Bitumen


Bitumen

Bitumen is a mixture of organic liquids that are highly viscous, black, sticky, entirely soluble in carbon disulfide, and composed primarily of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Naturally occurring or crude bitumen is a sticky, tar-like form of petroleum which is so thick and heavy that it must be heated or diluted before it will flow. At room temperature, it is much like cold molasses. [cite web
title = Oil Sands - Glossary
work = Oil Sands Royalty Guidelines
publisher = Government of Alberta
date = 2008
url = http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/1106.asp
accessdate = 2008-02-02
] Refined bitumen is the residual (bottom) fraction obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil. It is the heaviest fraction and the one with the highest boiling point, boiling at convert|525|C|F.

In British English, the word 'asphalt' refers to a mixture of mineral aggregate and bitumen (or tarmac in common parlance). The word 'tar' refers to the black viscous material obtained from the destructive distillation of coal and is chemically distinct from bitumen. In American English, bitumen is referred to as 'asphalt' or 'asphalt cement' in engineering jargon. In Australian English, bitumen is sometimes used as the generic term for road surfaces. In Canadian English, the word bitumen is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of extremely heavy crude oil,cite web
title = What is Oil Sands
publisher = Alberta Energy
date = 2007
url = http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/793.asp
accessdate = 2008-01-10
] while asphalt is used for the oil refinery product used to pave roads and manufacture roof shingles.Diluted bitumen (diluted with naphtha to make it flow in pipelines) is known as dilbit in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen upgraded to synthetic crude oil is known as syncrude and syncrude blended with bitumen as "synbit". cite web
title = 2007 Canadian Crude Oil Forecast and Market Outlook
publisher = Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
date = June 2007
url = http://www.capp.ca/default.asp?V_DOC_ID=1220
accessdate = 2008-05-30
]

Most bitumens contain sulfur and several heavy metals such as nickel, vanadium, lead, chromium, mercury and also arsenic, selenium, and other toxic elements. Bitumens can provide good preservation of plants and animal fossils.

Uses

and for sealing flat roofs.

Naturally occurring crude bitumen is the prime feed stock for petroleum production from tar sands currently under development in Alberta, Canada. Canada has most of the world's supply of natural bitumen, covering 140,000 square kilometrescite web
title = What is Oil Sands
publisher = Alberta Energy
date = 2007
url = http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/793.asp
accessdate = 2008-01-10
] (an area larger than England), giving it the second largest proven oil reserves in the world. The Athabasca oil sands is the largest bitumen deposit in Canada and the only one accessible to surface mining, although recent technological breakthroughs have resulted in deeper deposits becoming producible by in-situ methods. Because of oil price increases since 2003, upgrading bitumen to synthetic crude oil has become highly profitable. As of 2006 Canadian crude bitumen production averaged about convert|1.1|Moilbbl|m3 per day and was projected to rise to convert|4.4|Moilbbl|m3 per day by 2020. The total amount of crude bitumen in Alberta which could be extracted is estimated to be about convert|310|Goilbbl|e9m3|sigfig=1, [ cite web
title = ST98-2007: Alberta’s Energy Reserves 2006 and Supply/Demand Outlook
publisher = Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board
date = 2007
url = http://www.ercb.ca/docs/products/STs/st98-2007.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-30
] which at a rate of 4.4 million barrels per day would last about 200 years.

In the past, bitumen was used to waterproof boats, and even as a coating for buildings with some additives. The Greek historian Herodotus said hot bitumen was used as mortar in the walls of Babylon. [ Herodotus, Book I, 179 ] It is also possible that the city of Carthage was easily burnt due to extensive use of bitumen in construction.

Vessels for the heating of bitumen or bituminous compounds are usually subject to specific conditions in public liability insurance policies, similar to those required for blow torches, welders, and flame-cutting equipment. [cite web
title = NIG Liability Insurance Proposal & Prospectus
publisher = Primo Plc Insurance Brokers
date = 2008
url = http://www.primoplc.com/assets/pdfs/liability.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-05-30
]

Bitumen was also used in early photographic technology. It was most notably used by French scientist Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in the first picture ever taken. The bitumen used in his experiments were smeared on pewter plates and then exposed to light, thus making a black and white image.

Thin bitumen plates are sometimes used by computer enthusiasts for silencing computer cases or noisy computer parts such as the hard drive. Bitumen layers are baked onto the outside of high end dishwashers to provide sound insulation.

