name = LeopardMSW3|id=14000250]
fossil_range = Late
Plioceneor Early Pleistoceneto Recent
status = NT
status_system = iucn3.1
status_ref =IUCN2008|assessors=Breitenmoser, U., Breitenmoser-Wursten, C., Henschel, P. & Hunter, L.|year=2008|id=15954|title=Panthera pardus|downloaded=9 October 2008]
trend = down
phylum = Chordata
genus = "
species = "P. pardus"
binomial = "Panthera pardus"
binomial_authority = Linnaeus, 1758
The leopard (IPA2|lɛpɚd; "Panthera pardus") is an
Old World mammalof the Felidaefamily and the smallest of the four roaring cats in the genus" Panthera", the other three are the tiger, lionand jaguar. Once distributed across southern Asiaand Africa, from Koreato South Africa, the leopard's range of distribution has decreased radically over time because of a variety of factors, including human influence, and the leopard now chiefly occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. There are fragmented populations in India, Indochina, Malaysia, and China. Despite the loss of range and continual declines in population, the cat remains a " Least Concern" species; its numbers are greater than that of the other "Panthera" species, all of which face more acute conservation concerns.
The leopard has relatively short legs and a long body, with a large skull. Physically, it most closely resembles the jaguar, although it is usually smaller and of slighter build. Its fur is marked with rosettes which lack internal spots, unlike those of the jaguar. Leopards that are
melanistic, either completely black or very dark in coloration, are one of the big cats known colloquially as black panthers.
The species' success in the wild owes in part to its opportunistic hunting behaviour, its adaptability to a variety of habitats and its ability to move at up to approximately 60 kilometres (37 miles) an hour. The leopard consumes virtually any animal it can hunt down and catch. Its preferred habitat ranges from
rainforestto desertterrains. Its ecological role and status resembles that of the similarly-sized cougarin the Americas.
In antiquity, it was believed that a leopard was a hybrid of a lion and a panther, as is reflected in its name, a Greek
portmanteauderived from λέων "léon" ("lion") and πάρδος "párdos" ("male panther"), the latter related to Sanskrit पृदाकु "pṝdāku" ("snake, tiger, panther").cite web | url = http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=leopard | title = "Leopard" | work = Online Etymology Dictionary | publisher = Douglas Harper | accessdate = 2007-11-30] [cite book | last=Monier-Williams | first=Sir Monier | title=A Sanskrit-English Dictionary | coauthors=Prof. E. Leumann, Ph.D., Prof. C. Cappeller, Ph.D., "et al" | url=http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/mwview/index.php?sfx=jpg | format=JPEG | accessdate=2007-11-30 | pages=p. 647 | chapter=pṝdāku | chapterurl=http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/serveimg.pl?file=/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw0647-pRthukIya.jpg]
A "panther" can be any of several species of large
felid; in North America, the term refers to cougars; in South America, jaguars; and everywhere else, it refers to leopards. Early naturalists distinguished between leopards and panthers not by colour (a common misconception), but by the length of the tail—panthers having longer tails than leopards.
"Felis pardus" was one of the many species described in Linnaeus's 18th-century work, "
Systema Naturae". [la icon cite book | last=Linnaeus | first=C | authorlink=Carolus Linnaeus | title=Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. | edition=Editio decima, reformata. | publisher=Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). | date=1758 | url=http://dz1.gdz-cms.de/index.php?id=img&no_cache=1&IDDOC=265100]
The generic component of its modern scientific designation, "Panthera pardus", is derived from Latin via Greek πάνθηρ "pánthēr". A
folk etymologyheld that it was a compound of παν "pan" ("all") and θηρ ("beast"). However, it is believed instead to derive from an Indo-Iranianword meaning "whitish-yellow, pale"; in Sanskrit, this word's reflex was पाण्डर "pāṇḍara", from which was derived पुण्डरीक "puṇḍárīka" ("tiger", among other things), then borrowed into Greek. [cite book | last=Monier-Williams | first=Sir Monier | title=A Sanskrit-English Dictionary | coauthors=Prof. E. Leumann, Ph.D., Prof. C. Cappeller, Ph.D., "et al" | url=http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/mwview/index.php?sfx=jpg | format=JPEG | accessdate=2007-11-30 | pages=p. 616 | chapter=pāṇḍara | chapterurl=http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/serveimg.pl?file=/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw0616-pANinIyamatadarpaNa.jpg] [cite book | last=Monier-Williams | first=Sir Monier | title=A Sanskrit-English Dictionary | coauthors=Prof. E. Leumann, Ph.D., Prof. C. Cappeller, Ph.D., "et al" | url=http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/mwview/index.php?sfx=jpg | format=JPEG | accessdate=2007-11-30 | pages=p. 631 | chapter=puṇḍárīka | chapterurl=http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/serveimg.pl?file=/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw0631-puMdhvaja.jpg]
