Henry Hobson Richardson


Henry Hobson Richardson

Henry Hobson Richardson (September 29, 1838–April 27, 1886) was a prominent American architect of the 19th century whose work left a significant impact on, among others, Boston, Pittsburgh, Albany, and Chicago.

Biography

Richardson was born at Priestly Plantation in St. James Parish, Louisiana and spent part of his childhood in New Orleans, where his family resided on Julia Row in a red brick house designed by the architect Alexander T. Wood. He was the great-grandson of inventor and philosopher Joseph Priestley.

Richardson went on to study at Harvard College. Initially he was interested in civil engineering, but eventually shifted to architecture which led him to go to Paris in 1860 to attend the famed École des Beaux Arts.

He didn't finish his training there, as family backing failed during the U.S. Civil War. Nonetheless, he was only the second US citizen to attend the École— Richard Morris Hunt was the first. The school was to play an increasingly important role in training Americans in the following decades.

Richardson returned to the U.S. in 1865. The style that Richardson favored, however, was not the more classical style of the École, but a more medieval-inspired style, influenced by William Morris, John Ruskin and others. Richardson developed a unique idiom, however, adapting in particular the Romanesque of southern France.

The 1872 Trinity Church in Boston solidified Richardson's national reputation and provided major commissions for the rest of his life. It was also a collaboration with the construction and engineering firm of the Norcross Brothers, with whom the architect would work on some 30 projects. Evidence of Richardson's contemporary recognition is that, of ten buildings named by American architects as the best in 1885, fully half were his: Trinity Church, Boston, Albany City Hall, Sever Hall at Harvard University, the New York State Capitol in Albany (as a collaboration), and Town Hall in North Easton, Massachusetts.

Richardson died in 1886 at age 47 of Bright's disease, a kidney disorder. He was buried in Walnut Hills Cemetery, Brookline, Massachusetts.

Though not a Richardson design, H.H. Richardson's house in Brookline, MA should also be mentioned in any discussion of his buildings. Richardson spent much of his later years in the house and had a studio attached in order to limit travel (probably due to his health problems). The house has fallen into disrepair and was listed in 2007 as an endangered historic site [ [http://press.nationaltrust.org/content/view/135/162/ National Trust For Historic Preservation Press Website - H.H. Richardson House in Brookline, Massachusetts ] ] .

Major Work

Richardson's most acclaimed work is Trinity Church in Copley Square, Boston, part of one of the outstanding American urban complexes built as the center piece of the newly developed Back Bay. The Boston Public Library was built across from it later by Richardson's former draftsman, Charles Follen McKim. The interior of the church is one of the leading examples of the Arts and crafts aesthetic in the US.

A series of small public libraries donated by patrons for the improvement of New England towns makes a small coherent corpus that defines Richardson's style: libraries in Woburn, North Easton, Malden, Massachusetts, the Thomas Crane Public Library (Quincy, Massachusetts), and Billings Memorial Library on the campus of the University of Vermont [ [http://www.uvm.edu/~campus/billings/billingsprovost/billingshistoryprovost.html UVM Billings History - Provost ] ] . These buildings seem resolutely anti-modern, with the atmosphere of an Episcopalian vicarage, dimly lit for solemnity rather than reading on site. They are preserves of culture that did not especially embrace the contemporary flood of newcomers to New England. Yet they offer clearly defined spaces, easy and natural circulation, and they are visually memorable. Richardson's libraries found many imitators in the "Richardsonian Romanesque" movement.

Richardson also designed six railroad stations for the Boston & Albany railroad company as well as two stations for other lines. These buildings were more subtle than his churches, municipal buildings and libraries, but still unmistakably his.

After his death, more than 20 other stations were built in Richardson's style for the Boston and Albany line by the firm of Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, all draftsmen of Richardson at the time of his death. All of the Boston and Albany stations were landscaped by Richardson's frequent collaborator, Frederick Law Olmsted. Additionally, a railroad station in Orchard Park, NY (near Buffalo) was built in 1911 as a replica of Richardson's Auburndale station in Auburndale, MA. The original Auburndale station was torn down in the 1960's during construction of the Massachusetts Turnpike. Of the original Richardson stations on the Boston and Albany line, all have been converted into new uses (such as restaurants). Two of the stations built by Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge (both in Newton, MA) are still used by Boston's MBTA (green line) public transit service.

Other Work

* Sever Hall, Harvard University (1880), brickwork, with molded brick string courses with turrets embedded in the walls, strips of windows, under a huge hipped roof as well as Austin Hall (Harvard University) (1882-1884) which followed a more traditional Richardson motif.

* The Allegheny County Courthouse, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, (1883–1888) connected by a bridge to its jail across the narrow street: cyclopean masonry and a tall tower

* Marshall Field Warehouse, Chicago, Illinois (1887) (demolished 1930), graded variations in rusticated stonework, vast windowed arcading spanning three floors, with not a historical detail in sight

* Buffalo's New York State Asylum (1870), shown on the right, was the largest building of the master's career and the first to display his characteristic style. The complex was also the first of many projects on which he worked with Frederick Law Olmsted.

