Red Pine


Red Pine

Taxobox
name = Red Pine
status = LR/lc | status_system = IUCN2.3



image_width = 240px
image_caption = Trees at Sherburne NWR, Minnesota
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Pinophyta
classis = Pinopsida
ordo = Pinales
familia = Pinaceae
genus = "Pinus"
subgenus = "Pinus"
species = "P. resinosa"
binomial = "Pinus resinosa"
binomial_authority = Sol. ex Aiton

The Red Pine ("Pinus resinosa") is a pine native to northeastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to southeast Manitoba, and south to northern Illinois and Pennsylvania, with a small outlying population in the Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia. In the Upper Midwest of the United States it is sometimes known by the confusing name Norway Pine even though it is not native to Norway.

It is an evergreen tree characterized by tall, straight growth in a variety of habitats. It usually ranges from 20-35 m in height and 1 m in trunk diameter, but can exceed that in optimal conditions, exceptionally reaching 43 m tall (Gymnosperm Database). The crown is conical in young trees, becoming a narrow rounded dome with age. The bark is thick and gray-brown at the base of the tree, but thin, flaky and bright orange-red in the upper crown; the tree's name derives from this distinctive character. Some red color may be seen in the fissures of the bark. Red Pine is self pruning; there tend not to be dead branches on the trees, and older trees may have very long lengths of branchless trunk below the canopy.

The leaves are needle-like, dark green, in fascicles of two, 12-18 cm long, and brittle. The leaves snap cleanly when bent; this character, stated as diagnostic for Red Pine in some texts, is however shared by several other pine species. The cones are symmetrical ovoid, 4-6 cm long, 2.5 cm broad and green before maturity, ripening nut-brown and opening to 4-5 cm broad, the scales without a prickle and almost stalkless.

The species is notable for its very constant morphology and low genetic variation throughout its range, suggesting it has been through a population bottleneck in its recent evolutionary history (Fowler & Morris 1977, Simon et al. 1986).

This species is intolerant of shade, but does well in windy sites; it grows best in well-drained soil. The wood is commercially valuable in forestry for timber and paper pulp, and the tree is also used for landscaping.

The Red Pine is the state tree of Minnesota.

References

*
* [http://www.conifers.org/pi/pin/resinosa.htm Gymnosperm Database: "Pinus resinosa"]
* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500952 Flora of North America: "Pinus resinosa"]
*Fowler, D. P. & Morris, R. W. (1977). Genetic diversity in Red Pine: evidence for low genic heterozygosity. "Canad. J. Forest Res." 7: 343-347.
*Simon, J.-P., Bergeron, Y. & Gagnon, D. (1986). Isozyme uniformity in populations of Red Pine ("Pinus resinosa") in the Abitibi Region, Quebec. "Canad. J. Forest Res." 16: 1133-1135.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • red pine — Pine Pine, n. [AS. p[=i]n, L. pinus.] 1. (Bot.) Any tree of the coniferous genus {Pinus}. See {Pinus}. [1913 Webster] Note: There are about twenty eight species in the United States, of which the {white pine} ({Pinus Strobus}), the {Georgia pine} …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Red pine — Red Red, a. [Compar. {Redder} ( d?r); superl. {Reddest}.] [OE. red, reed, AS. re[ a]d, re[ o]d; akin to OS. r[=o]d, OFries. r[=a]d, D. rood, G. roht, rot, OHG. r[=o]t, Dan. & Sw. r[ o]d, Icel. rau[eth]r, rj[=o][eth]r, Goth. r[ a]uds, W. rhudd,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • red pine — red′ pine′ n. 1) bot (boi pln) a pine, Pinus resinosa, of NE North America, having needles in groups of two and reddish bark 2) bot (boi pln) the wood of this tree …   From formal English to slang

  • red pine — n. a large pine (Pinus resinosa), with long, brittle needles in groups of two and reddish brown bark …   English World dictionary

  • Red pine — (engl., spr. redd pain, »rote Fichte«), das Holz der nordamerikanischen Pinus resinosa …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • red pine — noun 1. pine of eastern North America having long needles in bunches of two and reddish bark • Syn: ↑Canadian red pine, ↑Pinus resinosa • Hypernyms: ↑pine, ↑pine tree, ↑true pine 2. tall New Zealand timber tree …   Useful english dictionary

  • red pine — sakingoji pušis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Pušinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, medieninis augalas (Pinus resinosa), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Pinus resinosa angl. American red pine; Canadian red pine; Norway pine; red… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • red pine — noun Date: 1809 1. a North American pine (Pinus resinosa) that has reddish bark and two long needles in each cluster 2. the relatively hard wood of the red pine that consists chiefly of sapwood …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • red-pine — kiparisinis dakridis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Podokarpinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, medieninis augalas (Dacrydium cupressinum), paplitęs Naujojoje Zelandijoje. atitikmenys: lot. Dacrydium cupressinum angl. red pine; rimu šaltinis… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • red pine — raudonoji pušis statusas T sritis vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Pinus resinosa angl. red pine vok. amerikanische Rot Kiefer rus. сосна смолистая lenk. sosna czerwona; sosna żywiczna ryšiai: žiūrėk – raudonoji pušis …   Dekoratyvinių augalų vardynas


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