Table of keyboard shortcuts


Table of keyboard shortcuts

In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a sequence or combination of keystrokes on a computer keyboard which invokes commands in software.

Some keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously. Keyboard shortcuts may depend on the keyboard layout (localisation).

Contents

Comparison of keyboard shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts are a common aspect of most modern operating systems and associated software applications. Their use is pervasive enough that some users consider them an essential element of their routine interactions with a computer. Whether used as a matter of personal preference or for Adaptive technology, the pervasiveness of common conventions enables the comparison of keyboard shortcuts across different systems. The following sections detail some of these comparisons in widely used operating systems.

General shortcuts

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs
Activate current application's Menu bar Alt With full keyboard access active:[1][2]

Ctrl+F2 (or Fn+Ctrl+F2 on some keyboards)

Meta+`
File menu Alt+F Ctrl+F2, then F Alt+F Meta+`, then f
Edit menu Alt+E Ctrl+F2, then E Alt+E Meta+`, then e
View menu Alt+V Ctrl+F2, then V Alt+V
Undo the last operation Ctrl+Z Cmd+Z Ctrl+Z Ctrl+x, then u
or Ctrl+/
or Ctrl+_
or Undo
Redo the last operation Ctrl+Y Shift+ Cmd+Z Shift+Ctrl+Z Same as undo, when undo is exhausted, it redoes. Move the cursor after one or more undos, and further undos will be redos.
Cut the selected area and store it in the clipboard Ctrl+X or Shift+Del Cmd+X Ctrl+X Ctrl+w
Copy the selected area into the clipboard Ctrl+C, or Ctrl+Ins Cmd+C Ctrl+C Meta+w, or Ctrl+Ins
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Ctrl+V, or Shift+Ins Cmd+V Ctrl+V Ctrl+y, or Shift+Ins, or
Paste special Ctrl+Alt+V Ctrl+ Shift+V Meta+y
Select everything in focused control or window Ctrl+A Cmd+A Ctrl+A Ctrl+x, then h
Toggle among installed keyboard languages Shift+Alt Cmd+Space

Configure desired keypress in Keyboard and Mouse Preferences, Keyboard Shortcuts, Select the next source in Input menu.[3]

Ctrl+Alt+K via KDE Keyboard Layout Switcher keybinding component for KDE Ctrl+\

Navigation

Action Windows
Run new application Win, enter executable name or
Win+R, enter executable name
Open new browser window with same page as current Alt+( D then Enter )
Make new folder Ctrl+ Shift+( N
Applications menu Win or
Ctrl+Esc
Lock desktop Win+L
Show desktop Win+D or
Win+M (then use Win+ Shift+M to bring back all windows)
Switch active user Win+L[4]
Task manager Ctrl+ Shift+Esc, Ctrl+Alt+Delete[5]
Rename object F2
Open file or program Enter
Switch to next/previous focused window Alt+Tab /

Shift+Alt+Tab

Switch focus to the next/previous window (without dialog) Alt+Esc /

Shift+Alt+Esc

Open the Run dialog box Win+R
Open the Search dialog box Win, enter executable name or
Win+F
Change input orientation of "Search programs and files" field in Start Menu Ctrl+L (left) Ctrl+R (right) Ctrl+E (center)

Power management

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Place computer into sleep/standby mode Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Power Options dialog) Opt+ Cmd+Eject[2] Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable)
Shutdown computer Ctrl+ Opt+ Cmd+Eject

(no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageDown

(KDE; no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Restart computer Ctrl+ Cmd+Eject[2]

(no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageUp

(KDE; no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Place display in sleep mode Ctrl+ Shift+Eject
Bring up power/sleep dialog box Alt+F4 (while on Desktop only) Ctrl+Eject

Screenshots

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Save screenshot of entire screen as file Shift+ Cmd+3 Print Screen
Copy screenshot of entire screen to clipboard Print Screen or Ctrl+Print Screen Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+3
Save screenshot of window as file Shift+ Cmd+4 then Space Alt+Print Screen (GNOME)
Copy screenshot of window to clipboard Alt+Print Screen Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4 then Space
Copy screenshot of arbitrary area to clipboard Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4
Save screenshot of arbitrary area as file Shift+ Cmd+4