Like the rest of the feline family, the "Panthera" genus has been subject to much alteration and debate and the exact relations between the four species (as well as the
clouded leopardand snow leopard) have not been effectively resolved. DNAevidence shows that the lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, snow leopard, and clouded leopard share a common ancestor nearly 11 million years ago (Ma)—the basal divergence amongst the Felidaefamily.cite journal | author = Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S.J. | year = 2006 | doi = 10.1126/science.1122277 | title = The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment. | journal = Science | volume = 311 | pages = 73–77 | pmid = 16400146] The fossil record points to the emergence of "Panthera" just two to 3.8 million years ago. cite journal | last = Turner | first = A. | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 1987 | month = | title = New fossil carnivore remains from the Sterkfontein hominid site (Mammalia: Carnivora) | journal = Annals of the Transvaal Museum | volume = 34 | issue = | pages = 319–347 | issn = 0041-1752 | url = | accessdate = | quote = ]
mitochondrial DNAstudy, Yu and Zhang (2005) suggest that the leopard is most closely related to the snow leopard, and go so far as placing the latter as a fifth species of "Panthera", "P. uncia."cite journal | author = Yu L & Zhang YP | year = 2005 | title = Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores | journal = Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | volume = 35 | issue = 2 | pages = 483–495 | doi = 10.1016/j.ympev.2005.01.017|url=http://22.214.171.124/SCI/2005SCI/2005/Li%20Yu%EF%BC%882005M.P.E).pdf|format=PDF] Canonical works, such as the Mammal Species of the World, continue to list the snow leopard as the only species within its genus, "Uncia uncia,"MSW3 Wozencraft | pages = 548] but this could change; Johnson "et al." (2006) support the placement of the snow leopard within "Panthera." They suggest, however, that the snow leopard is most closely aligned with the tiger. The leopard is held to have diverged from the "Panthera" lineage subsequent to these two species, but before the lion and jaguar. Older research has tended to suggest that the leopard is most closely related to the lion and/or the jaguar. As recently as 2001, it was held to have split along with the lion in a phylogenetic analysis of chemical secretions amongst cats. [ cite journal | last =Bininda-Emonds | first =Olaf R.P. | coauthors = Decker-Flum, Denise M.; et al.| year =2001 | month = | title = The utility of chemical signals as phylogenetic characters: an example from the Felidae | journal =Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | volume =72 | issue = | pages =1–15 | format =PDF | url =http://www.personal.uni-jena.de/~b6biol2/Publications/FatCats.pdf | accessdate = 2008-06-07 | quote = ]
"Panthera" is believed to have emerged in Asia, with ancestors of the leopard and other cats subsequently migrating into Africa. Fossil evidence of leopard ancestors has been found from 2 to 3.5 Ma. These
Pleistocenespecimens resemble primitive jaguars. The modern leopard type is suggested to have evolved in Africa 470 000–825 000 years ago and radiated across Asia 170 000–300 000 years ago. cite journal | last =Uphyrkina | first =O. | coauthors =Johnson, E.W.; et al. | year =2001 | month =November | title = Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, "Panthera pardus" | journal =Molecular Ecology | volume =10 | issue =11 | pages = 2617–2633 | url = http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01350.x?cookieSet=1 | accessdate =2008-08-06 | doi = 10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01350.x ]
As many as 27 leopard subspecies were once suggested, the number growing from the time of
Linnaeusin the 18th century to that of Reginald Pocockin the early 20th. In 1996, Miththapala "et al." revised this downward to just eight subsepecies based on DNA analysis. cite journal | last = Miththapala | first =Sriyanie | coauthors =Seidensticker, John; O'Brien, Stephen J. | year =1996 | month =August | title = Phylogeographic Subspecies Recognition in Leopards ("P. pardus"): Molecular Genetic Variation. | journal =Conservation Biology | volume =10 | issue =4 | pages =1115–1132 | id = | url =http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10041115.x | accessdate = 2008-06-06 | quote = | doi = 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10041115.x ] Uphyrina "et al." would concur in 2001 but split out a ninth separately, the Arabian leopard("P. pardus nimr"). The latter researchers note the number might be an underestimation because of limited sampling of African leopards. Their list as follows:
Indo-Chinese leopard("P. pardus delacouri") in Mainland Southeast Asia.
