davide Gadren and Stefan Berteau.
- Greater Mexico City - Mexico City plus 60 municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico City, State of Hidalgo in Mexico (almost 25 million)
- The Megalopolis of Central Mexico was defined to be integrated by the metropolitan areas of Mexico City, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Toluca and Pachuca. The megalopolis of central Mexico is integrated by 173 municipalities (91 of the state of Mexico, 29 of the state of Puebla, 37 of the state of Tlaxcala, 16 of Morelos and 16 of Hidalgo) and the 16 boroughs of the Federal District, with an approximate total population of 35 million.
- The "Corredor del Bajío" in Northern Central Mexico is a chain of settlements that stretches 334 km (208 mi) in four states (Querétaro, Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Aguascalientes). Federal Highway 45 works as the backbone for this megalopolis, which includes 4 metro areas (León (ranked 7th nationwide), Querétaro (11th), Aguascalientes (13th) and San Francisco del Rincón (53rd)) and 5 medium sized cities (Lagos de Moreno, Irapuato, Salamanca, Celaya, and San Juan del Río). Route 45 runs through 5 more municipalities (Encarnación de Díaz, Cortazar, Villagrán, Apaseo el Grande, and Pedro Escobedo). This system of 21 municipalities has a population of 5.141 million people and high levels of growth. However, some other cities could be included in this megalopolis (such as San Miguel de Allende and Guanajuato) since even if they are not located on Route 45 they are close enough to interact heavily with the system. It is expected that in 2040, this corridor will fuse with the megalopolis of Central Mexico.
- Greater São Paulo metroplex - Campinas, Jundiaí, Sorocaba, São Paulo, Santos, São José dos Campos, Taubaté in Brazil (29 million)
- Greater Buenos Aires - La Matanza, Moreno, Avellaneda, Lanús, San Isidro, Lujan, Hurlingham, Pilar, Campana, La Plata in Argentina (22 million)
- Caracas - northern coast, Valencia, Maracay, Miranda, Los Teques, San Antonio de los Altos, Petare, Guarenas in Venezuela (15 million)
- Greater Rio de Janeiro metroplex - Rio de Janeiro, Niterói, São Gonçalo, Nova Iguaçu (11 million, if including Sul Fluminense mesoregion 13 million) in Brazil
- Metropolitan Area of Bogotá - Bogotá, Soacha, Funza, Tenjo, Chía, Cajicá, Zipaquirá, Facatativá, Sopó, Mosquera in Colombia (8.5 million)
- Santiago Metropolitan Region – Valparaíso, San Antonio, Santiago, Los Andes, Rancagua in Chile (6 million) .
- The "Blue Banana" Megalopolis, European backbone: Liverpool–Manchester–Leeds–Birmingham-London-Brussels–Antwerp–Amsterdam–Rotterdam–The Hague–Luxembourg–Rhine-Ruhr–Frankfurt am Main–Munich–Stuttgart–Basel–Zürich–Turin–Milan (78,000,000)
- Chain of large towns in Northern England and English Midlands - Blackpool(261,088), Preston(264,601), Blackburn(136,655), Burnley(149,796), Liverpool(1,365,900), Warrington(158,195), Manchester(2,629,400), Leeds(2,161,200), Sheffield(1,299,400), Chesterfield(100,879), Mansfield(158,114), Nottingham(666,358), Derby(236,738), Leicester(441,213), Nuneaton(132,236), Coventry(336,452), Birmingham(2,284,093), Telford(138,241), The Potteries(362,403), Total(13,283,000).
- The Randstad in the Netherlands is a conurbation with approximately 7.5 million inhabitants. It consists of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht), and the surrounding areas. If the adjacent Brabantse Stedenrij (Eindhoven, Tilburg, Breda, 's Hertogenbosch and Helmond) is included, its population would be around 9.5 million.
- Milan metropolitan area - Recognized by the OECD. (7,400,000 in Italy, that is more than one tenth of the national population). Potentially some parts of the Swiss Canton Ticino can be considered within the metropolis, thus making it a transnational city; this is not recognized by the OECD definition, though.
- The "European Sunbelt" or "Golden Banana" Megalopolis, European arch: Genoa–Monaco–Nice–Marseille–Nîmes–Montpellier–Narbonne–Perpignan–Girona–Barcelona–Tarragona–Castelló–València–Alacant–Murcia) Aprox. 22.5 million. Some also include Toulouse–Andorra–Manresa, plus Zaragoza–Lleida and even the Balearic Islands, increasing all up to 25 million.