Text editing

Many of these commands may be combined with Shift to select a region of text.[6]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs
Delete char to the right of cursor Del Del or Fn+← Backspace Del Del, or Ctrl+d
Delete word to the right of cursor Ctrl+Del Opt+Del or
Opt+ Fn+← Backspace
Ctrl+Del Meta+d
Delete word to the left of cursor Ctrl+← Backspace Opt+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace, or Meta+← Backspace
Go to start of line Home Cmd+ or Ctrl+A Home Ctrl+a, or Home
Go to end of line End Cmd+ or Ctrl+E End Ctrl+e, or End
Go to start of document Ctrl + Home Cmd+ Ctrl + Home Meta+<, or Ctrl+Home
Go to end of document Ctrl + End Cmd+ Ctrl + End Meta+>, or Ctrl+End
Go to previous word Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ Meta+b, or Ctrl+, or Meta+
Go to next word Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ Meta+f, or Ctrl+, or Meta+
Go to previous line Ctrl+p, or
Go to next line Ctrl+n, or
Go to previous line break (paragraph) Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME) Meta+'{', or Control+
Go to next line break Ctrl+ Opt+ Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME) Meta+'}', or Control+
Go to find Ctrl+F Cmd+F

Cmd+E (Search with current selection)

Ctrl+F

Ctrl+K (GNOME; interactive search)

Ctrl+s
Go to next search result F3 Cmd+G Ctrl+G (GNOME) Ctrl+s
Go to previous search result Shift+F3 Shift+ Cmd+G Shift+Ctrl+G (GNOME) Ctrl+r
Search and replace Ctrl+H Cmd+F Ctrl+H (GNOME) Meta+%
Search a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+s
Search and replace a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+%,

Text formatting

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs
Make selected text bold/regular Ctrl+B Cmd+B Ctrl+B
Toggle underlining of selected text Ctrl+U Cmd+U Ctrl+U
Make selected text italic/regular Ctrl+I Cmd+I Ctrl+I
Change to upper/lower case Shift+F3 (Office products only?) Opt+ Cmd+C Meta+u for upper,

Meta+l for lower, Meta+c for capitalized.

Make selected text superscript Ctrl+ Shift++ Ctrl+ Cmd++ (Pages only?)
Make selected text subscript Ctrl++ Ctrl+ Cmd+- (Pages only?)

Browsers / Go menu

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Go to Browser Alt+D or Alt+C

according language

Cmd+L
Go to the previous location in history Alt+ or ← Backspace Cmd+[ or Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the next location in history Alt+ or Shift+← Backspace (web browser only) Cmd+] or Cmd+ Alt+
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchy Alt+(Vista and 7 only) or ← Backspace(Windows Explorer) Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the starting page defined by the user or application Alt+Home Cmd+Home Ctrl+Home (KDE) /

Alt+Home (GNOME)

Web browsers

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs-w3m
Bookmarks menu Ctrl+B Cmd+B (Firefox) Alt+B v
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .com) Ctrl+ Enter Cmd+ Enter (Firefox) or

Control+ Enter (Chrome)

Ctrl+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .org) Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter Shift+ Cmd+ Enter (Firefox) Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .net) Shift + Enter Shift + Enter (Firefox) Shift + Enter
Add bookmark for current page Ctrl+D Cmd+D Ctrl+B /

Ctrl+D

a
Add bookmark for current link Meta+a
Manage bookmarks Ctrl+B Cmd+ Opt+B (Chrome/Safari) or

Cmd+ Shift+B (Firefox)

Ctrl+ Shift+R /

Ctrl+B

Web search Ctrl+E Cmd+E (Opera) or

Cmd+K (Firefox) or
Opt+ Cmd+F (Safari)

Focus and select address bar Ctrl+L or F6 or Alt+D Cmd+L Ctrl+L or F6 g
Refresh a webpage F5 or Ctrl+R Cmd+R F5 or Ctrl+R R
Open a new window Ctrl+N Cmd+N (Chrome) Ctrl+N
Zoom Options (zoom in +, zoom out -, zoom 100%) Ctrl++ and Ctrl+- and Ctrl+0 Cmd++ and Cmd+- and Cmd+0 Ctrl++ and Ctrl+- and Ctrl+0

