- Jim Leach
January 3, 1977
January 3, 2007
date of birth=birth date and age|1942|10|15
place of birth=
occupation=foreign affairs specialist
Iowa City, Iowa
Princeton University, Johns Hopkins University
spouse=Elisabeth "Deba" Leach
James Albert Smith "Jim" Leach (born
October 15, 1942) is the John L. Weinberg Visiting Professor of Public and International Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson Schoolof Princeton University. On September 17, 2007, he was named the interim director of the Institute of Politics at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, a position he is expected to hold until a permanent director is located after the 2007-2008 academic year. Prior to joining the Princeton faculty, Leach served 30 years as a Republican member of the United States House of Representativesfrom 1977 to 2007, representing ushr|Iowa|2 (numbered as the 1st District from 1977 to 2003). In Congress he chaired the Banking and Financial Services Committee, the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs, and the Congressional-Executive Commission on China.
Leach authored legislation on a range of issues including:
* the creation of an international
debt relieffor the world’s poorest countries,
* authorization of an
International Monetary Fundquota increase,
* making the
Peace Corpsan independent federal agency,
* requiring the federal government to use soy ink,
* restraining federal employee growth, and
* redressing certain
The legislation he is perhaps best known for is
Gramm-Leach-Blileywhich is considered one of the seminal pieces of banking legislation of the 20th century. Gramm-Leach-Bliley (1999) overturned part of the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 which separated commercial and investment banking. Glass-Steagall was passed in 1933 to curb excessive risk-taking and conflicts of interests which contributed to the Great Depression. The passage of Gramm-Leach-Bliley has been criticized as contributing to the subprime mortgage crisis.
Leach was born in
Davenport, Iowa, and won the 1960 state wrestling[http://www.wrestlingmuseum.org/gbhofinductions_03.html championship at the 138-pound weight class] for Davenport High School. He was educated at Princeton University(where he became a member of The Ivy Club), Johns Hopkins Universityand the London School of Economics. He then entered the United States Foreign Service and served as a delegate to the Geneva Disarmament Conferenceand the U.N. General Assembly. In 1973, Leach resigned his commission in protest of the Saturday Night Massacrewhen Richard Nixonfired his Attorney General, Elliot Richardson, and the independent counsel investigating the Watergate break-in, Archibald Cox.
After returning to Iowa to head a family business, Leach was elected in 1976 to Congress (defeating two-term Democrat
Edward Mezvinsky) where he came to be a leader of a small band of moderate Republicans. He chaired two national organizations dedicated to moderate Republican causes – the Ripon Societyand the Republican Mainstream Committee. He also served as president of the largest international association of legislators – Parliamentarians for Global Action. He was reelected 14 times. During his 15 terms in Congress, Leach’s voting record was generally conservative on fiscal issues, moderate on social matters, and progressive in foreign policy. As Chairman of the Arms Control and Foreign Policy Caucus, he pressed for a Comprehensive Test Ban and led the first House debate on a nuclear freeze. He objected to military unilateralism as reflected in the Iran-Contrapolicy of the 1980s. He pushed for full funding of U.S. obligations to the United Nations, supported U.S. re-entry into UNESCO, and opposed U.S. withdrawal from the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
While he supported the first
Gulf Warin 1991, Leach voted against the authorization to use force against Iraq in 2002. He was one of only six House Republicans to vote against the resolution. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-11-14-leach_x.htm] ] Once the Congress committed to war, however, he held that it would be folly to assume it could be funded with tax cuts and therefore he was the only Republican to vote against the 2003 tax cut.
A member of Republicans for Environmental Protection, Leach maintained one of the most environmentally sensitive voting records of any member of Congress.Fact|date=October 2007 His bill to end logging on federal lands never mustered enough support to reach the House floor. Nevertheless, the movement to support it began to have an impact in the development of public parks policies in Congress. In the years to come more members may come to recognize the bizarre stewardship circumstance, described by Leach in a "
New York Times" op-ed, that the U.S. government is the only landlord in America that pays to have its resources denuded.
