Infobox City |official_name = Kano
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Map of Nigeria showing the location of Kano
imagesize = 240px
image_caption = Kano seen from Dala Hill
subdivision_type = State
population_as_of = 2007
population_note = estimated cite web | url = http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?men=gpro&des=gamelan&geo=367218852 | title = "The World Gazetteer" | accessdate = 2007-04-06]
population_total = 3,848,885
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +1
latd=12 |latm=00 |lats= |latNS=N
longd=8 |longm=31 |longs= |longEW=E
Kano is the administrative center of the
Kano Stateand the third largest cityin Nigeria, in terms of geographical size, after Ibadanand Lagos. In population, it is the second most populous city (with a population of 3,848,885) in the country after Lagos. The city's traditional ruler is the Emir of Kano, and the current Emir, Ado Bayero, has been on the throne since 1963.
Foundation and Hausa rule
In the seventh century,
Dalla Hill, a hill in Kano, was the site of a group of a community that engaged in iron-working; it is unknown whether these were Hausa peopleor speakers of Niger-Congo languages. [cite book |last=Iliffe |first= John |page=75 |title= Africans: The History of a Continent |year=2007 |publisher= Cambridge University Press|isbn= 0521864380] Kano was originally known as Dalla, after the hill, and was referred to as such as late as the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth by Bornoan sources. [cite book |last= Nast|first=Heidi J |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Concubines and Power: Five Hundred Years in a Northern Nigerian Palace |year=2005 |publisher= University of Minnesota Press |location= |isbn= 0816641544 |page=60] The Kano Chronicleidentifies Barbushe, a priest of a Dalla Hill spirit, as the city's first settler. (Elizabeth Isichei notes that the description of Barbushe is similar to those of Sao people.) [cite book |title= A History of African Societies to 1870|last=Isichei |first=Elizabeth |year=1997 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=234 |isbn=0521455995 |url= http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA234&lpg=PA234&source=web&sig=B-WHTczRAIvifGTdNCXtTBDlIO4&id=LgnhYDozENgC&ots=sFYM5i0daf ]
According to the Kano Chronicle,
Bagauda, a grandson of the mythical hero Bayajidda, [cite book |last=Okehie-Offoha |first= Marcellina |coauthors= Matthew N. O. Sadiku|title=Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Nigeria |year=1995 |month=December|publisher= Africa World Press|isbn= 978-0865432833|page=40] became the first king of Kano in 999, reigning until 1063.cite encyclopedia |year= |title =Kano |encyclopedia= Britannica Online|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc |url= http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9039547/Hausa ] (Small chiefdoms were previously present in the area.)cite book |last= Ki-Zerbo|first=Joseph |authorlink=Joseph Ki-Zerbo |coauthors= |title=UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. IV, Abridged Edition: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century |year=1998 |publisher= University of California Press|isbn=0520066995 |page=107 ] His grandson Gijimasu(1095-1134), the third king, began building city walls at the foot of Dalla Hill, and his own son, Tsaraki(1136-1194), the fifth king, completed them during his reign. Muhammad Rumfaascended to the throne in 1463 and reigned until 1499. During his reign, he reformed the city, expanded the Sahelian Gidan Rumfa(Emir's Palace), and played a role in the further Islamization of the city,cite web |url= http://www.nhm.org/africa/tour/desert/030.htm|title= Caravans Across the Desert: Marketplace|accessdate=2007-05-06 |work= AFRICA: One Continent. Many Worlds. |publisher=Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Foundation] as he urged prominent residents to convert.cite web |url= http://www.whenweruled.com/articles.php?lng=en&pg=25|title= 50 Greatest Africans - Sarki Muhammad Rumfa & Emperor Semamun|accessdate=2007-05-05 |work= When We Ruled|publisher=Every Generation Media] The Kano Chronicle attributes a total of twelve "innovations" to Rumfa. [Nast, p. 61]
According to the Kano Chronicle, the thirty-seventh Sarkin Kano (
King of Kano) was Mohammed Sharef(1703–1731). His successor, Kumbari dan Sharefa(1731–1743), engaged in major battles with Sokoto.