Tab management

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs-w3m
Create a new tab Ctrl+T Cmd+T Ctrl+ Shift+N or Ctrl+ Shift+T or Ctrl+T Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+t
Close current tab Ctrl+W Cmd+W Ctrl+W or Ctrl+ Shift+W[verification needed] or Ctrl+F4 (GNOME?) Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+w
Close all tabs but the current one Ctrl+c, then Meta+w
Go to next tab Ctrl+Tab Cmd+} or Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari) Ctrl+PageDown or Ctrl+Tab or Ctrl+. Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+n
Go to previous tab Ctrl+ Shift+Tab Cmd+{ or Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari) Ctrl+PageUp or Ctrl+ Shift+Tab or Ctrl+, Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+p
Open a previously closed tab Ctrl+ Shift+T Cmd+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome)

Window management

Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME Emacs
Pop up window menu Alt+Space Alt+F3 Alt+Space Ctrl+`, then b
Close the focused window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 or Ctrl + W or Alt+Space then C[7] Cmd+W Alt+F4 Alt+F4 Ctrl+x, then k
Restore the focused window to its previous size Alt+Space then R[7] Alt+F5 Ctrl+x, then r, then j, then letter of the window state register.
Move the focused window Alt+Space then M[7] then Arrow Keys Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F3 then M then Arrow Keys

Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F7 then Arrow Keys

Resize the focused window Alt+Space then S[7] then Arrow Keys Alt+F3 then S then Arrow Keys Alt+F8 then Arrow Keys Ctrl+x, then ^ vertically
Hide the focused window Cmd+H Meta+x, then bury-buffer RET, then Ret
Minimize the focused window Alt+Space then N[7], or Win+ (Windows 7 and Vista Home Premium) Cmd+M Alt+F3 then N Alt+F9 Meta+x, then bury-buffer RET, then Ret
Maximize the focused window Alt+Space then X[7], or Win+ (Windows 7 only) Alt+F3 then X Alt+F10 Ctrl+x, then 1
Maximize horizontally Available, but no default Available, but no default
Maximize vertically Win+ Shift+ (Windows 7 only) Available, but no default Available, but no default
Minimize all Win+M or Win+D Cmd+Alt+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Minimize all non focused windows Win+Home (Windows 7 only) Available, but no default
Undo minimize all Shift+ Win+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Switch fullscreen/normal size F11 F11 F11
Show the window in full screen mode, with no border, menubar, toolbar or statusbar Depends on application Ctrl+ Shift+F Ctrl+F11
Rollup/down window Available, but no default Alt+F12
Show all open windows F9 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[8][9]

Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all windows of current application F10 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[8][9]

Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all workspaces F8 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[8][9]

Move window to left/right/up/down workspace Win+/ (Windows 7 only) Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+

/ / /

Move window to workspace n Available, but no default
Switch to next/previous workspace list 'Available, but no default
Go to workspace n Ctrl+n Ctrl+Fn
Go to left/right/up/down workspace [10] Ctrl+ /

Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.5 or later)

Ctrl+Alt+ /

/ /

Show / hide desktop Win+D F11 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[8][9]

Ctrl+Alt+D Ctrl+Alt+D user specific, no default
Activate window demanding attention
Quit application of current window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies[11] Cmd+Q[12] Ctrl+Alt+Esc q
Close dialog Esc Esc
Open/Focus (preview) pinned program on the taskbar Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows 7 Taskbar (Windows 7 only)
Open new program window of pinned program in Quick Launch Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Quick Launch toolbar (Windows Vista and 7)
Open new program window of the pinned program on the taskbar (if program is already opened) Win+ Shift+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows 7 Taskbar (Windows 7 only)
Focus the first taskbar entry. Pressing again will cycle through them Win+T , you can back and forth. Hold Shift to cycle backwards (Windows 7 only)
Peek at the desktop Win+Space (Windows 7 only) F11 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[8][9]

Bring gadgets to the front of the Z-order and cycle between gadgets Win+G (Windows Vista,7) or Win+Space (Vista only, no cycling)
External display options (mirror, extend desktop, etc.) Win+P (Windows 7 only)