Indian leopard("P. pardus fusca") in India, southeastern Nepal, and northern Bangladesh.
North Chinese leopard("P. pardus japonensis") in China.
Sri Lankan leopard("P. pardus kotiya") in Sri Lanka.
Javan leopard("P. pardus melas") in Java.
Amur leopard("P. pardus orientalis") in the Russian Far East, northern China, and Korea.
African leopard("P. pardus pardus") in Africa.
Persian leopardor Iranian leopard ("P. pardus saxicolor") in Southwest Asia.
Arabian leopard("P. pardus nimr") in Arabian Peninsula.
Older taxonomic divisions
Included in the African leopard ("P. pardus pardus"):
Barbary leopard("P. pardus panthera")
* Cape leopard ("P. pardus melanotica")
* Central African leopard ("P. pardus shortridgei")
* Congo leopard ("P. pardus ituriensis")
* East African leopard ("P. pardus suahelica")
* Eritrean leopard ("P. pardus antinorii")
* Somalian leopard ("P. pardus nanopardus")
* Ugandan leopard (("P. pardus chui")
* West African leopard ("P. pardus reichinowi")
* West African forest leopard ("P. pardus leopardus")
Zanzibar leopard("P. pardus adersi")
Included in the Persian leopard ("P. pardus saxicolor"):
Anatolian leopard("P. pardus tulliana")
* Baluchistan leopard ("P. pardus sindica")
* Caucasus leopard ("P. pardus ciscaucasica")
* Central Persian leopard ("P. pardus dathei")
Sinai leopard("P. pardus jarvisi")
Included in the Indian leopard ("P. pardus fusca"):
* Kashmir leopard ("P. pardus millardi")
* Nepal leopard ("P. pardus pernigra")
The leopard is an agile and stealthy predator. Although smaller than the other members of the "Panthera" genus, the leopard is still able to take large prey given a massive skull that well utilizes powerful jaw muscles. Its body is comparatively long for a cat and its legs are short. Head and body length is between 90 and 190 cm (35 and 75 in), the tail reaches 60 to 110 cm (24 to 43 in). Shoulder height is 45 to 80 cm (18-31 in). Males are considerably larger than females and weigh 37 to 91 kg (82 to 200 lbs) compared to 28 to 60 kg (62 to 132 lbs) for females.cite book |last=Kindersley |first= Dorling |year=2001,2005 |title=Animal |location=New York City |publisher=DK Publishing |isbn=0-7894-7764-5] The larger-bodied populations of leopard (such as the
Javan leopardand the leopards from the forested mountains and tropical rainforests of Africa) are generally found in areas isolated from competing large predators, especially from dominant big cats like lions and tigers.
One of many spotted cats, a leopard may be mistaken for a cheetah or a jaguar (though, of course, there is no range overlap with the latter). The leopard has rosettes rather than
cheetah's simple spots, but they lack internal spots, unlike the jaguar. The leopard is larger and less lanky than the cheetah but smaller than the jaguar. The leopard's black, irregular rosettes serve as camouflage. They are circular in East Africa but tend to be square-shaped in southern Africa.cite web |url=http://www.awf.org/content/wildlife/detail/leopard |title=Leopard |accessdate=2007-09-21 |publisher= African Wildlife Foundation.]
Leopards have been reported to reach 21 years of age in captivity. [cite book |last=Crandall |first=L |title=The management of wild animals in captivity |year=1964 |publisher=University of Chicago Press |location=Chicago |isbn= ]
melanisticmorph of the leopard occurs, particularly in mountainous areas and rain forests. The black color is heritable and caused by recessive geneloci. cite journal | last =Eizirik | first =Eduardo | coauthors =Yuhki, Naoya; et al. | year = 2003| month =May | title =Molecular genetics and evolution of melanism in the cat family | journal = Current Biology| volume =13 | issue =5 | pages =448–453 | url =http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14600002 | accessdate = 2008-06-07 | doi =10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00128-3] (While they are commonly called black panthers, the term is not exclusive to leopards; it also applies to melanistic jaguars.)
Melanistic leopards are particularly common on the
Malayan Peninsula: early reports suggested up to half of all leopards there are black, but a 2007 camera-trap study in Taman Negara National Parkfound that "all" specimens were melanistic. cite journal | last =Sunquist | first =Fiona | year =2007 | month =Dec/Jan | title = Malaysian Mystery Leopards | journal =National Wildlife Magazine | volume =45 | issue = 1 | url = http://www.nwf.org/nationalwildlife/printerFriendly.cfm?issueID=112&articleID=1413 | accessdate = 2008-06-07 ] Although the benefits of melanism are difficult to interpret, it may serve as camouflage in the rainforesthabitat. (Genetic research has found four independent origins for melanism in cats, suggesting that there must be some adaptive advantage.) Another possibility is that the color variation was relic adaptation to an epidemic; genes causing melanism can also affect the immune system.
