- Jus ad bellum
Jus ad bellum (Latin for "Justice to War"; see also
Just War) are a set of criteria that are consulted "before" engaging in war, in order to determine whether entering into war is justifiable.
"Jus ad bellum" is sometimes considered a part of the
laws of war, although the term "laws of war" can also be considered to refer to " jus in bello", which concerns whether a war is conducted justly (regardless of whether the initiation of hostilities was just). See G. E. M. Anscombe.
An international agreement limiting the justifiable reasons for a country to declare war against another is concerned with "jus ad bellum." In addition to bilateral non-aggression pacts, the twentieth century saw multilateral treaties defining entirely new restrictions against going to war. The three most notable examples are the
Kellogg-Briand Pactoutlawing war as an instrument of national policy, the London Charter (known also as the Nuremberg Charter) defining "crimes against peace" as one of three major categories of international crime to be prosecuted after World War II, and the United Nations Charter, which binds nations to seek resolution of disputes by peaceful means and requires authorization by the United Nations before a nation may initiate any use of force against another, beyond repulsing an immediate armed attack against its sovereign territory. By contrast, agreements defining limits on acceptable conduct while already engaged in war are considered "rules of war" and are referred to as the "jus in bello." Thus the Geneva Conventionsare a set of "jus in bello." Doctrines concerning the protection of civilians in wartime, or the need for "proportionality" when force is used, are addressed to issues of conduct within a war, but the same doctrines can also shed light on the question of when it is lawful (or unlawful) to go to war in the first place.
These terms are used in discussions of
international lawand philosophy.
Robert Kolb: [Robert Kolb " [http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList163/D9DAD4EE8533DAEFC1256B66005AFFEF ICRC: Origin of the terms] "]
: The august solemnity of Latin confers on the terms "jus ad bellum" and "jus in bello" the misleading appearance of being centuries old. In fact, these expressions were only coined at the time of the
League of Nationsand were rarely used in doctrine or practice until after the Second World War, in the late 1940s to be precise.
By this Kolb means that the terms themselves as legal terms, and the subdivision of the doctrine of just war into the branches "jus ad bellum" and "jus in bello", are recent. The concept of just war and the term "
bellum justum" dates to St. Augustine of Hippoin the fifth century.
* [http://www.icrc.org/ ICRC] International Committee of the Red Cross
* [http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList104/D34949DF9C488D00C1256CF5004CB47D ICRC: Meaning of these terms]
* [http://www.crimesofwar.org/thebook/jus-ad-bellum.html Crimes of War]
* [http://www.intractableconflict.org/m/jus_ad_bellum.jsp Intractable Conflict]
* [http://www.iep.utm.edu/j/justwar.htm Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
* [http://www.cpesbcc.net/whitebellum.htm Bellum Justum] Argument that some wars are just (Thus a "just war" is a "bellum justum")
* [http://newark.rutgers.edu/~natalieb/justwar.htm Rutgers: Book/Reading List]
* [http://www.usafa.af.mil/jscope/JSCOPE04/Bica04.html Essay hosted at USAF site]
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