- Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee
The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC,
Russian language: Еврейский антифашистский комитет, ЕАК) was formed in Kuibyshev in April 1942with the official support of the Soviet authorities. It was designed to influence international public opinion and organize political and material support for the Soviet fight against Nazi Germany, particularly from the West.
Solomon Mikhoels, the popular actor and director of the Moscow State Jewish Theater, was appointed the JAC chairman. The JAC's newspaper in Yiddish languagewas called "Einigkeit" (אייניקייט "Unity", Cyrillic: "Эйникейт").
The JAC broadcast pro-Soviet
propagandato foreign audiences, assuring them of the absence of anti-Semitismin the USSR. In 1943, Mikhoels and Itzik Feffer, the first official representatives of the Soviet Jewry allowed to visit the West, embarked on a seven-month tour to the USA, Mexico, Canadaand Britain to drum up their support. In the US, they were welcomed by a National Reception Committee chaired by Albert Einsteinand by B.Z. Goldberg, Sholom Aleichem's son-in-law, and American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. The largest pro-Soviet rally ever in the United States was held on July 8at the Polo Grounds, where 50,000 people listened to Mikhoels, Fefer, Fiorello La Guardia, Sholem Asch, and Chairman of World Jewish Congress Rabbi Stephen Wise. Among others, they met Chaim Weizmann, Charlie Chaplin, Marc Chagall, Paul Robesonand Lion Feuchtwanger.
In addition to the funds for the Russian war effort — 16 million dollars raised in the US, 15 million in England, 1 million in Mexico, 750 thousand in the
British Mandate of Palestine— other help was also contributed: machinery, medical equipment, medicine, ambulances, clothes. On July 16, 1943, " Pravda" reported: "Mikhoels and Feffer received a message from Chicago that a special conference of the Joint initiated a campaign to finance a thousand ambulances for the needs of the Red Army." The visit also evoked the American public to the necessity of entering the European war.
Towards the end and immediately after the war, the JAC became involved in documenting the
Holocaust. This ran contrary to the official Soviet policy to present it as atrocities against all Soviet citizens, not acknowledging the specific genocideof the Jews.
Some of the committee members were vocal supporters of the
State of Israel, established in 1948, something that Stalin supported very briefly. Their international contacts especially to the USA at the outset of the Cold War, would eventually make them vulnerable to charges that they had become politically incorrect.
The contacts with American Jewish organizations resulted in the plan to publish the
Black Booksimultaneously in the US and the Soviet Union, documenting the Holocaust and participation of Jews in the resistance movement. The Black Book was indeed published in New Yorkin 1946, but no Russian edition appeared. The typeface galleys were broken up in 1948, when the political situation of Soviet Jewry deteriorated.
In January 1948, Mikhoels was killed in
Minskby the Soviet secret police agents who staged the murder as a car accident. Robert Conquest"Reflections on a Ravaged Century" (2000) ISBN 0-393-04818-7 ] In November 1948, Soviet authorities launched anti-Jewish Doctors' plotcampaign. The members of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee were arrested. They were charged with disloyalty, bourgeois nationalism, cosmopolitanism, and planning to set up a Jewish republic in Crimeato serve US interests.
1949, the Soviet mass media launched massive propaganda campaign against " rootless cosmopolitans", unmistakably aimed at Jews. Markish observed at the time: "Hitler wanted to destroy us physically, Stalin wants to do it spiritually." On August 12, 1952, at least thirteen prominent Yiddish writers were executed in the event known as the " Night of the Murdered Poets" ("Ночь казненных поэтов").
List of notable JAC members
The size of JAC fluctuated with time. According to
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn("200 Years Together"), it grew to have about 70 members.