In Africa, black leopards are much less common as melanism is not an adaptive advantage on the savanna: dark coloration provides poor camouflage and makes hunting difficult. Estimates are as low as one in 80 or 100. In the dense forests of the
Ethiopian Highlands, however, the black leopard is much more common than in Africa generally; as many as one in five leopards may be melanistic. [cite web |url=http://www.aau.edu.et/faculties/sc/BSE/wildlife.html#melanism |title=Melanism in Felines
accessdate=2008-06-07 |work=Wildlife of Ethiopia|publisher=Biological Society of Ethopia |date=April 2001]
Biology and behavior
The leopard is known for its ability in climbing, and it has been observed resting on tree branches during the day and descending from trees headfirst.cite web|url=http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Panthera_pardus.html|title=Leopard biology and behavior|accessdate=6 June|accessyear=2008] It is a powerful swimmer, although, not as strong as some other big cats, such as the
tiger. The leopard is also very agile, and can run over sixty kilometres an hour, leap over six metres and jump up to three metres vertically.cite web|url=http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/Animal-bytes/animalia/eumetazoa/coelomates/deuterostomes/chordata/craniata/mammalia/carnivora/leopard.htm|title=Animal bytes - "Panthera pardus"|accessdate=6 June|accessyear=2008] The leopard is primarily a nocturnalcreature, and many of its operations are done by night. However, there have been recorded instances of leopards hunting during the light, especially when the sky is overcast. It spends much of its day resting and sleeping, up in the branches of trees, underneath rocks or in the grass.
Diet and hunting
Leopards are opportunistic hunters. Although mid-sized animals are preferred, the leopard will eat anything from
dung beetlesto convert|900|kg|lb|0|abbr=on male giant elands. Nowell, K.; Jackson, P. eds. (1996). [http://carnivoractionplans1.free.fr/wildcats.pdf "Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan."] IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. (see "Panthera Pardus", pp. 24 – 29.)] Their diet consists mostly of ungulates and monkeys, but rodents, reptiles, amphibians, birds and fishare also eaten.Schaller, p. 290] In Africa, mid-sized antelopes provide a majority of the leopard's prey, especially impalaand Thomson's gazelles.Schaller, p. 291] In Asia the leopard preys on deer such as chitals and muntjacs as well as various Asian antelopes and Ibex. One study at the Wolong Reservein China revealed how adaptable the leopard's hunting behaviour is: over the course of seven years vegetative cover receded, and the animals opportunistically shifted from primarily consuming tufted deerto instead pursuing bamboo rats and other smaller prey. [ cite journal | last = Johnson| first =Kenneth G. | coauthors =Weng, Wei; et al. | year =1993 | month =August | title =Food Habits of Asiatic Leopards (Panthera pardus fusea) in Wolong Reserve, Sichuan, China | journal =Journal of Mammalogy | volume = 74| issue =3 | pages =646–650 | url =http://www.jstor.org/stable/1382285 | accessdate = 2008-06-13 | quote = | doi =10.2307/1382285 ]
The leopard stalks its prey silently and at the last minute pounces on its prey and strangles its throat with a quick bite. Leopards often hide their kills in dense vegetation or take them up trees, and are capable of carrying animals up to three times their own weight this way.