User interface navigation (widgets and controls)

Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME
Moves keyboard focus to next/previous control Tab / Shift+Tab Tab / Shift+Tab Tab / Shift+Tab Tab / Shift+Tab

Ctrl+Tab / Shift+Ctrl+Tab

Pop up tooltip for currently focused control Shift+F1 Ctrl+F1
Show context-sensitive help for currently focused window or control Shift+F1 Cmd+? Shift+F1 Shift+F1
Give focus to next/previous pane Ctrl+F6 / Alt+F6 Cmd+` F6 / Shift+F6
Give focus to splitter bar in paned window F8
Give focus to window's menu bar F10 or Alt Ctrl+F2

(or Fn+Ctrl+F2 on some keyboards)

Alt F10
Pop up contextual menu for currently selected objects (aka context menu) Shift+F10 or Menu Varies with laptop / extended keyboard type; enable Mouse keys in Universal Access, then Function+Ctrl+5 or Ctrl+5 (numeric keypad) or Function+Ctrl+i (laptop) Menu Shift+F10
Toggle selected state of focused checkbox, radio button, or toggle button Space Space Space Space
Activate focused button, menu item etc. Enter Space (also Enter for menu items) Enter Enter
Select/move to first/last item in selected widget Home / End Home / End
Scroll selected view by one page up/left/down/right /

(or Fn+}+Fn+ on some keyboards)

PageUp / Ctrl+PageUp /
PageDown / Ctrl+PageDown
Scroll selected view to top/bottom or on MacBook Pro Fn + Opt +

or on MacBook Pro Fn + Opt +

Switch focus to the next/previous tab within a window Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+Tab /

Cmd+`

Switch focus to the next/previous panel on the desktop Ctrl+Alt+Tab / Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Tab
Switch focus to the next/previous panel (without dialog) Ctrl+Alt+Esc /

Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Esc

Command line shortcuts

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used in a command line environment.

Action Microsoft Windows
(cmd.exe)
Microsoft Windows
(Windows PowerShell)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(bash)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(POSIX shell)
Scroll through History of typed commands / / / or Ctrl+P/Ctrl+N ESC K/ESC J
Signal end-of-file Ctrl+Z Ctrl+D
Abort current command/typing Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C
Erase word to the left Ctrl+W
Erase word to the right Alt+D
Erase line to the left Ctrl+Home Ctrl+U
Erase line to the right Ctrl+End Ctrl+End Ctrl+K
Yank/paste previously erased string Ctrl+Y
Move one word to the left (backward) Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Alt+B
Move one word to the right (forward) Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Alt+F
Move to beginning of line Home Home Ctrl+A
Move to end of line End End Ctrl+E
Reverse search of history F7 F8 Ctrl+R
Stop execution of the current job Ctrl+Z
Insert the next character typed verbatim Ctrl+V
Autocomplete command/file name Tab (enabled by default in Windows XP and later) Tab Tab (usually once) Esc (usually twice)
Scroll window up Shift+PageUp (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) Shift+PageUp
Scroll window down Shift+PageDown (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) Shift+PageDown

Accessibility

In Windows, it is possible to disable these shortcuts using the Accessibility or Ease of Access control panel.

Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME
Utility Manager Win+U
Use keyboard to control cursor (Left Alt+Left Shift+Numlock
Allow user to press shortcuts one key at a time ( Shift 5 times)
Hear beep when -lock key pressed (Numlock for 5 seconds)
Stop/slow repeating characters when key is pressed (Right Shift for 8 seconds)
Inverse (Reverse Colors) Mode Left Alt+Left Shift+PrtScn Cmd+ Opt+Ctrl+8

User interface shortcuts

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used to select a User interface (UI).