Solomon Mikhoels(Chairman), the actor-director of the Moscow State Jewish Theater
Solomon Lozovsky(Secretary), a former Soviet vice-minister of Foreign Affairs and the head of the Soviet Information Bureau
Shakne Epshtein(Secretary and editor of the "Eynikeyt" newspaper)
Itzik Feffer, a poet
Ilya Ehrenburg, a writer and international peace activist
Solomon Bregman, a deputy minister of State Control
Aaron Katz, a General of the Stalin Military Academy
Boris Shimeliovich, the Chief Surgeon of the Red Armyand director of Botkin Hospital
Joseph Yuzefovich, a historian
Leib Kvitko, a poet
Peretz Markish, a poet
David Bergelson, a writer
David Hofstein, a poet
Benjamin Zuskin, an actor
Ilya Vatenberg, an editor
Shlomo Shleifer, Chief Rabbiof Moscow
Emilia Teumim, an editor
Leon Talmy, a journalist, translator
Khayke Vatenberg-Ostrowskaya, a translator
Lina Stern, a scientist
History of the Jews in Russia and Soviet Union
History of anti-Semitism
* ISBN 0-300-08486-2 "Stalin's Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee" (by Joshua Rubenstein)
* [http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/black_book/Black_Book.html The Black Book (Chornaya Kniga), compiled and edited by: Vasily Grossman and Ilya Erenburg]
* [http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/jewi.html Memorandum concerning the Jewish Antifascist Committee] sent to
Mikhail Suslovin June 1946 ( Library of Congressarchives)
* [http://www.idf.ru/9/doc.shtml JAC case (in Russian language) at International Democracy Fund Archives]
* [http://www.yale.edu/annals/Reviews/review_texts/Morse_on_Pogrom_08.01.htm Stalin's secret pogrom: Commies who became politically incorrect (By Chuck Morse)]
* [http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/english/61.html Beyond the Pale: The history of Jews in Russia]
* [http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/eng_captions/61-3.html Group photo of the members of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee]
* [http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%203213.pdf Stalin’s Bureaucracy in Action: The Creation and Destruction of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee] Shimon Redlich, "War, Holocaust and Stalinism: A Documented Study of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee in the USSR", Luxembourg: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1995. Reviewed by Theodore H. Friedgut
* [http://www.kackad.com/article.asp?article=6 JAC and its end]
* [http://www.ort.spb.ru/nesh/jewworld/eak.htm JAC, Soviet repressions and its demise]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee — (JAC) In the spring of 1942, Joseph Stalin approved the creation of the Jewish Anti Fascist Committee. One of the primary reasons for the creation of the organization was to appeal to world Jewry, but in particular to American Jews, for funds… … Historical dictionary of the Holocaust
ANTI-FASCIST COMMITTEE, JEWISH — ANTI FASCIST COMMITTEE, JEWISH, a group of Jewish public figures and intellectuals in the Soviet Union organized during World War II on the initiative of the Soviet government to mobilize world Jewish support for the Soviet war effort against… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Anti-Fascist Committee — The Jewish Anti Fascist Committee was authorized to raise money and support for the Soviet Union in the United States during World War II. Its leaders, including the actor Solomon Mikhoels, brought in more than $45 million, but its members… … Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence
Anti-Zionist Committee of the Soviet Public — On March 29, 1983, the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union has approved the resolution 101/62ГС to Support the proposition of the Department of Propaganda of the Central Committee and the KGB USSR about … Wikipedia
John Brown Anti-Klan Committee — The John Brown Anti Klan Committee (JBAKC) was an anti racist organization based in the United States. The group protested against the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and other white supremacist organizations, and published anti racist literature. Members of… … Wikipedia
Jewish left — The term Jewish left describes Jews who identify with or support left wing, occasionally liberal causes, consciously as Jews, either as individuals or through organizations. There is no one organization or movement which constitutes the Jewish… … Wikipedia
Jewish resistance during the Holocaust — The Jewish resistance during the Holocaust was the resistance of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World War II. Due to the careful organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German State and its… … Wikipedia
Anti-Arabism — or Arabophobia is prejudice or hostility against people of Arabic origin. Anti Arabism is commonly associated with Islamophobia [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/race/story/0,11374,1120849,00.html The Guardian: Islamophobia should be as unacceptable… … Wikipedia
Anti-Polish sentiment — Part of a series on Discrimination General forms … Wikipedia
Anti-Irish sentiment — American political cartoon by Thomas Nast titled The Usual Irish Way of Doing Things , depicting a drunken Irishman lighting a powder keg and swinging a bottle. Published 1871 09 02 in Harper s Weekly … Wikipedia