One survey of nearly 30 research papers found preferred prey weights of 10 to 40
kg(22-88 lb), with convert|25|kg|lb|0|abbr=on most preferred. Along with impala and chital, a preference for bushbuckand common duikerwas found. Other prey selection factors include a preference for prey in small herds, in dense habitat, and those that afford the predator a low risk of injury. [cite journal |last=Hayward |first=M. W. |coauthors=Henschel, P.; et al. |year=2006 |month=October |title=Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus) |journal=Journal of Zoology |volume=270 |issue=2 |pages=298–313 |url=http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00139.x |accessdate= 2007-09-13 |doi=10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00139.x]
A male may follow a female who catches his attention. Eventually, a fight for reproductive rights may take place. Depending on the region, leopards may mate all year round (Asia and Africa) or seasonally during January to February (Manchuria and Siberia). The
estrous cyclelasts about 46 days and the female usually is in heat for 6–7 days. [cite book |author=Sadleir R |year=1966 |chapter=Notes on the Reproduction of the larger Felidae |title= Int. Zoo Yearbook: Vol 6|pages=184-87 |publisher=Zool. Soc. London |location=London |isbn= ] Gestation lasts for 90-105 days.cite book |last=Kindersley |first= Dorling |year=2001,2005 |title=Animal |location=New York City |publisher=DK Publishing |isbn=0-7894-7764-5] Cubs are usually born in a litter of 2–4, [cite web|url=http://www.wildcatconservation.org/Leopard_(Panthera_pardus).html|title=Leopard|publisher=wildcatconservation.org|accessdate=6 June|year=2008] but infant mortality is high and usually no more than 1–2 cubs survive beyond their infancy. The pregnant females find a cave, crevice among boulders, hollow tree, or thicket to give birth and make a den. Cubs open their eyes after a period of 10 days. The fur of the young tends to be longer and thicker than that of adults. Their pelage is also more gray in color with less defined spots. Around three months the infants begin to follow the mother out on hunts. At one year of age leopard young can probably fend for themselves but they remain with the mother for 18–24 months. [cite web|url=http://brainmuseum.org/Specimens/carnivora/leopard/index.html|title=Leopard ("Pantehra pardus"); Physical characteristics and distribution|accessdate=7 June|accessyear=2008]
ocial structure and home range
Studies of leopard home range size have tended to focus on protected areas, which may have led to skewed data; as of the mid-1980s, only 13% of the leopard range actually fell within a protected area.cite journal |url=http://www.cheetah.org/ama/orig/leopard.pdf |last=Marker |first=L. L. |coauthors=Dickman, A. J.|year=2005 |month=March|title=Factors affecting leopard ("Panthera pardus") spatial ecology, with particular reference to Namibian farmlands |journal=South African Journal of Wildlife Research |volume=35 |issue=2 |accessdate= 2007-09-13] In their
IUCNsurvey of the literature, Nowell and Jackson suggest male home territories vary between 30-78 square kilometers, but just 15-16 km² for females. Research in a conservation area in Kenya shows similar territory sizes and sex differential: 32.8 km² ranges for males, on average, and 14 km² for females. [cite journal |last=Mizutani |first=F. |coauthors= Jewell, P. A.|year=1998 |title=Home-range and movements of leopards (Panthera pardus) on a livestock ranch in Kenya |url=http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=40975 |journal=Journal of Zoology|pages=269–286 |volume=244 |doi=10.1017/S0952836998002118|accessdate= 2007-09-13] In Nepal, somewhat larger male ranges have been found at about 48 km², while female ranges are in-keeping with other research, at 17 km²; female home territories were seen to decrease to just five to seven km² when young cubs were present, while the sexual difference in range size seemed to be in positive proportion to overall increase. [ cite journal |last= Odden|first= Morten |coauthors=Wegge, Per |year=2005 |title=Spacing and activity patterns of leopards "Panthera pardus" in the Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal |journal= Wildlife Biology|volume=11 |pages=145–152 |doi=10.2981/0909-6396(2005)11 [145:SAAPOL] 2.0.CO;2 |url=http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.2981%2F0909-6396(2005)11%5B145%3ASAAPOL%5D2.0.CO%3B2 |accessdate= 2007-09-13] However, significant variations in size of home territories have been suggested across the leopard's range. In Namibia, for instance, research that focussed on spatial ecology in farmlands outside of protected areas found ranges that were consistently above 100 km², with some more than 300 km²; admitting that their data were at odds with others', the researchers also suggested little or no sexual variation in the size of territories. Virtually all sources suggest that males do have larger ranges. There seems to be little or no overlap in territory amongst males, although overlap exists between the sexes; one radio-collar analysis in the Ivory Coastfound a female home range completely enclosed within a male's. cite journal |last= Jenny|first= D.|month=November|year=1996 |title= Spatial organization of leopards Panthera pardus in Tai National Park, Ivory Coast: Is rainforest habitat a "tropical haven"?