- Greater Istanbul - Istanbul, Gebze, Kocaeli, Yalova, Gemlik, Bursa, Çorlu, Tekirdağ, Turkey. This is an example of a transcontinental megalopolis and Istanbul is a transcontinental city, since both cover land in both Asia and Europe. (24 million)
- Île-de-France - Paris and region (12 million)
- Centrope, Vienna Basin, including Brno and Bratislava, comprising roughly 6 million; connected to Budapest and Katowice, it may form a European metropolitan canal with up to 20 million inhabitants.
- The Gulf of Finland region is comprising Saint Petersburg federal city and Leningrad oblast in Russia, Uusimaa, Kymenlaakso, Päijänne Tavastia, Tavastia Proper, Pirkanmaa, Finland Proper and South Karelia regions in Finland and Harju County in Estonia. It links up the cities of Saint Petersburg, Helsinki and Tallinn and their surroundings. It has 10.1 million inhabitants, linked together by the high-speed train which runs between Helsinki and St. Petersburg and fast catamarans which sail between Helsinki and Tallinn.
- Silesian metropolitan area - Katowice, Kraków (Kraków metropolitan area) and sometimes included Częstochowa and Opole metropolitan area, Poland and small part of Czech Republic with Ostrava (about 7.5 million)
- Attica - The megapolis of Athens, Greece, covering the most of the basin of the district of Attica. (4.5 million)
- The Mälaren Valley region in Sweden links up the cities of Stockholm, Uppsala, Västerås, Örebro and Eskilstuna and their surroundings, creating a region of 3.1 million people.
- The Øresund Region comprising Zealand and adjacent islands in Denmark and Skåne, Sweden, links up the cities of Copenhagen, Malmö, Lund, Helsingborg and Helsingør. It has 3.7 million inhabitants, linked together by the Øresund Bridge.
Emerging megacities in China (in decreasing order of population):
- Pearl River Delta (珠江三角洲): (Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Guangzhou, Foshan, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, Zhuhai, Macau, Huizhou) (120,000,000)
- Yangtze River Delta (長江三角洲): (Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Suzhou, Jingjiang, Wuxi, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Yangzhou, Taizhou, Nantong, Huzhou, Jiaxing, Shaoxing, Jiangyin, Haimen, Zhangjiagang, Zhoushan, Ma'anshan) (88,000,000)
- Beibu Gulf Economic Rim and Red River Delta (环北部湾经济圈): Greater Nanning (Nanning, Beihai, Yulin, Qinzhou, Chongzuo, Binhai, Fangchenggang) and the Red River Delta in Vietnam (Hanoi, Hai Phong, Thanh Hóa, Nam Dinh, & Hai Duong)(33,700,000)
- Yellow River Delta and Bohai Sea (环渤海经济圈): Beijing, Tianjin, Dalian, Anshan, Fushun, Dandong, Sinuiju, Tangshan, Yantai, Shenyang, Jinan, Qinhuangdao, Qingdao, Weihai (66,400,000)
- The central Liaoning city cluster in China. Within 150 km from its center Shenyang (7.2 million), it has Fushun (3 million), Anshan City (3.6 million), Benxi (1.5 million), Liaoyang (1.8 million), Yingkou (2.2 million), Panjin (1.2 million), and Tieling (3.4 million), with a total population of 23 million. And it can be further extended to Dalian (6.2 million), Fuxin (2 million) and Dandong (2.4 million). This area used to be the most industrialized region in China. It declined during 1980s-1990s, but in recent years, it has rapidly revived.
- Northeastern Cities or the Harbin–Changchun Area (哈尔滨长春地区): Harbin, Qiqihar, Daqing, Changchun, Jilin City, Siping including Rason in North Korea and Vladivostok in Russia (21,832,000)
- Sichuan basin (四川盆地) or the Chengyu Megalopolis (成渝都市圈): Chengdu, Chongqing, Zigong, Luzhou (20,878,000)
- Taiheiyō Belt – Ibaraki, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Shizuoka, Aichi, Gifu, Mie, Osaka, Hyōgo, Wakayama, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, and Ōita in Japan. (80 million)
- Most of South Korea: Gyeonggi-do(Seoul–Incheon–Suwon–Seongnam–Goyang–Bucheon–Ansan–Anyang–Yongin etc.)-Cheonan–Jeonju–Daejeon–Cheongju–Daegu–Gwangju–Pohang–Changwon–Ulsan–Busan. (45 million)
- Karachi - Hyderabad metropolitan area - 19,798,890 (Karachi - Hyderabad - Badin - Tando Muhammad Khan)
- Lahore - Faisalabad - Sheikhupura metropolis - 15,069,321
- Golden Triangle region - 8,172,429 (Gujranwala - Gujrat - Sialkot)
- Indus River metropolitan region - 6,566,827 (Larkana, Sukkar, Khairpur, Jacobabad)
- Islamabad - Rawalpindi - Taxilla - Wah Cantt belt - 5,444,081
- Peshawar Valley metropolitan region - 5,375,955 (Peshawar - Charsadda - Mardan - Nowshera)
- Metro Manila and surrounding regions of Central Luzon, and Calabarzon (Metro Luzon Urban Beltway) in the Philippines (33 million)
- Ayutthaya–Bangkok–Pattaya–Chonburi–Nakhon Ratchasima in Thailand, includes three metropolitan areas and is the most urbanized and developed area in Indochina or mainland Southeast Asia (25 million)
United Arab Emirates
- The Gauteng City Region (PWV), which includes the urbanised portion of Gauteng Province (Pretoria, Centurion, Midrand, Johannesburg and the Vaal Triangle, with a population of over 10 million) 
- Sydney region (5.3 million) - Sydney including Gosford and Blue Mountains (4.5 million), Newcastle (541,000) and Wollongong (289,000). These populations are forecast to increase dramatically over the next 30 years.