Fulani conquest and rule
At the beginning of the 19th century, Fulani Islamic leader
Usman dan Fodioled a jihadagainst Kano, removing its Hausa king and reforming the government and religious authority.cite web |title= Brief History of Kano 999 to 2003|url= http://www.kanostate.net/Support%20Files/Brief%20History%20of%20Kano%20999%20to%202003.htm|last=Ado-Kurawa |first=Ibrahim|accessdate=2007-07-12 |work=Kano State Website ] Since then the Fulani emirs have remained traditional leaders of Kano.cite news |title=Kano: Nigeria's ancient city-state |url= http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3708309.stm |work=BBC online |publisher= BBC|date=2004-05-20 |accessdate=2007-07-12 ]
The city suffered famines from 1807-10, in the 1830s, 1847, 1855, 1863, 1873, 1884, and from 1889 until 1890.cite web |url=http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/afoodsec.html |last=Milich|first=Lee |title= Food Security in Pre-Colonial Hausaland|accessdate=2007-10-26 |work= |publisher=
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences|date=1997-07-17]
From 1893 until 1895, two rival claimants for the throne fought a civil war, or "
Basasa". With the help of royal slaves, Yusufuwas victorious over Tukur, and claimed the title of emir. [cite journal |last= Stilwell |first= Sean |year= 2000 |title=Power, Honour and Shame: The Ideology of Royal Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate |journal=Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, |volume=70 |issue= 3|pages=394–421 |id= |url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0001-9720(2000)70%3A3%3C394%3APHASTI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6 |accessdate= 2007-10-26 |quote= |doi=10.2307/1161067|publisher= Edinburgh University Press]
British colonization and rule
British forces captured Kano in 1903 and made it the administrative centre of
Northern Nigeria. It was replaced as the centre of government by Kaduna, and only regained administrative significance with the creation of Kano State following Nigerian independence.
From 1913 to 1914, as the
groundnutbusiness was expanding, Kano suffered a major drought, which caused a famine. [cite journal |last=Christelow |first=Allan |year=1987 |title=Property and Theft in Kano at the Dawn of the Groundnut Boom, 1912-1914 |journal=The International Journal of African Historical Studies |volume=20 |issue=2 |pages=225–243 |id= |url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0361-7882(1987)20%3A2%3C225%3APATIKA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N |accessdate= 2007-10-26 |quote= |doi=10.2307/219841 |publisher= Boston UniversityAfrican Studies Center] Other famines during British rule occurred in 1908, 1920, 1927, 1943, 1951, 1956, and 1958.
By 1922, groundnut trader
Alhassan Dantatahad become the richest businessman in Kano, surpassing fellow merchants Umaru Sharubutu Kokiand Maikano Agogo.cite journal |last=Dan-Asabe |first=Abdulkarim Umar |year=2000 |month=November |title= Biography of Select Kano Merchants, 1853-1955|journal=FAIS Journal of Humanities |volume=1 |issue=2 |pages= |id= |url= http://www.kanostate.net/Support%20Files/Biography%20of%20Select%20Kano%20Merchants.htm |accessdate= 2007-10-09 |format= dead link|date=June 2008 – [http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3ADan-Asabe+intitle%3ABiography+of+Select+Kano+Merchants%2C+1853-1955&as_publication=FAIS+Journal+of+Humanities&as_ylo=2000&as_yhi=2000&btnG=Search Scholar search] ]
In May 1953, an inter-ethnic riot arose due to southern newspapers misreporting on the nature of a disagreement between northern and southern politicians in the House of Representatives. [cite book |last= Ernest E. |first= Uwazie |coauthors=Isaac Olawale Albert and G. N. Uzoigwe |title=Inter-Ethnic and Religious Conflict Resolution in Nigeria |chapter= The Role of Communication in the Escalation of Ethnic and Religious Conflicts |year=1999 |publisher= Lexington Books |isbn= 0739100335|page=20] Thousands of Nigerians of southern origin died as a result of the riot. [Uwazie et al., p. 73]
Ado Bayerobecame Emir of Kano in 1963.
In December 1980, radical preacher
Mohammed Marwa Maitatsineled riots in Kano. He was killed by security forces, but his followers later started uprisings in other northern cities. [cite book |last=Hunwick |first=John Owen |coauthors= Ibrahim Gambari(chapter author) |chapter=The Role of Religion in National Life: Reflections on Recent Experiences in Nigeria |title=Religion and National Integration in Africa: Islam, Christianity and Politics in the Sudan and Nigeria |year=1992 |publisher= Northwestern University Press|isbn=0810110377 |page=90]
After the introduction of sharia in Kano State in 2000, many Christians left the city.cite news |title=Nigeria's Kano state celebrates Sharia |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/798630.stm |work= |publisher=BBC News |date= 2000-06-21 |accessdate=2007-11-04 ] 100 people were killed in riots over the sharia issue during October 2001.