journal= Journal of Zoology |issue=3 |volume=240 |pages=427–440 |url=http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=4026878&q=Panthera+pardus+habitat&uid=1040057&setcookie=yes |accessdate= 2007-09-13]
The leopard is solitary and, aside from mating, interactions between individuals appear to be infrequent. Aggressive encounters have been observed, however. Two of five males studied over a period of a year at a game reserve in South Africa died, both violently. One was initially wounded in a male-male territorial battle over a carcass; taken in by researchers, it was released after a successful convalescence only to be killed by a different male a few months later. A second was killed by another predator, possibly a
spotted hyena. A third of the five was badly wounded in intraspecific fighting, but recovered. [cite journal |last=Hunter |first=Luke |coauthors=Balme, Guy; et al. |year=2003 |title=The landscape ecology of leopards (Panthera pardus) in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A preliminary project report. |journal=Ecological Journal |volume= 5 |pages=24–30 |id= |url=http://www.biolsci.monash.edu.au/research/leopards/docs/ecojournal-2003.pdf |accessdate= 2007-09-16 |quote= ]
Distribution and habitat
Data from 1996 found that the leopard has the largest distribution of any wild cat, occurring most in certain parts of southern Asia and widely in eastern and central Africa,citeweb|url=http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Panthera_pardus.html|title=Leopard distribution|author=LeeAnn Bies|accessdate=5 June|accessyear=2008] although populations before and since have shown a declining trend and are fragmented outside of subsaharan Africa. The IUCN notes that within sub-Saharan Africa the species is "still numerous and even thriving in marginal habitats" where other large cats have disappeared, but that populations in North Africa may be extinct. In Asia, data on distribution is not consistent: populations in Southwest and Central Asia are small and fragmented; in the northeast portion of the range, they are critically endangered; but in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and China, the leopard is still relatively abundant.
Leopards live mainly in grasslands, woodlands and riverside forests. The animal has primarily been studied in open savannah habitats, which may have biased common descriptions. It is generally considered
nocturnal, for instance, but radio-tracking and scat analysis in West Africa has found that rainforest leopards are more likely to be diurnaland crepuscular. Forest leopards are also more specialized in prey selection and exhibit seasonal differences in activity patterns. [ cite journal | last = Jenny| first =David| coauthors =Zuberbühler, Klaus | year =2005 | month =September | title =Hunting behaviour in West African forest leopards | journal =African Journal of Ecology | volume = 43| issue = 3| pages =197–200 | url =http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2005.00565.x | accessdate = 2008-05-23 | doi =10.1111/j.1365-2028.2005.00565.x] While associated with the savanna and rainforest, the leopard is exceptionally adaptable: in the Russian Far East, the animal inhabits temperate forests where winter temperatures reach a low of –25 °C.
Because of their wide habitat range, leopards must compete for food and safety with other large predators such as
lions, tigers, spotted hyenas and wild dogs. These competitors sometimes may steal the leopard's kill or devour its young. A single lion or tiger is capable of killing an adult leopard. Leopards have adapted to live alongside these other predators by hunting at different times of the day, and by avoiding areas frequented by them. In search of safety, the leopard will often stash its young or a recent kill high up in a tree. Lions are occasionally successful in climbing trees and fetching leopard kills,Schaller, p. 293] and if motivated, an adult tiger might also scale a tree to acquire food.
Nowell and Jackson note that resource portioning occurs where the leopard shares range with the lion or tiger: the leopard tends to take smaller prey (usually less than 75 kg) where its large feline cousins are present. One tropical forest study suggests that leopards do not always avoid the larger cats by hunting at different times. With relatively abundant prey, tigers and leopards were seen to successfully coexist without competitive exclusion or inter-species dominance hierarchies that may be more common to the savanna. [ cite journal | last =Karanth | first =K. Ullas | coauthors = Sunquist, Melvin E. | year =2000| title = Behavioural correlates of predation by tiger ("Panthera tigris"), leopard ("Panthera pardus") and dhole ("Cuon alpinus") in Nagarahole, India| journal = Journal of Zoology | volume =250 | pages =255–265 | url =http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=40765 | accessdate = 2008-06-05| doi = 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb01076.x]
A pseudo-melanistic leopard has a normal background color, but its excessive markings have coalesced so that its back seems to be entirely black. In some specimens, the area of solid black extends down the flanks and limbs; only a few lateral streaks of golden-brown indicate the presence of normal background colour. Any spots on the flanks and limbs that have not merged into the mass of swirls and stripes are unusually small and discrete, rather than forming rosettes. The face and underparts are paler and dappled like those of ordinary spotted leopards. These melanistic leopards are often incorrectly referred to by the general population as "black panthers". [cite book|last=Gamble|first=Cyndi|coauthors=Rodney Griffiths|title=Leopards: Natural History & Conservation|year=2004|publisher=Voyageur Press|isbn=0896586561]
In a paper about panthers and ounces of Asia,
Reginald Innes Pocockused a photo of a leopard skin from southern India; it had large black-rimmed blotches, each containing a number of dots and it resembled the pattern of a jaguaror clouded leopard. Another of Pocock's leopard skins from southern India had the normal rosettes broken up and fused and so much additional pigment that the animal looked like a black leopard streaked and speckled with yellow.