- South East Queensland (3 million) - Brisbane (2.0 million), Gold Coast–Tweed Heads (583,000), Sunshine Coast (323,000) and Toowoomba (129,000).
See below for a list of the world's largest megalopolises, in descending order of population using the most recent census available:
- Indo-Gangetic Plain: Delhi, Kanpur, Kolkata, Varanasi, Dhaka — 200 million..
- Pearl River Delta: Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Guangzhou, Foshan, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, Zhuhai, Macau — 120 million.
- Blue Banana: Dublin, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, London, Randstad, the Netherlands–Rhine-Ruhr, Frankfurt/Rhine-Main, Rhine-Neckar, Basel, Zürich, Milan–β — 90 million.
- Yangtze River Delta: Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi - 88 million.
- Taiheiyo Belt: Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Hiroshima — 75 million.
- Great Lakes Megalopolis: Chicago, Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Indianapolis, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Dayton, Columbus, Grand Rapids, Toledo, Akron, Rochester, Buffalo — 54 million.
- Northeast Megalopolis: New York, Boston, New Jersey, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, Hartford, Richmond, Norfolk — 50 million.
- ^ a b c http://www.america2050.org/megaregions.html
- ^ http://www.bnet.com/2403-13070_23-192951.html
- ^ a b Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis.Time magazine, November 4, 1966. Retrieved on July 19, 2010.
- ^ http://www.america2050.org/about.html
- ^ http://www.mi.vt.edu/uploads/megacensusreport.pdf "Beyond Megalopolis" by the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech
- ^ http://www.surdna.org/usr_doc/The_Rise_of_the_Megapolitans.pdf
- ^ Tremble, Sam (May 30, 2007). "Fumbling Toward Portland". Philadelphia City Paper. http://www.citypaper.net/articles/2007/05/31/fumbling-toward-portland.
- ^ Regional Plan Association (2008). America 2050: An Infrastructure Vision for 21st Century America. New York: Regional Plan Association.
- ^ "Megapolitan: Arizona's Sun Corridor". Morrison Institute for Public Policy. May 2008. http://www.asu.edu/copp/morrison/megapolitan.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
- ^ "When Phoenix, Tucson Merge". The Arizona Republic. 2006-04-09. http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/0409merge0409.html. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
- ^ "TD Economics: The Calgary-Edmonton Corridor". TD Bank Financial Group. April 2003. http://www.td.com/economics/special/alta03.pdf. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- ^ "Alberta Population Projections by Census Division 2011–2050". Alberta Finance and Enterprise. http://www.finance.alberta.ca/aboutalberta/population_reports/2011-2050-alberta-population-projections.pdf.
- ^ 
- ^ "Population and living conditions in Urban Audit cities, larger urban zone (LUZ) (tgs00080)". Eurostat. July 2010. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/region_cities/city_urban/data_cities/tables_sub1. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- ^ UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'
- ^ http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/qy/550016.htm
- ^ a b Vidal, John (2010-03-22). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/22/un-cities-mega-regions.
- ^ http://www.bbw.gov.cn/staticpages/20090319/bbw49c2670d-2117.shtml
- ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/english/200009/02/eng20000902_49585.html
- ^ "Foreign investment shows trend of "moving northward"". china-embassy.org. 2004-05-14. http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/zt/1/t106401.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- ^ http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/aug/aug30_globalcity.stm
- ^ http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/july/jul20_cityregion.stm
- ^ M Shilowa to debate Gauteng's position on global city region, 29 Aug
- ^ a b , Australian Bureau of Statistics, 30 March 2010, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3218.02008-09, retrieved 10 August 2010
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