*Emmanuel Episcopal Church (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)

*New York State Capitol (oversight and partial contribution)

Richardsonian Romanesque

:"see main article Richardsonian_Romanesque

Richardson is one of few architects to be immortalized by having the honor of having a style named after him. "Richardsonian Romanesque", unlike Victorian revival styles like Neo-Gothic, was a highly personal synthesis of the Beaux-Arts predilection for clear and legible plans, with the heavy massing that was favored by the pro-medievalists.

Significant to Richardson's style was his picturesque massing and roofline profiles, along with his mastery of rustication and polychromy, semi-circular arches supported on clusters of squat columns, and round arches over clusters of windows on massive walls.

Following his death, the Richardsonian style was perpetuated by a variety of proteges and other architects, many for civic buildings like city halls, county buildings, court houses, train stations and libraries, as well as churches and residences. These include:

* the successor firm of Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, who completed some two dozen unfinished projects and then continued to produce work in the same style, and continued to employ his collaborators the Norcross Brothers for construction and engineering expertise, Frederick Law Olmsted for landscape architecture, and the English sculptor John Evans for stonecarving
* Stanford White and Charles Follen McKim, who worked in Richardson's office as young men, went on to form McKim, Mead and White and moved into the radically different Beaux-Arts architecture style
* Richardson's great admirer Louis Sullivan adapted Richardson's characteristic lessons of texture, massing, and the expressive language of stone walling, particularly at Chicago's Auditorium Building, and these influences are detectable in the work of Sullivan's own student Frank Lloyd Wright
* and Richardson found sympathetic reception among young Scandinavian architects of the following generation, notably Eliel Saarinen

Chronological list of extant works [H.H. Richardson Complete Architectural Works by Jeffrey Karl Ochsner, 1982]

* 1867 Grace Episcopal Church - Medford, MA
* 1868 Benjamin W. Crowninshield House - Boston, MA
* 1868 H. H. Richardson House - Clifton, Staten Island, NY
* 1868 Alexander Dallas Bache Monument - Washington, DC
* 1868 William E. Dorsheimer House - Buffalo, NY
* 1869 Brattle Square Church (now First Baptist Church) - Boston, MA
* 1869 Buffalo State Hospital - Buffalo, NY
* 1871 Hampden County Courthouse - Springfield, MA
* 1871 North Congregational Church - Springfield, MA
* 1872 Trinity Church - Boston, MA (National Historic Landmark)
* 1874 William Watts Sherman House - Newport, RI
* 1875 Hayden Building - Boston, MA
* 1875 R. and F. Cheney Building - Harford, CT
* 1875 New York State Capitol - Albany, NY
* 1876 Rev. Henry Eglinton Montgomery Memorial - New York, NY
* 1876 Winn Memorial Library - Woburn, MA
* 1877 Oliver Ames Free Library - North Easton, MA
* 1878 Sever Hall - Cambridge, MA
* 1879 Oakes Ames Memorial Town Hall - North Easton, MA
* 1879 Rectory for Trinity Church - Boston, MA
* 1879 Ames Monument - Sherman, WY
* 1880 F.L. Ames Gate Lodge - North Easton, MA
* 1880 Bridge in Fenway Park - Boston, MA
* 1880 Stony Brook Gatehouse - Boston, MA
* 1880 Thomas Crane Public Library - Quincy, MA (National Historic Landmark)
* 1880 Dr. John Bryant House - Cohasset, MA
* 1880 City Hall - Albany, NY
* 1881 Austin Hall - Cambridge, MA
* 1881 Boston & Albany Railroad Station - Palmer, MA
* 1881 Pruyn Monument - Albany, NY
* 1881 Rev. Percy Browne House - Marion, MA
* 1881 Old Colony Railroad Station - North Easton, MA
* 1882 Grange Sard, Jr., House - Albany, NY
* 1882 Mrs. M.F. Stoughton House - Cambridge, MA
* 1883 Billings Memorial Library - Burlington, VT
* 1883 Emmanuel Episcopal Church - Pittsburgh, PA
* 1883 Converse Memorial Library - Malden, MA (National Historic Landmark)
* 1883 Boston & Albany Railroad Station - South Framingham, MA
* 1883 Connecticut River Railroad Station - Holyoke, MA
* 1883 Allegheny County Buildings - Pittsburgh, PA
* 1883 Robert Treat Paine House - Waltham, MA
* 1884 F.L. Ames Gardener's Cottage - North Easton, MA
* 1884 Immanuel Baptist Church - Newton, MA
* 1884 Boston & Albany Railroad Station - Newton, MA
* 1884 Ephraim W. Gurney House - Beverly, MA
* 1885 Benjamin H. Warder House - Washington, DC
* 1885 Bagley Memorial Fountain - Detroit, MI
* 1885 John J. Glessner House - Chicago, IL
* 1885 Boston & Albany Railroad Station - Wellesley Hills, MA
* 1885 Union Passenger Station - New London, CT
* 1886 Sir Hubert Herkomer House - Bushey, Hertfordshire, England
* 1886 Dr. H.J. Bigelow House - Newton, MA
* 1886 Isaac H. Lionberger House - St. Louis, MO