Most other colour morphs of leopards are known only from paintings or museum specimens. There have been very rare examples where the spots of a normal black leopard have coalesced to give a jet black leopard with no visible markings. Pseudo-melanism (abundism) occurs in leopards. The spots are more densely packed than normal and merge to largely obscure the background colour. They may form swirls and, in some places, solid black areas. Unlike a true black leopard the tawny background colour is visible in places. One pseudo-melanistic leopard had a tawny orange coat with coalescing rosettes and spots, but white belly with normal black spots (like a black-and-tan dog).
A 1910 description of a pseudo-melanistic leopard:
Another pseudo-melanistic leopard skin was described in 1915 by Holdridge Ozro Collins who had purchased it in 1912. It had been killed in Malabar, India that same year.
In May 1936, the
British Natural History Museumexhibited the mounted skin of an unusual Somali leopard. The pelt was richly decorated with an intricate pattern of swirling stripes, blotches, curls and fine-line traceries. This is different from a spotted leopard, but similar to a king cheetahhence the modern cryptozoologyterm king leopard. Between 1885 and 1934, six pseudo-melanistic leopards were recorded in the Albany and Grahamstown districts of South Africa. This indicated a mutation in the local leopard population. Other king leopards have been recorded from Malabar in southwestern India. Shooting for trophies may have wiped out these populations.
A pumapard is a hybrid animal resulting from a union between a leopard and a
puma. Three sets of these hybrids were bred in the late 1890s and early 1900s by Carl Hagenbeckat his animal park in Hamburg, Germany. Most did not reach adulthood. One of these was purchased in 1898 by BerlinZoo. A similar hybrid in Berlin Zoo purchased from Hagenbeck was a cross between a male leopard and a female puma. Hamburg Zoo's specimen was the reverse pairing, the one in the black and white photo, fathered by a puma bred to an Indian leopardess.cite web|url=http://media.www.thestrand.ca/media/storage/paper404/news/2005/03/17/Features/Le.Pumapard-891758.shtml|title=Le Pumapard|author=Jen Stevenson|publisher=The Strand|accessdate=16 June|accessyear=2008] Whether born to a female puma mated to a male leopard, or to a male puma mated to a female leopard, pumapards inherit a form of dwarfism. Those reported grew to only half the size of the parents. They have a puma-like long body (proportional to the limbs, but nevertheless shorter than either parent), but short legs. The coat is variously described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, chestnut or "faded" rosettes.
Leopards and humans
Leopards have been known to humans since antiquity and have featured in the art, mythology and folklore of many countries where they have historically occurred, such as
ancient Greece, Persiaand Rome, as well as some where they have not existed since for several millenniums, such as in England. The modern use of the leopard as an emblem for sport or a coat of arms is much more restricted to Africa, though numerous products worldwide have used the name.
Leopards and humans have many relations, involving
tourism, heraldryand modern culture. Leopard domestication has also been recorded - several leopards were kept in a menagerie established by King John at the Tower of Londonin the 13th century; in around 1235 three of these animals were given to Henry III by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. [cite web | last = Owen | first = James | title = Medieval Lion Skulls Reveal Secrets of Tower of London "Zoo" | work = National Geographic Magazine | publisher = National Geographic | date = November 3, 2005 | url = http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1103_051103_tower_lions.html | accessdate = 2007-09-05]
Despite its size, this largely
nocturnaland arboreal predatoris difficult to see in the wild. The best location to see leopards in Africa is in the Sabi Sand Private Game Reserve in South Africa, where leopards are habituated to safarivehicles and are seen on a daily basis at very close range. In Asia, one can see leopards at Yala National Parkin Sri Lanka, which has one of the world's highest densities of wild leopards, but even here sightings are by no means guaranteed because more than half the park is closed to the public, allowing the animals to thrive. Another good destination for leopard watching is the recently reopened Wilpattu National Park, also in Sri Lanka. In Indialeopards are found all over the country and this wide distribution leads to maximum man-animal conflict. Among the best places to observe leopards in India are national parks in Madhya Pradeshand Uttarakhand.