In November 2007, political violence broke out in the city after the People's Democratic Party (PDP) accused the
All Nigeria Peoples Party(ANPP) of rigging the November 17, 2007 local government elections. [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Army patrols Kano after clashes |url= http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7105790.stm |work=News.BBC.com |publisher= BBC News|date=2007-11-21|accessdate=2007-11-21 ] (The ANPP won in 36 of the state's 44 Local Government Areas.) [cite news |first=Hassan A |last=Karofi |authorlink= |coauthors=Halima Musa |title= ANPP Sweeps Kano LG Polls |url= http://dailytrust.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=5253&Itemid=45 |work=Daily Trust online |publisher= |date=2007-11-21 |accessdate=2007-11-21 ] Hundreds of youths took to the streets, over 300 of whom were arrested; at least 25 people were killed. Buildings set on fire include a sharia police station, an Islamic centre, and a council secretariat. 280 federal soldiers were deployed around the city. [cite news |first=Ibrahim |last=Shuaibu |title=Kano Death Toll Rises to 25 |url=http://www.thisdayonline.com/nview.php?id=95856 |work= Thisdayonline |publisher= Leaders & Company |date=2007-11-21 |accessdate=2007-11-21 ]
Kano is largely Muslim. The majority of Kano Muslims are
Sunni, though a minorty adhere to the Shiabranch (see Shia in Nigeria). Christians and followers of other non-Muslim religions form a small part of the population, and traditionally lived in the Sabon Gari, or Foreign Quarter. Christians alone comprise about 1% of the population.
Layout and geography
Kano is situated at coord|12|00|N|8|31|E|region:NG_type:city(3848885)|display=inline,title.cite web | url = http://www.fallingrain.com/world/NI/0/Kano.html | title = "The Fallingrain.com Gazetteer" | accessdate = 2007-04-06] It has long been the economic centre of northern Nigeria, and a centre for the production and export of
groundnuts. Kano houses the Bayero Universityand a railway stationwith trains to Lagos routed through Kaduna, while Mallam Aminu Kano International Airportlies nearby. Because Kano is north of the rail junction at Kaduna, it has equal access to the seaports at Lagos and Port Harcourt.
Formerly walled, most of the gates to the Old City survive. The Old City houses the vast
Kurmi Market, known for its crafts, while old dye pits – still in use – lie nearby. Also in the Old City are the Emir's Palace, the Great Mosque, and the Gidan Makama Mosque.Kano has six districts. They are the Old City, Bompai, Fagge, Sabon Gari, Syrian Quarter, and Nassarawa. [cite encyclopedia |year=2007 |title =Kano |encyclopedia= Encyclopædia Britannica|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc |location= Chicago]
As of November 2007, there are plans to establish an
information technologypark in the city. [cite news |title= Nigerian city of Kano plans IT park |url= http://www.afriquenligne.fr/news/daily-news/nigerian-city-of-kano-plans-it-park-2007110410666/ |work= Panapress|publisher=Afriquenligne |date=2007-11-04 |accessdate=2007-11-04 ]
The Emir of Kano hosts a "
Durbar" to mark and celebrate the two annual Muslim festivals and Eid-El-Fitr(to mark the end of the Holy Month of Ramadan) and Eid-el-Kabir(to mark the HajHoly Pilgrimage). The Durbar culminates in a procession of highly elaborately dressed horsemen who pass through the city to the Emir's palace. Once assembled near the palace, groups of horsemen, each group representing a nearby village, take it in turns to charge towards the Emir, pulling up just feet in front of the seated dignitaries to offer their respect and allegiance.
*cite book |title=Urban Growth and Land Degradation in Developing Cities: Change and Challenges in Kano, Nigeria |last=Maconachie |first=Roy |year=2007 |publisher=Ashgate Publishing |isbn=9780754648284 |series=King's SOAS Studies in Development Geography
* [http://www.kanoonline.com/ Kano Online]
* [http://africangrandfestivals.com/eiddurbar.html/ Durbar Information]
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