Leach's position on the
abortionissue upset activists on all sides. He supported the right of choice except during the third trimesterbut also held that public fundingrepresented a complicit infringement on the values of too many Americans to be defensible. A supporter of stem cell research, he believed little could be more pro-lifethan invigorating science to advance cures to extend and ennoble life itself.
Leach’s political career was hallmarked by concern for open government. He championed campaign reform and pressed unsuccessfully for a system of partial
public financingof elections whereby small contributions could be matched by federal funds with accompanying limits on the amounts that could be spent in campaigns including the personal resources candidates could put in their own races. In his own campaigns Leach refused to accept political action committeeor out-of-state assistance and placed limits on what individuals might give.
Leach was never comfortable with the partisan confrontations that increasingly came to characterize Congress. He concentrated on issues rather than what he described as the game of politics and believed in working constructively with committee leadership as it existed rather than what he might have preferred. As a member of the minority he became known for the development of three unique, unusually substantive reports – one in the 1980s calling for a more progressive approach to
Central Americanpolitics; a second in the early 1990s on reforming the United Nations written for a national commission he legislatively established and later chaired; and the third issued when he was ranking minority member of the Banking Committee on the challenges of regulating derivatives.
Leach had more differences on ethical issues with several of his own party leaders than Democratic Speakers like
Tip O'Neilland Tom Foley. In the wake of a 1996 Ethics Committee probe of then Speaker of the House, Newt Gingrich, which cited the Speaker for providing false information under oath to a House committee, Leach broke ranks with tradition and voted against his party’s nominee for Speaker in the subsequent Congress. In one of the few occasions in the 20th century when any party division was recorded on the initial leadership organizing votes on the House floor, he voted for the former Republican leader, Bob Michel, and received two votes himself, causing Leach to take a distant third in the contest for Speaker of the 105th Congress behind Gingrich and the Democratic nominee, Dick Gephardt.
Leach played a pivotal role in the House’s investigation of the
Whitewaterscandal. In the 1980s he had objected to political misjudgments that lengthened and deepened losses in the savings and loanindustry. Accordingly, he felt there should be accountability outside and within the financial services industry. Because criminal referrals had been lodged by a federal agency against the Clintons and their partners in a real estate venture for their role in the failure of a modest-sized Arkansas S&L, Leach as chairman of the House Banking Committeeheld four days of hearings (all in the same week) on the causes and consequences of the failure. While federal taxpayer losses (approximately $70 million) associated with this particular S&L were not as large as with bigger institutions around the country, no S&L anywhere failed with a higher percentage of losses relative to assets than the one in Arkansas.
In the end, the Independent Counsel wrought more than 50 criminal convictions related to the failed S&L, including cases against Clinton’s successor Governor,
Jim Guy Tucker, and his business partners in Whitewater.
Leach believed in the appropriateness of public disclosure but never thought the crimes surrounding the failure of the Whitewater-tied S&L should have been considered in an impeachment framework because the Constitution precisely holds that the impeachment process relates to acts committed in federal office. Like many in Congress, he was surprised that the Justice Department chose to refer certain sex related charges to
Kenneth Starr, the Whitewater Independent Counsel, and even more so when Starr chose subsequently to refer certain of them to the Congress. But in what he described as a close judgment call Leach voted for the article of impeachmentthat related to felonious lying under oath.
Although Leach was usually reelected without much difficulty, he represented a district that was trending more Democratic. For most of his career, he represented the Democratic strongholds of Davenport and
Iowa City. The district has not supported a Republican for president since 1984, and most of its state legislators are Democrats. The district became even more Democratic after the 2000 census, in which it was renumbered the 2nd District. This was despite the fact that Davenport was drawn into the 1st District (previously the 2nd District). Leach seriously considered running against fellow Republican Jim Nusslein the 1st District primary. Had he done so, it was considered very likely that the reconfigured 2nd would have been taken by a Democrat. However, Leach opted to move to Iowa City in the reconfigured 2nd and won reelection two more times. Still, it was considered very likely that Leach would be succeeded by a Democrat once he retired.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, also known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act, Pub. L. No. 106-102, 113 Stat. 1338 (November 12, 1999), is an Act of the United States Congress which repealed the Glass-Steagall Act, opening up competition among banks, securities companies and insurance companies. The Glass-Steagall Act prohibited a bank from offering investment, commercial banking, and insurance services.