The lion passant guardant or "leopard" is a frequently used charge in
heraldry, most commonly appearing in groups of three. [cite book|title=The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature|last=Strickland|first=Debra Higgs|coauthors=Debra Hassig|publisher=Taylor & Francis|year=1999|isbn=0815329520] The heraldric leopard lacks spots and sports a mane, making it visually almost identical to the heraldric lion, and the two are often used interchangeably. These traditional lion passant guardants appear in the coat of arms of Englandand many of its former colonies; more modern naturalistic (leopard-like) depictions appear on the coat of arms of several African nations including Benin, Malawi, Somalia, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon which uses a black panther. [cite book|title=The International Flag Book in Color|last=Pedersen|first=Christian Fagd|publisher=Morrow|year=1971]
Despite being predators of man's hominid ancestors, [ [http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/LifeScience/PhysicalAnthropology/HumanGeneticEvolution/EarlyHominids/EarlyHominids.htm Discovery of Early Hominids] ] most leopards will tend to avoid humans. Still, people are occasionally targeted as prey. Most healthy leopards prefer wild prey to humans, but cats who are injured, sickly or struggling with a shortage of regular prey often turn to hunting people and may become habituated to it. In the most extreme cases, both in India, a leopard dubbed "the
Leopard of Rudraprayag" is claimed to have killed over 125 people and the infamous leopard called " Panar Leopard" killed over 400 after being injured by a poacher and thus being made unable to hunt normal prey. [cite book|title=Man the Hunted: Primates, Predators, and Human Evolution|last=Hart|first=Donna|coauthors=Robert W. Sussman|publisher=Westview Press|year=2005|isbn=0813339367] [Tougias, p.147] The "Leopard of Rudraprayag" and the "Panar Leopard" were both killed by the famed hunter Jim Corbett. [cite book|title=Death in the Long Grass|last=Capstick|first=Peter Hathaway|publisher=St. Martin's Press|year=1978|isbn=0312186134] Man-eating leopards are considered bold by feline standards and commonly enter human settlements for prey, more so than their lion and tiger counterparts. [The Spotted Devil of Gummalapur, "Nine Man-Eaters and one Rogue", Kenneth Anderson, Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1954] Kenneth Anderson, who had first hand experience with many man-eating leopards, described them as far more threatening than tigers:
Because they can subsist on small prey and are less dependent on large prey, leopards are less likely to turn to man-eating than either lions or tigers. However, leopards might be attracted to human settlements by
livestockor pets, especially domestic dogs, and they may resort to the eating of humans should conditions demand it, and no other food is available. [cite web|url=http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:PsxflauUcl0J:3w.terrasco.net/files/Nature/Felidae/Panthera/Panthera_pardus.pdf+panthera+pardus+man-eating&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=au&client=firefox-a|title=Panthera pardus: The Leopard|accessdate=8 June|accessyear=2008|author=Markus Fumagalli]
* Allsen, Thomas T. (2006). "Natural History and Cultural History: The Circulation of Hunting Leopards in Eurasia, Seventh-Seventeenth Centuries." In: "Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World". Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. Pp. 116-135. ISBN-13: ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4; ISBN-10: ISBN 0-8248-2884-4
* Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2005). [http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Arabischer_Leopard.html The Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr)] . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 42, June 2005. pp. 1-8. (in German).
* Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). [http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Chinese_Leopard.html The Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) in Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany] . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 60, December 2006. pp. 1-10.
*cite book |last=Schaller |first=George B. |year=1972 |title= The Serengeti Lion|publisher= University of Chicago Press|location=Chicago |isbn=0-226-73639-3
* Leopards and spots on ears and tail [http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/t-leopard.html]
* DeRuiter, D.J. and Berger, L.R. (2000) Leopards as Taphonomic Agents in dolomitic Caves - Implications for bone Accumulations in the Hominid-bearing Deposits of South Africa. J. Arch. Sci. 27, 665-684.
* [http://www.theanimalfiles.com/mammals/carnivores/leopard.html Pictures and Information on Leopards]
* [http://leopards.wild-cat.org/ Leopards at wild-cat.org]
* [http://www.landmarkfoundation.org.za/leopard.htm South African Leopard and Predator Conservation]
* [http://www.awf.org/wildlives/147 Leopard: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation]
* [http://about-south-africa.com/html/leopard.html African leopard]
* [http://www.nature.org/animals/mammals/animals/leopard.html The Nature Conservatory's Species Profile: Leopard]
* [http://www.persianleopardcs.org/ Persian Leopard Conservation Society]
* [http://www.arkive.org/species/GES/mammals/Panthera_pardus_nimr/ Images and movies of the South Arabian leopard "(Panthera pardus nimr)"] from ARKive
* [http://www.arkive.org/species/GES/mammals/Panthera_pardus_kotiya/ Images and movies of the Sri Lankan leopard "(Panthera pardus kotiya)"] from ARKive
* [http://www.bigcatcare.org Center for Animal Research and Education] Providing Sanctuary for over 50 big cats
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