Bitumen alternatives

The world has become increasingly concerned over the global climate change thought to be caused by greenhouse gases, chief among them anthropogenic carbon dioxide which is released into the atmosphere from burning carbon fuels. This has led to the introduction of bitumen alternatives that are more environmentally friendly and non toxic. Bitumen can now be made from non-petroleum based renewable resources such as sugar, molasses and rice, corn and potato starches. Bitumen can also be made from waste material by fractional distillation of used motor oils, which is sometimes disposed by burning or dumping into land fills. Non-petroleum based bitumen binders can be made light-colored. Roads made with lighter-colored pitch absorb less heat from solar radiation, and become less hot than darker surfaces, reducing their contribution to the urban heat island effect. [http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/ EPA]

Geologic origin

Naturally occurring deposits of bitumen are formed from the remains of ancient, microscopic algae and other once-living things. These organisms died and their remains were deposited in the mud on the bottom of the ocean or lake where they lived. Under the heat and pressure of burial deep in the earth, the remains were transformed into materials such as bitumen, kerogen, or petroleum.As bitumens are also found in meteorites and Archean rocks it is possible that some bitumens are primordial material formed during accretion of the Earth and reworked by bacteria that consume hydrocarbons. Bitumens are associated with lead-zinc mineralizations in Mississippi Valley type deposits.

Notes

ee also

*Asphalt#Alternatives
* Asphaltene
* Bitumen-based fuel
* Bituminous coal
* Bituminous rocks
* Oil sands
* Pitch (resin)

External links

* [http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=469&ArticleID=5132&I=en United Nations Environment Program]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • bitumen — BITÚMEN s.n. Material bogat în hidrocarburi, provenit din transformarea în condiţii naturale a cerii şi a răşinii de origine vegetală. – Din germ. Bitumen, lat. bitumen. Trimis de paula, 21.06.2002. Sursa: DEX 98  BITUMENE GAZOÁSE s. pl. v. gaze …   Dicționar Român

  • BITUMEN — sulpuri naturâ vicinum, alibi limus, verba sune Plinii l. 35. c. 15. alibt terra; limus e Iudaeae lacu emergens: terra in Syria, circa Sidonem oppidum maritimum, Spissantur baec utraque et in densitatem coeunt. Est vero liquidum bitumen, sicut… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • bitumen — (del lat. «bitūmen, ĭnis»; ant.) m. Betún. * * * bitumen. (Del lat. bitūmen, ĭnis, betún, voz de or. celta). m. desus. betún (ǁ nombre de varias sustancias compuestas principalmente de carbono e hidrógeno). * * * Mezcla de hidrocarburos similares …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bitumen — Sn Erdpech per. Wortschatz fach. (16. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus l. bitūmen Erdharz .    Ebenso nndl. bitumen, ne. bitumen, nfrz. bitume, nschw. bitumen. Das lateinische Wort gehört wohl zu dem Wort für Harz , das in Kitt erhalten ist, hat… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • BITUMEN — (Heb. חֵמָר, hemar and כֹּפֶר, kofer; LXX), a black, flammable substance which becomes viscous and absorbent on heating. It occurs in almost every part of the world, including Mesopotamia, Iran, and Israel, and is found in various natural forms:… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Bitumen — Bitumen. Unter B. begreift man die brennzlichen Erdharze u. Erd oder Steinöle, so das Bitumen asphaltum seu judaicum, Sodomae, schwarzes Erdpech, Judenpech, Meerpech, Asphalt, welches vorzüglich an Ufern des Todtenmeeres, auf der Insel Trinidad,… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • bitumen — mid 15c., from L. bitumen asphalt, probably, via Oscan or Umbrian, from Celtic *betu birch, birch resin (Cf. Gaulish betulla birch, used by Pliny for the tree supposedly the source of bitumen) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Bitumen — Bi*tu men, n. [L. bitumen: cf. F. bitume. Cf. {B[ e]ton}.] 1. Mineral pitch; a black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame; Jew s pitch. It occurs as an abundant natural product in many places, as on the shores of the Dead and Caspian… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bitūmen — (lat.), 1) (Min.), organisches, kohlenstoffreiches Mineral; es ist fest od. flüssig u. verbrennt mit stark rußender Flamme; man unterscheidet: a) Erdöl (Naphtha, Steinöl, Bergtheer Bergöl), flüssig, farblos bis schwärzlichbraun, von starkem… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • bitùmen — m 〈N bitùmeni〉 1. {{001f}}u užem smislu crn neisparljiv ostatak pri destilaciji nafte (asfaltni bitumen) i prirodni asfalt 2. {{001f}}〈mn〉 zajednički naziv za neke smjese organskih spojeva koje su nastale raspadanjem organskih praostataka,… …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika


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