=

Notes

References

*Breisch, Kenneth A,. "Henry Hobson Richardson and the Small Public Library in America: A Study in Typology", MIT Press, 1997
*Floyd, Margaret Henderson, "Henry Hobson Richardson: A Genius for Architecture", Monacelli Press, NY 1997
*Hitchcock, Henry Russell, "The Architecture of H. H. Richardson and His Times", Museum of Modern Art, NY 1936; 2nd ed., Archon Books, Hampden CT 1961; rev. paperback ed., MIT Press, Cambridge MA and London 1966
*Larson, Paul C., ed., with Susan Brown, "The Spirit of H.H. Richardson on the Midland Prairies: Regional Transformations of an Architectural Style", University Art Museum, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and Iowa State University Press, Ames 1988
*Meister, Maureen, ed., "H. H. Richardson: The Architect, His Peers, and Their Era," MIT Press, Cambridge MA 1999
*Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, "H.H. Richardson: Complete Architectural Works", MIT Press, Cambridge MA 1984
*Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, and Andersen, Dennis A., "Distant Corner: Seattle Architects and the Legacy of H. H. Richardson," University of Washington Press, Seattle 2003
*O'Gorman, James F., "Living Architecture: A Biography of H. H. Richardson," Simon & Schuster, NY 1997
*O'Gorman, James F., "H. H. Richardson: Architectural Forms for an American Society," University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1987
*O'Gorman, James F., "H. H. Richardson and His Office: Selected Drawings," David R. Godine, Boston 1974
*Roth, Leland M.,"A Concise History of American Architecture", Harper & Row publishers, NY, NY 1979
*Shand-Tucci, Douglas, "Built in Boston: City and Suburb, 1800 - 1950", University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA 1988
*Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold, "Henry Hobson Richardson and His Works", Dover Publications, Inc. NY 1959 (Reprint of 1888 edition)
*Van Trump, James D., "The Romanesque Revival in Pittsburgh," "Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians", Vol. 16, No. 3 (October 1957), pp. 22-29

External links

* [http://www.sbra.com/ Richardson's present day successor firm, Shepley Bulfinch Richardson and Abbott]
*dmoz|Arts/Architecture/History/Architects/R/Richardson,_Henry_Hobson/|Henry Hobson Richardson
*
* [http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&hl=en&msa=0&msid=105465992766854694968.00044f54bb4fc896e66ba&ll=43.317185,-73.24585&spn=3.7248,6.723633&z=7&layer=c The 53 extent Richardson sites and his Brookline, MA house]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Henry Hobson Richardson — Henry Hobson Richardson, retrato por Sir Hubert von Herkomer de la Galería Nacional de Retratos (Washington) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Henry Hobson Richardson — H.H. Richardson (Porträt von Hubert von Herkomer, 1886) Henry Hobson Richardson (* 29. September 1838 in St. James Parish, Louisiana; † 27. April 1886 in Brookline, Massachusetts) war ein …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henry Hobson Richardson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Richardson. Henry Hobson Richardson est un architecte américain, (1838 1886) qui appliqua la tendance éclectique et diffusa les préceptes de l Académie des Beaux Arts dans son pays. On lui doit notamment la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Henry Hobson Richardson — noun United States architect (1838 1886) • Syn: ↑Richardson • Instance Hypernyms: ↑architect, ↑designer …   Useful english dictionary

  • Richardson, Henry Hobson — born Sept. 29, 1838, Priestley Plantation, La., U.S. died April 27, 1886, Brookline, Mass. U.S. architect. He studied at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass., and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. His designs for Boston s Brattle Square… …   Universalium

  • RICHARDSON, Henry Hobson — (1838 1886)    Henry Hobson Richardson was the second American born architect to study at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris, after Richard Morris Hunt. Richardson was born in Louisiana and studied first at Harvard and then in Paris. He worked in… …   Historical Dictionary of Architecture

  • Richardson,Henry Hobson — Richardson, Henry Hobson. 1838 1886. American architect whose Romanesque designs include Trinity Church in Boston (1872 1877) and the Marshall Field Warehouse in Chicago (1885 1887). * * * …   Universalium

  • Richardson, Henry Hobson — (29 sep. 1838, Plantación Priestley, La., EE.UU.–27 abr. 1886, Brookline, Mass.). Arquitecto estadounidense. Estudió en la Universidad de Harvard en Cambridge, Mass. y en la École des Beaux Arts de París. Sus diseños de las iglesias de Battle… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Henry Richardson — may refer to:*Henry Hobson Richardson (1838 ndash;1886), architect *Henry Handel Richardson (1870 ndash;1946), author *Henry Robson Richardson (died 1966), politician in Manitoba Canada * Henry Richardson, Rhode Island resident famous for… …   Wikipedia

  • Richardson (Familienname) — Richardson ist ein englischer Familienname. Herkunft und Bedeutung Der patronymische Name bedeutet „Sohn des Richard“ und entspricht damit (nieder ) deutschen Namen wie Riechers, Rickerts und Rickert. Varianten Richards Schwedisch: Richardsson… …   Deutsch Wikipedia