This act of deregulation has been cited as one reason for the sub-prime mortgage crisis. [http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=the_bubble_economy]
In 2006, however, Leach was toppled in a considerable upset by Democrat
Dave Loebsack, a political science professor at Cornell College. Loebsack had only qualified for the Democratic primary as a write-in candidate, and Leach was not on many Democratic target lists. However, Loebsack managed to defeat Leach by a narrow 6,000-vote margin.
In conjunction with a Democratic tide which swept Eastern Iowa in the election, there were two tipping factors in Leach’s defeat. The first was his refusal to allow Republican Party activists to distribute an anti-gay mailing. When Leach told the
Republican National Committeethat he would leave the Republican caucus if they proceeded with such divisive tactics, social conservativeswere offended and refused to back him.
The second related to his success just before adjournment in passing H.R. 4411. Gambling interests opposed him during the election and contended the bill had passed without hearings. The bill had been subject to extensive hearings over several Congresses, especially on the House side where both the Financial Services and the Judiciary committees had shared jurisdiction. [www.thomas.gov] Leach argued that Internet gambling weakened the economy and jeopardized the social fabric of the family.
Conservative family groups also opposed Leach, and gambling interests are now trying to overturn the measure in this Congress claiming that they have polling data indicating that their opposition was responsible for defeating Leach.
After his defeat, Leach’s name was floated as a potential replacement to
John Boltonas Ambassador to the United Nations. On December 8 2006, Leach’s House colleagues Earl Blumenauer(D-Oregon) and Jim Walsh (R-New York) sent a letter to President George W. Bushurging the President to nominate Leach for the post. However, the nomination instead went to the United States Ambassador to Iraq, Zalmay Khalilzad.
Today Leach teaches at Princeton and serves on the board of several public companies and four non-profit organizations – the
Century Foundation, the Kettering Foundationand the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relationsand formerly served as a trusteeof Princeton University.
Leach holds eight
honorary degreesand has received decorations from two foreign governments. He is the recipient of the Wayne Morse Integrity in Politics Award, the Woodrow Wilson Award from Johns Hopkins, the Adlai Stevenson Award from the United Nations Association, and the Edger Wayburn Award from the Sierra Club. A three-sport athlete in college, Leach was elected to the Wrestling Hall of Famein Stillwater, Oklahoma, and the International Wrestling Hall of Famein Waterloo, Iowa.
September 17 2007, Leach was named as Interim Director of the Institute of Politicsat Harvard's Kennedy School of Governmentafter former director Jeanne Shaheenleft to pursue a U.S. Senate seat in New Hampshire.
Leach resides in
Iowa Cityand Princeton with his wife Elisabeth (Deba), son Gallagher, and daughter Jenny.
August 12, 2008, Leach broke party ranks to endorse Democrat Barack Obamaagainst John McCainfor the American presidency. He spoke at the 2008 Democratic National Conventionin Denver Colorado on the night of August 25, 2008.cite web |url= http://voices.washingtonpost.com/sleuth/2008/08/surprise_gop_speaker_at_dem_co.html |title= Surprise GOP Speaker at Dem Convention: Jim Leach |accessdate= 2008-08-25 |author= Mary Ann Akers |date= 2008-08-24] He was introduced by Senator Tom Harkin, a fellow Iowan.
* [http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/summary.asp?CID=N00004280&cycle=2004 2004 campaign finance data]
* [http://projects.washingtonpost.com/congress/members/l000169/ Voting record maintained by the Washington Post]
* [http://www.bsherman.net/Leach.mp3 June 21, 2007 speech by Leach on US foreign policy to the Iowa City Foreign Relations Council, MP3]
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