Action Microsoft Windows Linux
X11
OS X
CLI Ctrl+Alt+F1 to Ctrl+Alt+F6
GUI Usually Ctrl+Alt+F7 or Ctrl+Alt+F8
GPU enhanced GUI

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Mac OS X: How to use the keyboard to perform actions". Article: HT2840. Apple Inc.. 2008-08-19. http://support.apple.com/kb/HT2840. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  2. ^ a b c "Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts". Article: HT1343. Apple Inc.. 2010-10-29. http://support.apple.com/kb/ht1343. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  3. ^ "Mac 101: Set your preferences". Article: HT2490. Apple Inc.. 2010-10-22. http://support.apple.com/kb/HT2490#l4. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  4. ^ Takes you to the "Switch User" screen when Fast User Switching has been enabled (enabled by default in XP).
  5. ^ Shows task manager in Windows XP if the welcome screen is enabled. Otherwise displays an NT-style menu, with the option of launching the task manager; likewise for Vista.
  6. ^ For the concept of "selected text" see also X Window selection
  7. ^ a b c d e f In Microsoft Windows, all shortcuts with Alt+Space followed by another key are language dependant. The Alt+Space combination opens the window menu, and the following key selects from the menu. As the menu labels (and their underlined hotkeys) vary with the Windows system language, the hotkeys are different for international versions of Microsoft Windows, and may change if users change their Windows system language preference. The given examples are valid for English user preferences/version of Windows.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Mac OS X 10.6 Help: Using a screen saver". Docs.info.apple.com. http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?path=Mac/10.6/en/9045.html. Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Mac OS X 10.4 Help: Setting a hot corner for Dashboard". Docs.info.apple.com. http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?path=Mac/10.4/en/mh2194.html. Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  10. ^ The WinSplit window manager application for Windows knows to emulate this behaviour.
  11. ^ There is no single consistent shortcut for closing a document or quitting an application in Windows XP. In many multiple document interface applications, Ctrl+W or Ctrl+F4 closes a document and Alt+F4 quits. In other applications where each document is in its own window, such as later versions of Microsoft Word, Ctrl+W, Ctrl+F4, and Alt+F4 close a document, and there is no consistent shortcut for quitting an application.
  12. ^ Mac OS uses Cmd+W Close (window), Cmd+Q Quit (application) and Cmd+ Opt+Esc Force Quit (application). Quit is closest to Kill.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Keyboard shortcut — For Wikipedia keyboard shortcuts, see Wikipedia:Keyboard shortcuts. For a list of keyboard shortcuts, see Table of keyboard shortcuts. Firefox 3.0 menu with shortcuts highlighted with green and mnemonics highlighted with yellow. In computing, a… …   Wikipedia

  • Keyboard (computing) — In computing, a keyboard is an input device partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons, or keys which act as electronic switches. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Computer keyboard — A key being pressed on a computer keyboard. In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper… …   Wikipedia

  • Accelerator table — An accelerator table in a computer software application allows the application to specify a table of keyboard shortcuts for menus or other commands. For example, CTRL+S is often used as a shortcut to the FILE SAVE menu item in the FILE menu,… …   Wikipedia

  • Dvorak Simplified Keyboard — The modern Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (US layout) Typing a text excerpt at 115 WPM with the Canadian French Dvorak keyboard layout. The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard is a k …   Wikipedia

  • Control-Alt-Delete — This article is about the keyboard combination. For a list of keyboard shortcuts, see Table of keyboard shortcuts. For other uses, see Control Alt Delete (disambiguation). The keys Control Alt Delete highlighted on a QWERTY keyboard. Control Alt… …   Wikipedia

  • Alt key — For a list of keyboard shortcuts see Table of keyboard shortcuts The Alt key on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys. Thus, the Alt key is a modifier key, used in a similar fashion to the Shift key …   Wikipedia

  • IBM Common User Access — Common User Access (CUA) is a standard for user interfaces to operating systems and computer programs. It was developed by IBM and first published in 1987 as part of their Systems Application Architecture. Used originally in the OS/MVS, VM/CMS,… …   Wikipedia

  • Modifier key — In computing, a modifier key is a special key on a computer keyboard that modifies the normal action of another key when the two are pressed in combination. For example, Alt+F4 in …   Wikipedia

  • Alt-Tab — is the common name for a keyboard shortcut on Microsoft Windows 3.1 onwards used for switching between top level windows without using the mouse; hence it was named Task Switcher ( Flip in Windows Vista). Casual users may press keypress|Alt… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.